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Autistic Disorder: HELP
Articles from Oman
Based on 10 articles published since 2008
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These are the 10 published articles about Autistic Disorder that originated from Oman during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Autism in the Gulf States: a regional overview. 2019

Qoronfleh, M Walid / Essa, Musthafa Mohamed / Alharahsheh, Sana T / Al-Farsi, Yahya Mohamed / Al-Adawi, Samir. ·Research & Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha, Qatar, wqoronfleh@qf.org.qa. · Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Ageing and Dementia Research Group, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. · Research & Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha, Qatar. · Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 35, P.C. 123, Alkhoud, Sultanate of Oman. · Department of Behavioral Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. ·Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) · Pubmed #30468659.

ABSTRACT: In this review, we provide a Gulf region-centric view on autism with special focus on Qatar and Oman, including a review of seminal Qatari/Omani work from the literature. In addition, we offer a summary from the World Innovation Summit for Health and World Innovation Summit for Education autism reports as well as outline some of the main challenges, best practices and a path forward for the Gulf region from a healthcare perspective. Finally, we highlight the role of public outreach and awareness to lay the groundwork for enlightened policy for intervention and resource allocation to care for autistic individuals.

2 Review Excitotoxicity in the pathogenesis of autism. 2013

Essa, M M / Braidy, N / Vijayan, K R / Subash, S / Guillemin, G J. ·Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Agriculture and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. ·Neurotox Res · Pubmed #23065398.

ABSTRACT: Autism is a debilitating neurodevelopment disorder characterised by stereotyped interests and behaviours, and abnormalities in verbal and non-verbal communication. It is a multifactorial disorder resulting from interactions between genetic, environmental and immunological factors. Excitotoxicity and oxidative stress are potential mechanisms, which are likely to serve as a converging point to these risk factors. Substantial evidence suggests that excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and impaired mitochondrial function are the leading cause of neuronal dysfunction in autistic patients. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter produced in the CNS, and overactivity of glutamate and its receptors leads to excitotoxicity. The over excitatory action of glutamate, and the glutamatergic receptors NMDA and AMPA, leads to activation of enzymes that damage cellular structure, membrane permeability and electrochemical gradients. The role of excitotoxicity and the mechanism behind its action in autistic subjects is delineated in this review.

3 Article Altered kynurenine pathway metabolism in autism: Implication for immune-induced glutamatergic activity. 2016

Lim, Chai K / Essa, Musthafa M / de Paula Martins, Roberta / Lovejoy, David B / Bilgin, Ayse A / Waly, Mostafa I / Al-Farsi, Yahya M / Al-Sharbati, Marwan / Al-Shaffae, Mohammed A / Guillemin, Gilles J. ·Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia. · Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman. · Ageing and Dementia Research Group, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman. · Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia. · Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman. · Department of Behavioral Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman. ·Autism Res · Pubmed #26497015.

ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of the serotoninergic and glutamatergic systems is implicated in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) together with various neuroinflammatory mediators. As the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation is activated in neuroinflammatory states, we hypothesized that there may be a link between inflammation in ASD and enhanced KP activation resulting in reduced serotonin synthesis from tryptophan and production of KP metabolites capable of modulating glutamatergic activity. A cross-sectional study of 15 different Omani families with newly diagnosed children with ASD (n = 15) and their age-matched healthy siblings (n = 12) was designed. Immunological profile and the KP metabolic signature were characterized in the study participants. Our data indicated that there were alterations to the KP in ASD. Specifically, increased production of the downstream metabolite, quinolinic acid, which is capable of enhancing glutamatergic neurotransmission was noted. Correlation studies also demonstrated that the presence of inflammation induced KP activation in ASD. Until now, previous studies have failed to establish a link between inflammation, glutamatergic activity, and the KP. Our findings also suggest that increased quinolinic acid may be linked to 16p11.2 mutations leading to abnormal glutamatergic activity associated with ASD pathogenesis and may help rationalize the efficacy of sulforaphane treatment in ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 621-631. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

4 Article Recessive DEAF1 mutation associates with autism, intellectual disability, basal ganglia dysfunction and epilepsy. 2015

Rajab, Anna / Schuelke, Markus / Gill, Esther / Zwirner, Angelika / Seifert, Franziska / Morales Gonzalez, Susanne / Knierim, Ellen. ·Genetic Unit, Royal Hospital, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. · NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Department of Neuropediatrics, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · Department of Neuropediatrics, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. ·J Med Genet · Pubmed #26048982.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Various genetic defects cause autism associated with intellectual disability and epilepsy. Here, we set out to identify the genetic defect in a consanguineous Omani family with three affected children in whom mutations in known candidate genes had been excluded beforehand. METHODS: For mutation screening, we combined autozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing. Segregation of potential disease variants with the phenotype was verified by Sanger sequencing. A splice-site mutation was confirmed and quantified by qPCR. RESULTS: We found an autosomal recessive splice acceptor mutation in DEAF1 (c.997+4A>C, p.G292Pfs*) in all affected individuals, which led to exon skipping, and reduced the normal full-length mRNA copy number in the patients to 5% of the wild-type level. Besides intellectual disability and autism, two of three affected siblings suffered from severe epilepsy. All patients exhibited dyskinesia of the limbs coinciding with symmetric T2 hyperintensities of the basal ganglia on cranial MRI. CONCLUSIONS: A recent report has shown dominant DEAF1 mutations to occur de novo in patients with intellectual disability. Here, we demonstrate that a DEAF1-associated disorder can also be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait with heterozygous individuals being entirely healthy. Our findings expand the clinical and genetic spectrum of DEAF1 mutations to comprise epilepsy and extrapyramidal symptoms.

5 Article Awareness about autism among school teachers in Oman: a cross-sectional study. 2015

Al-Sharbati, Marwan M / Al-Farsi, Yahya M / Ouhtit, Allal / Waly, Mostafa I / Al-Shafaee, Mohamed / Al-Farsi, Omar / Al-Khaduri, Maha / Al-Said, Mona F / Al-Adawi, Samir. ·Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman. · Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman ymfarsi@squ.edu.om. ·Autism · Pubmed #24151129.

ABSTRACT: Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum disorder in an urban region in Oman. A total of 164 teachers were randomly enrolled from five schools. Misconceptions about autism spectrum disorder were found to be common among mainstream teachers in the country. We posit that such lack of awareness was likely to be rooted with sociocultural patterning as well as conflicting views often "spun" by the scientific community and mass media. Enlightened views toward children with autism spectrum disorder should be presented to Omani teachers to overcome misconceptions and negative attitudes toward children with autism spectrum disorder.

6 Article Impact of nutrition on serum levels of docosahexaenoic acid among Omani children with autism. 2013

Al-Farsi, Yahya M / Waly, Mostafa I / Deth, Richard C / Al-Sharbati, Marwan M / Al-Shafaee, Mohammed / Al-Farsi, Omar / Al-Khaduri, Maha M / Al-Adawi, Samir / Hodgson, Nathaniel W / Gupta, Ishita / Ouhtit, Allal. ·Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khoud, Sultanate of Oman. ·Nutrition · Pubmed #23800562.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder of early childhood. Dietary supplementation of the ω-3 fatty acid (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) during prenatal and postnatal life is considered a protective dietary intervention strategy to minimize the risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To our knowledge, no relevant studies have been conducted in the Middle East investigating the status of DHA among children with autism during early childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels and dietary intake status of DHA among Omani children recently diagnosed with ASD. METHODS: The present case-control study involved 80 Omani children (<5 y), 40 cases and 40 controls matched for age and sex. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake of all the participants, while serum levels of DHA were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Our results showed that children with ASD had lower dietary consumption of foodstuff containing DHA, as well as lower serum levels of DHA than controls. CONCLUSION: The present finding from Oman supports the view of other studies that there are low serum levels of DHA among children with ASD.

7 Article Low folate and vitamin B12 nourishment is common in Omani children with newly diagnosed autism. 2013

Al-Farsi, Yahya M / Waly, Mostafa I / Deth, Richard C / Al-Sharbati, Marwan M / Al-Shafaee, Mohamed / Al-Farsi, Omar / Al-Khaduri, Maha M / Gupta, Ishita / Ali, Amanat / Al-Khalili, Maha / Al-Adawi, Samir / Hodgson, Nathaniel W / Ouhtit, Allal. ·Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. ·Nutrition · Pubmed #23287069.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Arab populations lack data related to nutritional assessment in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), especially micronutrient deficiencies such as folate and vitamin B12. METHODS: To assess the dietary and serum folate and vitamin B12 statuses, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted in 80 Omani children (40 children with ASDs versus 40 controls). RESULTS: The ASD cases showed significantly lower levels of folate, vitamin B12, and related parameters in dietary intake and serum levels. CONCLUSION: These data showed that Omani children with ASDs exhibit significant deficiencies in folate and vitamin B12 and call for increasing efforts to ensure sufficient intakes of essential nutrients by children with ASDs to minimize or reverse any ongoing impact of nutrient deficiencies.

8 Article Hyperhomocysteinemia among Omani autistic children: a case-control study. 2011

Ali, Amanat / Waly, Mostafa I / Al-Farsi, Yahya M / Essa, Musthafa M / Al-Sharbati, Marwan M / Deth, Richard C. ·Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman. amanat@squ.edu.om ·Acta Biochim Pol · Pubmed #22187679.

ABSTRACT: High serum homocysteine (Hcy) level is regarded as an indicator for impairment of folate-dependent methionine cycle and is associated with oxidative stress. In a case control study, we evaluated eighty 3-5 years old Omani children (40 diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and 40 their age and gender matched controls) for their fasting serum homocysteine levels as a biomarker of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Serum folate and vitamin B(12) status were also evaluated. The serum homocysteine was measured using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique whereas folate and vitamin B(12) were measured using an automated random access immune-assay system. The results indicated that mean serum Hcy levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in autistic children (20.1 ± 3.3 µmol/L) as compared to controls (9.64 ± 2.1 µmol/L). Significantly (P < 0.05) lower serum folate (1.8 ± 0.4 µg/L) and vitamin B(12) (191.1 ± 0.9 pg/mL) levels were observed in autistic children as compared to controls (6.1 ± 0.6 µg/L and 288.9 ± 1.3 pg/mL, respectively). The levels of homocysteine in autistic children were also much higher as compared to normal reference values (5-15 µmol/L). The results suggest that high fasting serum homocysteine and low folate and vitamin B(12) levels could be used as clinical biomarkers for an early diagnosis and management of ASD.

9 Article Brief report: Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in the Sultanate of Oman. 2011

Al-Farsi, Yahya M / Al-Sharbati, Marwan M / Al-Farsi, Omar A / Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S / Brooks, Daniel R / Waly, Mostafa I. ·Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 35, Al-Khoudh, 123, Sultanate of Oman. ymfarsi@squ.edu.om ·J Autism Dev Disord · Pubmed #20809376.

ABSTRACT: Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of ASD were enumerated nationwide, indicating an overall prevalence of 1.4 (95% CI 1.2, 1.7) cases per 10,000 children aged 0-14 years. More prevalent cases were among boys (75%) and among low-income families. Ritualistic interests were more common among girls as an onset-symptom compared to boys (p = 0.03). The reported low prevalence of ASD in Oman is likely due to under-diagnosis and under-reporting.

10 Minor A Turning Point for Paediatric Developmental Services in Oman: Establishment of a national autism screening programme. 2017

Al-Mamari, Watfa / Idris, Ahmed B / Al-Jabri, Muna / Abdelsattar, Ahlam / Al-Hinai, Fatma / Al-Hatmi, Moza / Al-Raidan, Amira. ·Department of Child Health, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. · Department of Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. · Directorate General of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Oman. ·Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J · Pubmed #28417045.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --