Pick Topic
Review Topic
List Experts
Examine Expert
Save Expert
  Site Guide ··   
Animal Diseases HELP
Based on 100,000 articles published since 2008
|||| 28 

These are the 100000 published articles about Animal Diseases that originated from Worldwide during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline ACVIM consensus statement: Support for rational administration of gastrointestinal protectants to dogs and cats. 2018

Marks, Stanley L / Kook, Peter H / Papich, Mark G / Tolbert, M K / Willard, Michael D. ·Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, California. · Vetsuisse Faculty, Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, North Carolina. · Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas. ·J Vet Intern Med · Pubmed #30378711.

ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal barrier is continuously exposed to noxious toxins, reactive oxygen species, microbes, and drugs, leading to the development of inflammatory, erosive, and ultimately ulcerative lesions. This report offers a consensus opinion on the rational administration of GI protectants to dogs and cats, with an emphasis on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine type-2 receptor antagonists (H

2 Guideline STANDARDS OF CARE Anaesthesia guidelines for dogs and cats. 2018

Warne, L N / Bauquier, S H / Pengelly, J / Neck, D / Swinney, G. ·Lecturer in Veterinary Anaesthesia, College of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia. · Board of Directors - Regional Officer, American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia; Senior Lecturer in Veterinary Anaesthesia, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria, Australia. · Vice President, Veterinary Nurses Council of Australia; Chair, National Industry Advisory Group for Veterinary Nurses; Training Consultant, Animal Industries Resource Centre; Veterinary Nurse, East Port Veterinary Hospital, Port Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia. · Deputy Board Member, Veterinary Surgeons' Board of Western Australia; Cottesloe Vet, Cottesloe, Western Australia, Australia. · Medical Affairs Veterinarian and Internal Medicine Consultant Australia and New Zealand, IDEXX Laboratories Pty Ltd, Rydalmere, New South Wales, Australia. ·Aust Vet J · Pubmed #30370594.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Guideline ACVIM consensus statement: Guidelines for the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats. 2018

Acierno, Mark J / Brown, Scott / Coleman, Amanda E / Jepson, Rosanne E / Papich, Mark / Stepien, Rebecca L / Syme, Harriet M. ·Department of Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Midwestern University, 5715 W. Utopia Rd, Glendale Arizona 85308. · College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. · Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, London, United Kingdom. · College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina. · Department of Medical Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin. ·J Vet Intern Med · Pubmed #30353952.

ABSTRACT: An update to the 2007 American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) consensus statement on the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats was presented at the 2017 ACVIM Forum in National Harbor, MD. The updated consensus statement is presented here. The consensus statement aims to provide guidance on appropriate diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in dogs and cats.

4 Guideline Practical guidelines for rigor and reproducibility in preclinical and clinical studies on cardioprotection. 2018

Bøtker, Hans Erik / Hausenloy, Derek / Andreadou, Ioanna / Antonucci, Salvatore / Boengler, Kerstin / Davidson, Sean M / Deshwal, Soni / Devaux, Yvan / Di Lisa, Fabio / Di Sante, Moises / Efentakis, Panagiotis / Femminò, Saveria / García-Dorado, David / Giricz, Zoltán / Ibanez, Borja / Iliodromitis, Efstathios / Kaludercic, Nina / Kleinbongard, Petra / Neuhäuser, Markus / Ovize, Michel / Pagliaro, Pasquale / Rahbek-Schmidt, Michael / Ruiz-Meana, Marisol / Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter / Schulz, Rainer / Skyschally, Andreas / Wilder, Catherine / Yellon, Derek M / Ferdinandy, Peter / Heusch, Gerd. ·Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle-Juul Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark. haboet@rm.dk. · The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London, 67 Chenies Mews, London, WC1E 6HX, UK. · The National Institute of Health Research, University College London Hospitals Biomedial Research Centre, Research and Development, London, UK. · National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre, Singapore, Singapore. · Yon Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. · Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders Program, Duke-National University of Singapore, 8 College Road, Singapore, 169857, Singapore. · Laboratory of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. · Department of Biomedical Sciences, CNR Institute of Neuroscience, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35121, Padua, Italy. · Institute for Physiology, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany. · Cardiovascular Research Unit, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Strassen, Luxembourg. · Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Torino, Turin, Italy. · Experimental Cardiology, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Pg. Vall d'Hebron 119-129, 08035, Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. · Pharmahungary Group, Szeged, Hungary. · Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, CIBERCV, Madrid, Spain. · Second Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. · Institute for Pathophysiology, West German Heart and Vascular Center, University of Essen Medical School, Essen, Germany. · Department of Mathematics and Technology, Koblenz University of Applied Science, Remagen, Germany. · Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany. · Explorations Fonctionnelles Cardiovasculaires, Hôpital Louis Pradel, Lyon, France. · UMR, 1060 (CarMeN), Université Claude Bernard, Lyon1, Villeurbanne, France. · Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle-Juul Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark. · Institute for Pathophysiology, West German Heart and Vascular Center, University of Essen Medical School, Essen, Germany. gerd.heusch@uk-essen.de. ·Basic Res Cardiol · Pubmed #30120595.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Guideline 2018 AAHA Diabetes Management Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. 2018

Behrend, Ellen / Holford, Amy / Lathan, Patty / Rucinsky, Renee / Schulman, Rhonda. ·From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama (E.B.) · Department of Small Animal Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee (A.H.) · Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi (P.L.) · Mid Atlantic Cat Hospital, Queenstown, Maryland (R.R.) · and Animal Specialty Group, Los Angeles, California (R.S.). ·J Am Anim Hosp Assoc · Pubmed #29314873.

ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease encountered in canine and feline medicine. The 2018 AAHA Diabetes Management Guidelines for Dogs and Cats revise and update earlier guidelines published in 2010. The 2018 guidelines retain much of the information in the earlier guidelines that continues to be applicable in clinical practice, along with new information that represents current expert opinion on controlling DM. An essential aspect of successful DM management is to ensure that the owner of a diabetic dog or cat is capable of administering insulin, recognizing the clinical signs of inadequately managed DM, and monitoring blood glucose levels at home, although this is ideal but not mandatory; all topics that are reviewed in the guidelines. Insulin therapy is the mainstay of treatment for clinical DM. The guidelines provide recommendations for using each insulin formulation currently available for use in dogs and cats, the choice of which is generally based on efficacy and duration of effect in the respective species. Also discussed are non-insulin therapeutic medications and dietary management. These treatment modalities, along with insulin therapy, give the practitioner an assortment of options for decreasing the clinical signs of DM while avoiding hypoglycemia, the two conditions that represent the definition of a controlled diabetic. The guidelines review identifying and monitoring patients at risk for developing DM, which are important for avoiding unnecessary insulin therapy in patients with transient hyperglycemia or mildly elevated blood glucose.

6 Guideline European Society of Veterinary Cardiology screening guidelines for dilated cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers. 2017

Wess, G / Domenech, O / Dukes-McEwan, J / Häggström, J / Gordon, S. ·Clinic of Small Animal Medicine, LMU University, Veterinärstrasse 13, 80539 Munich, Germany. Electronic address: gwess@lmu.de. · Department of Cardiology, Istituto Veterinario di Novara, Granozzo con Monticello, Italy. · Small Animal Teaching Hospital, Department of Small Animal Clinical Science, Institute of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Chester High Road, Neston CH64 7TE, UK. · Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7054, Uppsala, Sweden. · Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4474, United States. ·J Vet Cardiol · Pubmed #28965673.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common cardiac disease in large breed dogs and is inherited in Doberman Pinschers with a high prevalence (58%). OBJECTIVE: The European Society for Veterinary Cardiology convened a task force to formulate screening guidelines for DCM in Dobermans. RECOMMENDATIONS: Screening for occult DCM in Dobermans should start at three years of age and use both Holter monitoring and echocardiography. Yearly screening over the life of the dog is recommended, as a one-time screening is not sufficient to rule out future development of DCM. The preferred echocardiographic method is the measurement of the left ventricular volume by Simpson's method of discs (SMOD). Less than 50 single ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) in 24 h are considered to be normal in Dobermans, although detection of any number of VPCs is cause for concern. Greater than 300 VPCs in 24 h or two subsequent recordings within a year showing between 50 and 300 VPCs in 24 h is considered diagnostic of occult DCM in Dobermans regardless of the concurrent echocardiographic findings. The guidelines also provide recommendations concerning ancillary tests, that are not included in the standard screening protocol, but which may have some utility when recommended tests are not available or financially untenable on an annual basis. These tests include assay of cardiac biomarkers (Troponin I and N-Terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide) as well as a 5-min resting electrocardiogram (ECG). CONCLUSION: The current guidelines should help to establish an early diagnosis of DCM in Dobermans.

7 Guideline Treatment of bone and soft tissue tumors of the limbs with conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). 2017

Castilho, Marcus Simões / Ferrigno, Robson / Baraldi, Helena / Novaes, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro Dos Santos / Anonymous3740918. ·Sociedade Brasileira de Radioterapia (SBR). ·Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) · Pubmed #28876420.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Guideline 2017 AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines. 2017

Ford, Richard B / Larson, Laurie J / McClure, Kent D / Schultz, Ronald D / Welborn, Link V. ·North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, North Carolina (R.B.F.). · Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin (L.J.L.). · General Counsel, Animal Health Institute, Washington, DC (K.D.M.). · Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin (R.D.S.). · Tampa Bay Animal Hospitals, Tampa, Florida (L.V.W.). ·J Am Anim Hosp Assoc · Pubmed #28846453.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Guideline Recommendations for approaches to meticillin-resistant staphylococcal infections of small animals: diagnosis, therapeutic considerations and preventative measures.: Clinical Consensus Guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology. 2017

Morris, Daniel O / Loeffler, Anette / Davis, Meghan F / Guardabassi, Luca / Weese, J Scott. ·Department of Clinical Studies - Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3900 Delancey St, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. · Department of Clinical Sciences and Services, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK. · Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA. · Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ross University, Basseterre, St Kitts and Nevis, West Indies. · Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, N1G 2W1. ·Vet Dermatol · Pubmed #28516494.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Multiple drug resistance (MDR) in staphylococci, including resistance to the semi-synthetic penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as meticillin, is a problem of global proportions that presents serious challenges to the successful treatment of staphylococcal infections of companion animals. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this document is to provide harmonized recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of meticillin-resistant staphylococcal infections in dogs and cats. METHODS: The authors served as a Guideline Panel (GP) and reviewed the literature available prior to September 2016. The GP prepared a detailed literature review and made recommendations on selected topics. The World Association of Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD) provided guidance and oversight for this process. A draft of the document was presented at the 8th World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology (May 2016) and was then made available via the World Wide Web to the member organizations of the WAVD for a period of three months. Comments were solicited and posted to the GP electronically. Responses were incorporated by the GP into the final document. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to guidelines for the diagnosis, laboratory reporting, judicious therapy (including restriction of use policies for certain antimicrobial drugs), personal hygiene, and environmental cleaning and disinfection may help to mitigate the progressive development and dissemination of MDR staphylococci.

10 Guideline Diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats.: Clinical Consensus Guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology. 2017

Moriello, Karen A / Coyner, Kimberly / Paterson, Susan / Mignon, Bernard. ·Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2015 Linden Drive West, Madison, WI, 53706, USA. · Dermatology Clinic for Animals, 8300 Quinault Drive NE Suite A, Lacey, WA, 98516, USA. · Department of Veterinary Dermatology, Rutland House Referral Hospital, Abbotsfield Road, St Helens, WA9 4HU, UK. · Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Veterinary Mycology, FARAH (Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals & Health), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Quartier Vallée 2, Avenue de Cureghem 10, B43A, 4000, Liège, Belgium. ·Vet Dermatol · Pubmed #28516493.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal skin disease of cats and dogs. The most common pathogens of small animals belong to the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. It is an important skin disease because it is contagious, infectious and can be transmitted to people. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this document is to review the existing literature and provide consensus recommendations for veterinary clinicians and lay people on the diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis in cats and dogs. METHODS: The authors served as a Guideline Panel (GP) and reviewed the literature available prior to September 2016. The GP prepared a detailed literature review and made recommendations on selected topics. The World Association of Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD) provided guidance and oversight for this process. A draft of the document was presented at the 8th World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology (May 2016) and was then made available via the World Wide Web to the member organizations of the WAVD for a period of three months. Comments were solicited and posted to the GP electronically. Responses were incorporated by the GP into the final document. CONCLUSIONS: No one diagnostic test was identified as the gold standard. Successful treatment requires concurrent use of systemic oral antifungals and topical disinfection of the hair coat. Wood's lamp and direct examinations have good positive and negative predictability, systemic antifungal drugs have a wide margin of safety and physical cleaning is most important for decontamination of the exposed environments. Finally, serious complications of animal-human transmission are exceedingly rare.

11 Guideline Novel targets and future strategies for acute cardioprotection: Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cellular Biology of the Heart. 2017

Hausenloy, Derek J / Garcia-Dorado, David / Bøtker, Hans Erik / Davidson, Sean M / Downey, James / Engel, Felix B / Jennings, Robert / Lecour, Sandrine / Leor, Jonathan / Madonna, Rosalinda / Ovize, Michel / Perrino, Cinzia / Prunier, Fabrice / Schulz, Rainer / Sluijter, Joost P G / Van Laake, Linda W / Vinten-Johansen, Jakob / Yellon, Derek M / Ytrehus, Kirsti / Heusch, Gerd / Ferdinandy, Péter. ·The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London, 67 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK; The National Institute of Health Research University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, 149 Tottenham Court Road London, W1T 7DN, UK; Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders Program, Duke-National University of Singapore, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857; National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre Singapore, 5 Hospital Dr, Singapore 169609, Singapore; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Singapore, Singapore; Barts Heart Centre, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK. · Department of Cardiology, Vall d Hebron University Hospital and Research Institute. Universitat Autònoma, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark. · The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London, 67 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK. · Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of South Alabama, 5851 USA Dr. N., MSB 3074, Mobile, AL 36688, USA. · Experimental Renal and Cardiovascular Research, Department of Nephropathology, Institute of Pathology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nßrnberg, Schloßplatz 4, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. · Department of Cardiology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA. · Department of Medicine,  Hatter  Institute for Cardiovascular Research in Africa and South African Medical Research Council Inter-University Cape Heart Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Chris Barnard Building, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa. · Tamman Cardiovascular Research Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel; Neufeld Cardiac Research Institute, Tel-Aviv University, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, 5265601, Israel; Sheba Center for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell, and Tissue Engineering, Tel Hashomer, 5265601, Israel. · Center of Aging Sciences and Translational Medicine - CESI-MeT, "G. d'Annunzio" University, Chieti, Italy; Institute of Cardiology, Department of Neurosciences, Imaging, and Clinical Sciences, "G. d'Annunzio University, Chieti, Italy; Texas Heart Institute and University of Texas Medical School in Houston, Department of Internal Medicine, 6770 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 USA. · Explorations Fonctionnelles Cardiovasculaires, Hôpital Louis Pradel, 28 Avenue du Doyen Jean Lépine, 69500 Bron, France; UMR 1060 (CarMeN), Université Claude Bernard Lyon, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69100 Villeurbanne, France. · Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Division of Cardiology, Federico II University Corso Umberto I, 40, 80138 Napoli, Italy. · Department of Cardiology, University of Angers, University Hospital of Angers, 4 Rue Larrey, 49100 Angers, France. · Institute of Physiology, Justus-Liebig, University of Giessen, Ludwigstraße 23, 35390 Gießen, Germany. · Cardiology and UMC Utrecht Regenerative Medicine Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands. · Division Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands. · Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Emory University, 201 Dowman Dr, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. · The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London, 67 Chenies Mews, London WC1E 6HX, UK; The National Institute of Health Research University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, 149 Tottenham Court Road London, W1T 7DN, UK. · Cardiovascular Research Group, Department of Medical Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Hansine Hansens veg 18, 9019 Tromsø, Norway. · Institute for Pathophysiology, West-German Heart and Vascular Center, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147 Essen, Germany. · Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Nagyvárad tér 4, 1089 Hungary; Pharmahungary Group, Graphisoft Park, 7 Záhony street, Budapest, H-1031, Hungary. ·Cardiovasc Res · Pubmed #28453734.

ABSTRACT: Ischaemic heart disease and the heart failure that often results, remain the leading causes of death and disability in Europe and worldwide. As such, in order to prevent heart failure and improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, novel therapies are required to protect the heart against the detrimental effects of acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). During the last three decades, a wide variety of ischaemic conditioning strategies and pharmacological treatments have been tested in the clinic-however, their translation from experimental to clinical studies for improving patient outcomes has been both challenging and disappointing. Therefore, in this Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cellular Biology of the Heart, we critically analyse the current state of ischaemic conditioning in both the experimental and clinical settings, provide recommendations for improving its translation into the clinical setting, and highlight novel therapeutic targets and new treatment strategies for reducing acute myocardial IRI.

12 Guideline ISFM Consensus Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension in Cats. 2017

Taylor, Samantha S / Sparkes, Andrew H / Briscoe, Katherine / Carter, Jenny / Sala, Salva Cervantes / Jepson, Rosanne E / Reynolds, Brice S / Scansen, Brian A. ·1 International Cat Care/ISFM, Tisbury, Wiltshire SP3 6LD, UK. · 2 Animal Referral Hospital, 250 Parramatta Road, Homebush, Sydney, NSW 2140, Australia. · 3 PO Box 128209, Remuera, Auckland 1541, New Zealand. · 4 Clínica Felina Barcelona, C/Marqués de Campo Sagrado 12, Barcelona, Spain. · 5 Clinical Sciences and Services, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK. · 6 Université de Toulouse, ENVT, Toulouse, France. · 7 Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Campus Delivery 1678, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #28245741.

ABSTRACT: Practical relevance: Feline hypertension is a common disease in older cats that is frequently diagnosed in association with other diseases such as chronic kidney disease and hyperthyroidism (so-called secondary hypertension), although some cases of apparent primary hypertension are also reported. The clinical consequences of hypertension can be severe, related to 'target organ damage' (eye, heart and vasculature, brain and kidneys), and early diagnosis followed by appropriate therapeutic management should help reduce the morbidity associated with this condition. Clinical challenges: Despite being a common disease, routine blood pressure (BP) monitoring is generally performed infrequently, probably leading to underdiagnosis of feline hypertension in clinical practice. There is a need to: (i) ensure BP is measured as accurately as possible with a reproducible technique; (ii) identify and monitor patients at risk of developing hypertension; (iii) establish appropriate criteria for therapeutic intervention; and (iv) establish appropriate therapeutic targets. Based on current data, amlodipine besylate is the treatment of choice to manage feline hypertension and is effective in the majority of cats, but the dose needed to successfully manage hypertension varies between individuals. Some cats require long-term adjuvant therapy and, occasionally, additional therapy is necessary for emergency management of hypertensive crises. Evidence base: These Guidelines from the International Society of Feline Medicine (ISFM) are based on a comprehensive review of the currently available literature, and are aimed at providing practical recommendations to address the challenges of feline hypertension for veterinarians. There are many areas where more data is required which, in the future, will serve to confirm or modify some of the recommendations in these Guidelines.

13 Guideline Antimicrobial use Guidelines for Treatment of Respiratory Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats: Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. 2017

Lappin, M R / Blondeau, J / Boothe, D / Breitschwerdt, E B / Guardabassi, L / Lloyd, D H / Papich, M G / Rankin, S C / Sykes, J E / Turnidge, J / Weese, J S. ·Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, Denmark. · University of Saskatoon, Saskatoon, SK, Denmark. · Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Denmark. · North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, Denmark. · University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Royal Veterinary College, London, UK. · University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, Australia. · University of California, Davis, CA, Australia. · The Women's and Children Hospital, Adelaide, SA,, Australia. · Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph, ON, Australia. ·J Vet Intern Med · Pubmed #28185306.

ABSTRACT: Respiratory tract disease can be associated with primary or secondary bacterial infections in dogs and cats and is a common reason for use and potential misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases convened a Working Group of clinical microbiologists, pharmacologists, and internists to share experiences, examine scientific data, review clinical trials, and develop these guidelines to assist veterinarians in making antimicrobial treatment choices for use in the management of bacterial respiratory diseases in dogs and cats.

14 Guideline Guidelines for the Direct Detection of Anaplasma spp. in Diagnosis and Epidemiological Studies. 2017

Silaghi, Cornelia / Santos, Ana Sofia / Gomes, Jacinto / Christova, Iva / Matei, Ioana Adriana / Walder, Gernot / Domingos, Ana / Bell-Sakyi, Lesley / Sprong, Hein / von Loewenich, Friederike D / Oteo, José A / de la Fuente, José / Dumler, J Stephen. ·1 National Center for Vector Entomology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich , Zurich, Switzerland . · 2 Center for Vector and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge , Águas de Moura, Portugal . · 3 Animal Health and Production Unit, National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinary Research , Oeiras, Portugal . · 4 Department of Microbiology, National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases , Sofia, Bulgaria . · 5 Department of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca , Cluj-Napoca, Romania . · 6 Department of Hygiene, Medical Microbiology and Social Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University , Innsbruck, Austria . · 7 Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa , Lisboa, Portugal . · 8 The Pirbright Institute , Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey, United Kingdom . · 9 Center for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) , Bilthoven, the Netherlands . · 10 Department of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Mainz , Medical Center, Mainz, Germany . · 11 Infectious Diseases Department, Center of Rickettsioses and Arthropod-Borne Diseases , Hospital San Pedro- CIBIR, Logroño, Spain . · 12 SaBio. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC-CSIC-UCLM-JCCM, Ciudad Real, Spain . · 13 Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University , Stillwater, Oklahoma. · 14 Departments of Pathology and Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland , School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. · 15 Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University for the Health Sciences "America's Medical School," Bethesda, Maryland. ·Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis · Pubmed #28055579.

ABSTRACT: The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) comprises obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that are mainly transmitted by ticks, and currently includes six species: Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, and Anaplasma ovis. These have long been known as etiological agents of veterinary diseases that affect domestic and wild animals worldwide. A zoonotic role has been recognized for A. phagocytophilum, but other species can also be pathogenic for humans. Anaplasma infections are usually challenging to diagnose, clinically presenting with nonspecific symptoms that vary greatly depending on the agent involved, the affected host, and other factors such as immune status and coinfections. The substantial economic impact associated with livestock infection and the growing number of human cases along with the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections, determines the need for accurate laboratory tests. Because hosts are usually seronegative in the initial phase of infection and serological cross-reactions with several Anaplasma species are observed after seroconversion, direct tests are the best approach for both case definition and epidemiological studies. Blood samples are routinely used for Anaplasma spp. screening, but in persistently infected animals with intermittent or low-level bacteremia, other tissues might be useful. These guidelines have been developed as a direct outcome of the COST action TD1303 EURNEGVEC ("European Network of Neglected Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases"). They review the direct laboratory tests (microscopy, nucleic acid-based detection and in vitro isolation) currently used for Anaplasma detection in ticks and vertebrates and their application.

15 Guideline Guidelines for the Detection of Babesia and Theileria Parasites. 2017

Lempereur, Laetitia / Beck, Relja / Fonseca, Isabel / Marques, Cátia / Duarte, Ana / Santos, Marcos / Zúquete, Sara / Gomes, Jacinto / Walder, Gernot / Domingos, Ana / Antunes, Sandra / Baneth, Gad / Silaghi, Cornelia / Holman, Patricia / Zintl, Annetta. ·1 Laboratory of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège , Liège, Belgium . · 2 Laboratory for Parasitology, Croatian Veterinary Institute , Zagreb, Croatia . · 3 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Animal Health, University of Lisbon , Lisbon, Portugal . · 4 National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinary Research , Oeiras, Portugal . · 5 Department of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Innsbruck Medical University , Innsbruck, Austria . · 6 Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical (IHMT) , Lisbon, Portugal . · 7 Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University , Rehovot, Israel . · 8 National Centre for Vector Entomology, Institute of Parasitology, University of Zurich , Zurich, Switzerland . · 9 Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University , College Station, Texas. · 10 UCD Veterinary Sciences Centre, University College Dublin , Belfield, Dublin, Ireland . ·Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis · Pubmed #28055573.

ABSTRACT: The genera Babesia and Theileria (phylum Apicomplexa, order Piroplasmida) are mainly transmitted by Ixodid ticks in which the sexual part of their life cycle followed by sporogony takes place. They include protozoan parasites that infect erythrocytes of a variety of vertebrate hosts, including domestic and wild animals, with some Babesia spp. also infecting humans. Babesia sporozoites transmitted in the tick's saliva during the bloodmeal directly infect erythrocytes, where they asexually multiply to produce pear-shaped merozoites in the process of merogony; whereas a pre-erythrocytic schizogonic life stage in leukocytes is found in Theileria and precedes merogony in the erythrocytes. The wide spectrum of Babesia and Theileria species and their dissimilar characteristics with relation to disease severity, transmission, epidemiology, and drug susceptibility stress the importance of accurate detection of babesiosis and theileriosis and their causative agents. These guidelines review the main methods currently used for the detection of Babesia and Theileria spp. for diagnostic purposes as well as epidemiological studies involving their vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Serological methods were not included once they did not indicate current infection but rather exposure.

16 Guideline Guidelines to improve animal study design and reproducibility for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias: For funders and researchers. 2016

Snyder, Heather M / Shineman, Diana W / Friedman, Lauren G / Hendrix, James A / Khachaturian, Ara / Le Guillou, Ian / Pickett, James / Refolo, Lorenzo / Sancho, Rosa M / Ridley, Simon H. ·Division of Medical & Scientific Relations, Alzheimer's Association, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address: hsnyder@alz.org. · Scientific Affairs, Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation, New York, NY, USA. · Division of Medical & Scientific Relations, Alzheimer's Association, Chicago, IL, USA. · Editorial Office, Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, Washington, DC, USA. · Research Division, Alzheimer's Society, London, UK. · Division of Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. · Research Division, Alzheimer's Research UK, Cambridge, UK. ·Alzheimers Dement · Pubmed #27836053.

ABSTRACT: The reproducibility of laboratory experiments is fundamental to the scientific process. There have been increasing reports regarding challenges in reproducing and translating preclinical experiments in animal models. In Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, there have been similar reports and growing interest from funding organizations, researchers, and the broader scientific community to set parameters around experimental design, statistical power, and reporting requirements. A number of efforts in recent years have attempted to develop standard guidelines; however, these have not yet been widely implemented by researchers or by funding agencies. A workgroup of the International Alzheimer's disease Research Funder Consortium, a group of over 30 research funding agencies from around the world, worked to compile the best practices identified in these prior efforts for preclinical biomedical research. This article represents a consensus of this work group's review and includes recommendations for researchers and funding agencies on designing, performing, reviewing, and funding preclinical research studies.

17 Guideline Diagnosis and Management of Tickborne Rickettsial Diseases: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Other Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses, Ehrlichioses, and Anaplasmosis - United States. 2016

Biggs, Holly M / Behravesh, Casey Barton / Bradley, Kristy K / Dahlgren, F Scott / Drexler, Naomi A / Dumler, J Stephen / Folk, Scott M / Kato, Cecilia Y / Lash, R Ryan / Levin, Michael L / Massung, Robert F / Nadelman, Robert B / Nicholson, William L / Paddock, Christopher D / Pritt, Bobbi S / Traeger, Marc S. ·National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia. ·MMWR Recomm Rep · Pubmed #27172113.

ABSTRACT: Tickborne rickettsial diseases continue to cause severe illness and death in otherwise healthy adults and children, despite the availability of low-cost, effective antibacterial therapy. Recognition early in the clinical course is critical because this is the period when antibacterial therapy is most effective. Early signs and symptoms of these illnesses are nonspecific or mimic other illnesses, which can make diagnosis challenging. Previously undescribed tickborne rickettsial diseases continue to be recognized, and since 2004, three additional agents have been described as causes of human disease in the United States: Rickettsia parkeri, Ehrlichia muris-like agent, and Rickettsia species 364D. This report updates the 2006 CDC recommendations on the diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases in the United States and includes information on the practical aspects of epidemiology, clinical assessment, treatment, laboratory diagnosis, and prevention of tickborne rickettsial diseases. The CDC Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, in consultation with external clinical and academic specialists and public health professionals, developed this report to assist health care providers and public health professionals to 1) recognize key epidemiologic features and clinical manifestations of tickborne rickettsial diseases, 2) recognize that doxycycline is the treatment of choice for suspected tickborne rickettsial diseases in adults and children, 3) understand that early empiric antibacterial therapy can prevent severe disease and death, 4) request the appropriate confirmatory diagnostic tests and understand their usefulness and limitations, and 5) report probable and confirmed cases of tickborne rickettsial diseases to public health authorities.

18 Guideline 2016 AAFP Guidelines for the Management of Feline Hyperthyroidism. 2016

Carney, Hazel C / Ward, Cynthia R / Bailey, Steven J / Bruyette, David / Dennis, Sonnya / Ferguson, Duncan / Hinc, Amy / Rucinsky, A Renee. ·WestVet Emergency and Specialty Center, 5019 North Sawyer Avenue, Garden City, ID 83617, USA Email: hcarney@westvet.net. · University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2200 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605,USA Email: crward@uga.edu. · Exclusively Cats Veterinary Hospital, 6650 Highland Road, Ste 116, Waterford, MI 48327, USA. · VCA West Los Angeles Animal Hospital, 1900 South Sepulveda Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA. · Stratham-Newfields Veterinary Hospital, 8 Main Street, Newfields, NH 03856, USA. · College of Veterinary Medicine - University of Illinois, Department of Comparative Biosciences, 3840 Veterinary Medicine Basic Sciences Bldg, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802, USA. · Cosmic Cat Veterinary Clinic, 220 East Main Street, Branford, CT 06405, USA. · Mid Atlantic Cat Hospital, 201 Grange Hall Road, Queenstown, MD 21658, USA. ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #27143042.

ABSTRACT: CLINICAL CONTEXT: Since 1979 and 1980 when the first reports of clinical feline hyperthyroidism (FHT) appeared in the literature, our understanding of the disease has evolved tremendously. Initially, FHT was a disease that only referral clinicians treated. Now it is a disease that primary clinicians routinely manage. Inclusion of the measurement of total thyroxine concentration in senior wellness panels, as well as in diagnostic work-ups for sick cats, now enables diagnosis of the condition long before the cat becomes the classic scrawny, unkempt, agitated patient with a bulge in its neck. However, earlier recognition of the problem has given rise to several related questions: how to recognize the health significance of the early presentations of the disease; how early to treat the disease; whether to treat FHT when comorbid conditions are present; and how to manage comorbid conditions such as chronic kidney disease and cardiac disease with treatment of FHT. The 2016 AAFP Guidelines for the Management of Feline Hyperthyroidism (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines) will shed light on these questions for the general practitioner and suggest when referral may benefit the cat. SCOPE: The Guidelines explain FHT as a primary disease process with compounding factors, and provide a concise explanation of what we know to be true about the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease.The Guidelines also:Distill the current research literature into simple recommendations for testing sequences that will avoid misdiagnosis and separate an FHT diagnosis into six clinical categories with associated management strategies.Emphasize the importance of treating all hyperthyroid cats, regardless of comorbidities, and outline the currently available treatments for the disease.Explain how to monitor the treated cat to help avoid exacerbating comorbid diseases.Dispel some of the myths surrounding certain aspects of FHT and replace them with an evidence-based narrative that veterinarians and their practice teams can apply to feline patients and communicate to their owners. EVIDENCE BASE: To help ensure better case outcomes, the Guidelines reflect currently available, evidenced-based knowledge. If research is lacking, or if a consensus does not exist, the expert panel of authors has made recommendations based on their extensive, cumulative clinical experience.

19 Guideline WSAVA Guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. 2016

Day, M J / Horzinek, M C / Schultz, R D / Squires, R A / Anonymous3220855. ·University of Bristol, United Kingdom. · (Formerly) University of Utrecht, the Netherlands. · University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin, USA. · James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. ·J Small Anim Pract · Pubmed #26780857.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

20 Guideline WSAVA Guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. 2016

Day, M J / Horzinek, M C / Schultz, R D / Squires, R A / Anonymous3200855. ·University of Bristol, United Kingdom. · (Formerly) University of Utrecht, the Netherlands. · University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin, USA. · James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. ·J Small Anim Pract · Pubmed #26780853.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

21 Guideline Cytauxzoonosis in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Lloret, Albert / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Frymus, Tadeusz / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Hartmann, Katrin / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Lutz, Hans / Marsilio, Fulvio / Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1260834. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101317.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: Cytauxzoon species are apicomplexan haemoparasites, which may cause severe disease in domestic cats, as well as lions and tigers. For many years, cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats was only reported in North and South America, but in recent years the infection has also been seen in Europe (Spain, France and Italy). INFECTION: Cytauxzoon felis is the main species; it occurs as numerous different strains or genotypes and is transmitted via ticks. Therefore, the disease shows a seasonal incidence from spring to early autumn and affects primarily cats with outdoor access in areas where tick vectors are prevalent. Domestic cats may experience subclinical infection and may also act as reservoirs. CLINICAL SIGNS: Cytauxzoonosis caused by C felis in the USA is an acute or peracute severe febrile disease with non-specific signs. Haemolytic anaemia occurs frequently; in some cats neurological signs may occur in late stages. The Cytauxzoon species identified in Europe differ from C felis that causes disease in the USA and are probably less virulent. The majority of infected cats have been healthy; in some cases anaemia was found, but disease as it occurs in the USA has not been reported to date. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is usually obtained by Cytauxzoon detection in blood smears and/or fine-needle aspirates from the liver, spleen and lymph nodes. PCR assays are able to detect low levels of parasitaemia and may be used for confirmation. TREATMENT: Currently a combination of the antiprotozoal drugs atovaquone and azithromycin is the treatment of choice. Concurrent supportive and critical care treatment is extremely important to improve the prognosis. Cats that survive the infection may become chronic carriers for life. PREVENTION: Cats with outdoor access in endemic areas should receive effective tick treatment.

22 Guideline Lungworm disease in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Hartmann, Katrin / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Frymus, Tadeusz / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Lloret, Albert / Lutz, Hans / Marsilio, Fulvio / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1240834. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101316.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid Capillaria aerophila has a low host specificity and is not uncommon in cats. Additionally the lung flukes Paragonimus species are reported in many species outside of Europe, including cats. CLINICAL SIGNS: Lungworm infections may be asymptomatic, or cause mild to severe respiratory signs, dependent on the worm species and burden; mixed infections are observed. Kittens can be vertically infected and may develop a more severe disease. Affected cats show a productive cough, mucopurulent nasal discharge, tachypnoea, dyspnoea and, in severe cases, respiratory failure and death. MANAGEMENT: Early diagnosis and treatment greatly improves the prognosis. First-stage larvae can be easily detected in fresh faecal samples; the Baermann migration method is the enrichment technique of choice, but takes 24 h. Lungworm larvae can be found in tracheal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but with less sensitivity than in faeces. Molecular methods have been developed that exhibit high specificity and sensitivity, and allow diagnosis in the prepatent phase. Treatment options include fenbendazole paste, milbemycin oxime/praziquantel and various spot-on formulations. Severe cases should receive prompt medical care in an intensive care unit. PREVENTION: Avoiding predation is at present the only preventive measure for pulmonary worms with indirect life cycles. ZOONOTIC RISK: C aerophila has zoonotic potential, causing severe pulmonary disease in humans. Some Paragonimus species are also of zoonotic concern.

23 Guideline Streptococcal infections in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Frymus, Tadeusz / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Hartmann, Katrin / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Lloret, Albert / Lutz, Hans / Marsilio, Fulvio / Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1230834. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101315.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: Streptococcus canis is most prevalent in cats, but recently S equi subsp zooepidemicus has been recognised as an emerging feline pathogen. S CANIS INFECTION: S canis is considered part of the commensal mucosal microflora of the oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, genital organs and perianal region in cats. The prevalence of infection is higher in cats housed in groups; and, for example, there may be a high rate of vaginal carriage in young queens in breeding catteries. A wide spectrum of clinical disease is seen, encompassing neonatal septicaemia, upper respiratory tract disease, abscesses, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, polyarthritis, urogenital infections, septicaemia, sinusitis and meningitis. S EQUI SUBSP ZOOEPIDEMICUS INFECTION: S equi subsp zooepidemicus is found in a wide range of species including cats. It was traditionally assumed that this bacterium played no role in disease of cats, but it is now considered a cause of respiratory disease with bronchopneumonia and pneumonia, as well as meningoencephalitis, often with a fatal course. Close confinement of cats, such as in shelters, appears to be a major risk factor. As horses are common carriers of this bacterium, contact with horses is a potential source of infection. Additionally, the possibility of indirect transmission needs to be considered. DIAGNOSIS: Streptococci can be detected by conventional culture techniques from swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or organ samples. Also real-time PCR can be used, and is more sensitive than culture. TREATMENT: In suspected cases, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics should be initiated as soon as possible and, if appropriate, adapted to the results of culture and sensitivity tests.

24 Guideline West Nile virus infection in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Egberink, Herman / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Frymus, Tadeusz / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Hartmann, Katrin / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Marsilio, Fulvio / Lloret, Albert / Lutz, Hans / Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1220834. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101314.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus with a broad host range that infects mainly birds and mosquitos, but also mammals (including humans), reptiles, amphibians and ticks. It is maintained in a bird-mosquito-bird transmission cycle. The most important vectors are bird-feeding mosquitos of the Culex genus; maintenance and amplification mainly involve passerine birds. WNV can cause disease in humans, horses and several species of birds following infection of the central nervous system. INFECTION IN CATS: Cats can also be infected through mosquito bites, and by eating infected small mammals and probably also birds. Although seroprevalence in cats can be high in endemic areas, clinical disease and mortality are rarely reported. If a cat is suspected of clinical signs due to an acute WNV infection, symptomatic treatment is indicated.

25 Guideline Borna disease virus infection in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Lutz, Hans / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Frymus, Tadeusz / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Hartmann, Katrin / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Lloret, Albert / Marsilio, Fulvio / Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1210834. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101313.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: Borna disease virus (BDV) has a broad host range, affecting primarily horses and sheep, but also cattle, ostriches, cats and dogs. In cats, BDV may cause a non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis ('staggering disease'). INFECTION: The mode of transmission is not completely elucidated. Direct and indirect virus transmission is postulated, but BDV is not readily transmitted between cats. Vectors such as ticks may play a role and shrews have been identified as a potential reservoir host. Access to forested areas has been reported to be an important risk factor for staggering disease. DISEASE SIGNS: It is postulated that BDV may infect nerve endings in the oropharynx and spread via olfactory nerve cells to the central nervous system. A strong T-cell response may contribute to the development of clinical disease. Affected cats develop gait disturbances, ataxia, pain in the lower back and behavioural changes. DIAGNOSIS: For diagnostic purposes, detection of viral RNA by reverse transcription PCR in samples collected from cats with clinical signs of Borna disease can be considered diagnostic. Serology is of little value; cats without signs of Borna disease may be seropositive and yet not every cat with BDV infection has detectable levels of antibodies. HUMAN INFECTION: A hypothesis that BDV infection may be involved in the development of selected neurological disorders in man could not be confirmed. A research group within the German Robert Koch Institute studied the potential health threat of BDV to humans and concluded that BDV was not involved in the aetiology of human psychiatric diseases.

Next