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Autistic Disorder: HELP
Articles by Michael L. Rutter
Based on 16 articles published since 2009
(Why 16 articles?)

Between 2009 and 2019, Michael Rutter wrote the following 16 articles about Autistic Disorder.
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Changing concepts and findings on autism. 2013

Rutter, Michael. ·MRC Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre (SGDP), Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London, SE5 8AF, UK. camilla.azis@kcl.ac.uk ·J Autism Dev Disord · Pubmed #23359217.

ABSTRACT: New research findings provide major challenges regarding our understanding of the concept of autism. These are critically discussed in relation to research relevant to classification, genetics, environmental risk factors, gene-environment interplay, animal models, biomarkers, clinical features, neuropathology, pharmacotherapy, behavioral treatments, and functioning in adult life. It is concluded that, although there have been major research advances; there is a need for a reconceptualization and an avoidance of claims that go beyond the evidence.

2 Review Research review: Child psychiatric diagnosis and classification: concepts, findings, challenges and potential. 2011

Rutter, Michael. ·Medical Research Council Social Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College, London. camilla.azis@kcl.ac.uk ·J Child Psychol Psychiatry · Pubmed #21434914.

ABSTRACT: The conceptual issues are briefly noted with respect to the distinctions between classification and diagnosis; the question of whether mental disorders can be considered to be 'diseases'; and whether descriptive psychiatry is outmoded. The criteria for diagnosis are reviewed, with the conclusion that, at present, there are far too many diagnoses, and a ridiculously high rate of supposed comorbidity. It is concluded that a separate grouping of disorders with an onset specific to childhood should be deleted, the various specific disorders being placed in appropriate places, and the addition for all diagnoses of the ways in which manifestations vary by age. A new group should be formed of disorders that are known to occur but for which further testing for validity is needed. The overall number of diagnoses should be drastically reduced. Categorical and dimensional approaches to diagnosis should be combined. The requirement of impairment should be removed from all diagnoses. Research and clinical classifications should be kept separate. Finally, there is a need to develop a primary care classification for causes of referral to both medical and non-medical primary care.

3 Review Progress in understanding autism: 2007-2010. 2011

Rutter, Michael L. ·MRC Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, PO Box 80, De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London, SE5 8AF, UK. camilla.azis@kcl.ac.uk ·J Autism Dev Disord · Pubmed #21318644.

ABSTRACT: Scientific progress is discussed in relation to clinical issues; genetic issues; environmental issues; and the state of play on psychological treatments. It is concluded that substantial gains in knowledge have been achieved during the last 3 years, and there have been some unexpected findings, but major puzzles remain. We should be hopeful of ever greater gains in the years ahead, but both prevention and cure remain elusive.

4 Review Emanuel Miller Lecture: Attachment insecurity, disinhibited attachment, and attachment disorders: where do research findings leave the concepts? 2009

Rutter, Michael / Kreppner, Jana / Sonuga-Barke, Edmund. ·MRC Social, Genetic, Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK. ·J Child Psychol Psychiatry · Pubmed #19298474.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite the evidence on anomalous attachment patterns, there has been a tendency to interpret most of these as reflecting differences in security/insecurity. METHODS: Empirical research findings are reviewed in relation to attachment/insecurity as evident in both infancy and later childhood, disorganised attachment, inhibited attachment disorder, and disinhibited attachment disorder. FINDINGS: Substantial differences are found in the correlates and meaning of these different features, as well as in the patterns associated with conditions such as autism, psychopathy, and Williams syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: It is seriously misleading to view all of these patterns through the lens of security/insecurity. This heterogeneity in social relationship features necessarily has implications for the assessment measures for social relationships that need to be used.

5 Article Self and informant reports of mental health difficulties among adults with autism findings from a long-term follow-up study. 2015

Moss, Philippa / Howlin, Patricia / Savage, Sarah / Bolton, Patrick / Rutter, Michael. ·University College London, UK Joint first authors. · King's College London, UK The University of Sydney, Australia Joint first authors patricia.howlin@kcl.ac.uk. · Goldman Sachs, USA. · King's College London, UK. ·Autism · Pubmed #26014841.

ABSTRACT: Data on psychiatric problems in adults with autism are inconsistent, with estimated rates ranging from around 25% to over 75%. We assessed difficulties related to mental health in 58 adults with autism (10 females, 48 males; mean age 44 years) whom we have followed over four decades. All were of average non-verbal intelligence quotient when diagnosed as children. Overall ratings of mental health problems were based on data from the Family History Schedule (Bolton et al., 1994). Informant reports indicated that many of the cohort (44%) had experienced no mental health problems in adulthood; 28% had experienced mild to moderate difficulties, 23% had severe and 5% very severe problems. Depression was the most commonly reported problem. Among those adults (n = 22) able to report on their own mental state, again many (45%) reported no mental health problems, although 27% reported very severe mental health problems related to anxiety, depression and/or obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Informant ratings of poor mental health were not associated with gender, severity of autism in childhood, or child or adult intelligence quotient, but there were small correlations with overall social functioning (rho = 0.34) and current autism severity (rho = 0.37). The findings highlight the difficulties of assessing mental health problems in adults with autism and the need for appropriately validated measures.

6 Article New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype: Description of Strategy and Reliability Findings for the Interview Measures. 2015

Parr, Jeremy R / De Jonge, Maretha V / Wallace, Simon / Pickles, Andrew / Rutter, Michael L / Le Couteur, Ann S / van Engeland, Herman / Wittemeyer, Kerstin / McConachie, Helen / Roge, Bernadette / Mantoulan, Carine / Pedersen, Lennart / Isager, Torben / Poustka, Fritz / Bolte, Sven / Bolton, Patrick / Weisblatt, Emma / Green, Jonathan / Papanikolaou, Katerina / Baird, Gillian / Bailey, Anthony J. ·From University of Oxford Department of Psychiatry, UK. · Institutes of Neuroscience, and Health and Society, Newcastle University, UK. · Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. · Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, UK. · MRC Centre for Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry, King's College London, UK. · Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches en Psychopathologie, Toulouse, France. · Center for Autisme, Denmark. · Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, J.W. Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany. · Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. · Cambridge University and Department of General and Adolescent Paediatrics, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK. · Academic Department of Child Psychiatry, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. · University Department of Child Psychiatry, Athens, Greece. · Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Trust & King's College London, UK. · Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. ·Autism Res · Pubmed #25959701.

ABSTRACT: Clinical genetic studies confirm the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in some relatives of individuals with autism, but there are few standardized assessment measures. We developed three BAP measures (informant interview, self-report interview, and impression of interviewee observational scale) and describe the development strategy and findings from the interviews. International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium data were collected from families containing at least two individuals with autism. Comparison of the informant and self-report interviews was restricted to samples in which the interviews were undertaken by different researchers from that site (251 UK informants, 119 from the Netherlands). Researchers produced vignettes that were rated blind by others. Retest reliability was assessed in 45 participants. Agreement between live scoring and vignette ratings was very high. Retest stability for the interviews was high. Factor analysis indicated a first factor comprising social-communication items and rigidity (but not other repetitive domain items), and a second factor comprised mainly of reading and spelling impairments. Whole scale Cronbach's alphas were high for both interviews. The correlation between interviews for factor 1 was moderate (adult items 0.50; childhood items 0.43); Kappa values for between-interview agreement on individual items were mainly low. The correlations between individual items and total score were moderate. The inclusion of several factor 2 items lowered the overall Cronbach's alpha for the total set. Both interview measures showed good reliability and substantial stability over time, but the findings were better for factor 1 than factor 2. We recommend factor 1 scores be used for characterising the BAP.

7 Article New interview and observation measures of the broader autism phenotype: group differentiation. 2015

de Jonge, Maretha / Parr, Jeremy / Rutter, Michael / Wallace, Simon / Kemner, Chantal / Bailey, Anthony / van Engeland, Herman / Pickles, Andrew. ·Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Room A01.468, Postbox 85500, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands, m.v.jonge@umcutrecht.nl. ·J Autism Dev Disord · Pubmed #25245786.

ABSTRACT: To identify the broader autism phenotype (BAP), the Family History Interview subject and informant versions and an observational tool (Impression of Interviewee), were developed. This study investigated whether the instruments differentiated between parents of children with autism, and parents of children with Down syndrome (DS). The BAP scores of parents of 28 multiplex autism families were compared with parents from, 32 DS families. The BAP measures provided good group differentiation but when considered together, the subject interview did not improve group differentiation. The differentiation was better for fathers than mothers. The measures do carry an important degree of validity; whether they can differentiate the BAP from other social disorders should be tested.

8 Article Outcomes in adult life among siblings of individuals with autism. 2015

Howlin, Patricia / Moss, Philippa / Savage, Sarah / Bolton, Patrick / Rutter, Michael. ·Institute of Psychiatry, King's College, London, UK, patricia.howlin@kcl.ac.uk. ·J Autism Dev Disord · Pubmed #25189825.

ABSTRACT: Little is known about adult siblings of individuals with autism. We report on cognitive, social and mental health outcomes in 87 adult siblings (mean age 39 years). When younger all had been assessed either as being "unaffected" by autism (n = 69) or as meeting criteria for the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP, n = 18). As adults, all scored within the average range on tests of intelligence, numeracy and literacy. "Unaffected" siblings were functioning well in terms of jobs, independence and social relationships. Levels of social relationships and employment were significantly lower in the BAP group; autism traits and mental health problems were significantly higher. The data suggest that the "broader autism phenotype" is a meaningful concept but more sensitive diagnostic measures are required.

9 Article Addressing the issue of fractionation in autism spectrum disorder: a commentary on Brunsdon and Happe, Frazier et al., Hobson and Mandy et al. 2014

Rutter, Michael. ·MRC Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK. ·Autism · Pubmed #24363166.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Article Factor structure of autistic traits in children with ADHD. 2014

Martin, Joanna / Hamshere, Marian L / O'Donovan, Michael C / Rutter, Michael / Thapar, Anita. ·MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XN, UK, martinjm1@cardiff.ac.uk. ·J Autism Dev Disord · Pubmed #23748436.

ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-occur. Factor analyses of ASD traits in children with and without ASD indicate the presence of social and restrictive-repetitive behaviour (RRB) factors. This study used exploratory factor analyses to determine the structure of ASD traits (assessed using the Social Communication Questionnaire) in children with ADHD. Distinct factors were observed for 'social' and 'rigidity' traits, corresponding to previous factor analyses in clinical ASD and population samples. This indicates that the split between social-communicative and RRB dimensions is unaffected by ADHD in children. Moreover, the study also finds that there is some overlap across hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and RRB traits in children with ADHD, which merits further investigation.

11 Article Social outcomes in mid- to later adulthood among individuals diagnosed with autism and average nonverbal IQ as children. 2013

Howlin, Patricia / Moss, Philippa / Savage, Sarah / Rutter, Michael. ·Institute of Psychiatry, King's College, London, UK. patricia.howlin@kcl.ac.uk ·J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry · Pubmed #23702446.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe current social functioning in a clinical sample of 60 adults with autism (mean age = 44 years) who were all of average nonverbal IQ (70+) when first diagnosed (mean age = 6.75 years). METHOD: Outcome measures included standardized diagnostic and cognitive assessments and questionnaires on social functioning. Child and adult variables related to current outcomes were explored. RESULTS: All individuals continued to meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), but severity of autism symptoms declined over time. Nevertheless, only 10 individuals (17%) were rated as having a "good" or "very good" outcome; the majority (60%) were assessed as having "poor" or "very poor" outcomes. The strongest predictor of adult outcome was the Reciprocal Social Interaction domain score on the ADI at diagnostic confirmation. Change over time was further examined in a subgroup (n = 44) previously assessed 20 years ago earlier (mean age = 26 years). Although severity of autism had continued to decrease during the adult period, social outcomes were poorer than in younger adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of adults first diagnosed with autism, on average, 37 years previously, social inclusion remains very limited, despite general improvements in autism symptomatology with age. Whether these findings will be replicated in future generations of children with autism, who now have the benefits of earlier diagnosis and wider access to specialist provision, needs to be the focus of further longitudinal research.

12 Article Epilepsy in autism: features and correlates. 2011

Bolton, Patrick F / Carcani-Rathwell, Iris / Hutton, Jane / Goode, Sue / Howlin, Patricia / Rutter, Michael. ·Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry and MRC Centre for Social Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, UK. Patrick.Bolton@kcl.ac.uk ·Br J Psychiatry · Pubmed #21972278.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Epilepsy occurs in a significant minority of individuals with autism, but few long-term follow-up studies have been reported, so the prevalence, features (type of seizures, age at onset and severity, etc.) and correlates (IQ history of regression, family history) have only partially been identified. AIMS: To undertake a long-term follow-up study of individuals with autism in order to better characterise the features and correlates of epilepsy in individuals with autism. METHOD: One hundred and fifty individuals diagnosed with autism in childhood were followed up when they were 21+ years of age. All individuals were screened for a history of possible seizures by parental/informant questionnaire. An epilepsy interview was undertaken and medical notes reviewed for individuals with a history of possible seizures. The features and correlates of epilepsy were examined using survival and regression analysis. RESULTS: Epilepsy developed in 22% of participants. In the majority, seizures began after 10 years of age. Generalised tonic-clonic seizures predominated (88%). In over a half (19/33), seizures occurred weekly or less frequently and in the majority of individuals (28/31) they were controlled with the prescription of one to two anticonvulsants. Epilepsy was associated with gender (female), intellectual disability and poorer verbal abilities. Although the presence of epilepsy in the probands was not associated with an increased risk of epilepsy in their relatives, it was associated with the presence of the broader autism phenotype in relatives. This indicates that the familial liability to autism was associated with the risk for epilepsy in the proband. CONCLUSIONS: Epilepsy is an important medical complication that develops in individuals with autism. Seizures may first begin in adolescence or adulthood. Putative risk factors for epilepsy in autism were identified and these will require further investigation in future studies.

13 Article A genome-wide scan for common alleles affecting risk for autism. 2010

Anney, Richard / Klei, Lambertus / Pinto, Dalila / Regan, Regina / Conroy, Judith / Magalhaes, Tiago R / Correia, Catarina / Abrahams, Brett S / Sykes, Nuala / Pagnamenta, Alistair T / Almeida, Joana / Bacchelli, Elena / Bailey, Anthony J / Baird, Gillian / Battaglia, Agatino / Berney, Tom / Bolshakova, Nadia / Bölte, Sven / Bolton, Patrick F / Bourgeron, Thomas / Brennan, Sean / Brian, Jessica / Carson, Andrew R / Casallo, Guillermo / Casey, Jillian / Chu, Su H / Cochrane, Lynne / Corsello, Christina / Crawford, Emily L / Crossett, Andrew / Dawson, Geraldine / de Jonge, Maretha / Delorme, Richard / Drmic, Irene / Duketis, Eftichia / Duque, Frederico / Estes, Annette / Farrar, Penny / Fernandez, Bridget A / Folstein, Susan E / Fombonne, Eric / Freitag, Christine M / Gilbert, John / Gillberg, Christopher / Glessner, Joseph T / Goldberg, Jeremy / Green, Jonathan / Guter, Stephen J / Hakonarson, Hakon / Heron, Elizabeth A / Hill, Matthew / Holt, Richard / Howe, Jennifer L / Hughes, Gillian / Hus, Vanessa / Igliozzi, Roberta / Kim, Cecilia / Klauck, Sabine M / Kolevzon, Alexander / Korvatska, Olena / Kustanovich, Vlad / Lajonchere, Clara M / Lamb, Janine A / Laskawiec, Magdalena / Leboyer, Marion / Le Couteur, Ann / Leventhal, Bennett L / Lionel, Anath C / Liu, Xiao-Qing / Lord, Catherine / Lotspeich, Linda / Lund, Sabata C / Maestrini, Elena / Mahoney, William / Mantoulan, Carine / Marshall, Christian R / McConachie, Helen / McDougle, Christopher J / McGrath, Jane / McMahon, William M / Melhem, Nadine M / Merikangas, Alison / Migita, Ohsuke / Minshew, Nancy J / Mirza, Ghazala K / Munson, Jeff / Nelson, Stanley F / Noakes, Carolyn / Noor, Abdul / Nygren, Gudrun / Oliveira, Guiomar / Papanikolaou, Katerina / Parr, Jeremy R / Parrini, Barbara / Paton, Tara / Pickles, Andrew / Piven, Joseph / Posey, David J / Poustka, Annemarie / Poustka, Fritz / Prasad, Aparna / Ragoussis, Jiannis / Renshaw, Katy / Rickaby, Jessica / Roberts, Wendy / Roeder, Kathryn / Roge, Bernadette / Rutter, Michael L / Bierut, Laura J / Rice, John P / Salt, Jeff / Sansom, Katherine / Sato, Daisuke / Segurado, Ricardo / Senman, Lili / Shah, Naisha / Sheffield, Val C / Soorya, Latha / Sousa, Inês / Stoppioni, Vera / Strawbridge, Christina / Tancredi, Raffaella / Tansey, Katherine / Thiruvahindrapduram, Bhooma / Thompson, Ann P / Thomson, Susanne / Tryfon, Ana / Tsiantis, John / Van Engeland, Herman / Vincent, John B / Volkmar, Fred / Wallace, Simon / Wang, Kai / Wang, Zhouzhi / Wassink, Thomas H / Wing, Kirsty / Wittemeyer, Kerstin / Wood, Shawn / Yaspan, Brian L / Zurawiecki, Danielle / Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie / Betancur, Catalina / Buxbaum, Joseph D / Cantor, Rita M / Cook, Edwin H / Coon, Hilary / Cuccaro, Michael L / Gallagher, Louise / Geschwind, Daniel H / Gill, Michael / Haines, Jonathan L / Miller, Judith / Monaco, Anthony P / Nurnberger, John I / Paterson, Andrew D / Pericak-Vance, Margaret A / Schellenberg, Gerard D / Scherer, Stephen W / Sutcliffe, James S / Szatmari, Peter / Vicente, Astrid M / Vieland, Veronica J / Wijsman, Ellen M / Devlin, Bernie / Ennis, Sean / Hallmayer, Joachim. ·Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity College, Dublin 8, Ireland. ·Hum Mol Genet · Pubmed #20663923.

ABSTRACT: Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). To identify common risk variation, the Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium genotyped 1558 rigorously defined ASD families for 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyzed these SNP genotypes for association with ASD. In one of four primary association analyses, the association signal for marker rs4141463, located within MACROD2, crossed the genome-wide association significance threshold of P < 5 × 10(-8). When a smaller replication sample was analyzed, the risk allele at rs4141463 was again over-transmitted; yet, consistent with the winner's curse, its effect size in the replication sample was much smaller; and, for the combined samples, the association signal barely fell below the P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold. Exploratory analyses of phenotypic subtypes yielded no significant associations after correction for multiple testing. They did, however, yield strong signals within several genes, KIAA0564, PLD5, POU6F2, ST8SIA2 and TAF1C.

14 Article IV. Developmental course of deprivation-specific psychological patterns: early manifestations, persistence to age 15, and clinical features. 2010

Kreppner, Jana / Kumsta, Robert / Rutter, Michael / Beckett, Celia / Castle, Jennifer / Stevens, Suzanne / Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. · ·Monogr Soc Res Child Dev · Pubmed #20500634.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

15 Article Commentary: Fact and artefact in the secular increase in the rate of autism. 2009

Rutter, Michael. ·MRC SGDP Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, UK. camilla.azis@kcl.ac.uk ·Int J Epidemiol · Pubmed #19737793.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

16 Article Savant skills in autism: psychometric approaches and parental reports. 2009

Howlin, Patricia / Goode, Susan / Hutton, Jane / Rutter, Michael. ·Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. patricia.howlin@iop.kcl.ac.uk ·Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci · Pubmed #19528018.

ABSTRACT: Most investigations of savant skills in autism are based on individual case reports. The present study investigated rates and types of savant skills in 137 individuals with autism (mean age 24 years). Intellectual ability ranged from severe intellectual impairment to superior functioning. Savant skills were judged from parental reports and specified as 'an outstanding skill/knowledge clearly above participant's general level of ability and above the population norm'. A comparable definition of exceptional cognitive skills was applied to Wechsler test scores--requiring a subtest score at least 1 standard deviation above general population norms and 2 standard deviations above the participant's own mean subtest score. Thirty-nine participants (28.5%) met criteria for either a savant skill or an exceptional cognitive skill: 15 for an outstanding cognitive skill (most commonly block design); 16 for a savant skill based on parental report (mostly mathematical/calculating abilities); 8 met criteria for both a cognitive and parental rated savant skill. One-third of males showed some form of outstanding ability compared with 19 per cent of females. No individual with a non-verbal IQ below 50 met criteria for a savant skill and, contrary to some earlier hypotheses, there was no indication that individuals with higher rates of stereotyped behaviours/interests were more likely to demonstrate savant skills.