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Autistic Disorder: HELP
Articles from Unspecified
Based on 232 articles published since 2008

These are the 232 published articles about Autistic Disorder that originated from Unspecified during 2008-2019.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10
1 Editorial Comment on "Maternal SSRI exposure increases the risk of autistic offspring: A meta-analysis and systematic review". 2017

Li, J / Chen, J. ·Nursing Department, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, ​No. 87, Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan Province, China. · Xiangya Nursing School, Central South University, No. 139, Tongzipo Road, Changsha, 410006 Hunan Province, China. Electronic address: cjia65215@163.com. ·Eur Psychiatry · Pubmed #28957790.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Gastrointestinal dysfunction and autism: caution with misdiagnoses as many mysteries remain to be unraveled! 2016

Greydanus, Donald E / Gregoire-Bottex, Myrtha M / Merrick, Joav. ·. ·Int J Adolesc Med Health · Pubmed #27977400.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Review Stopping, rationalising or optimising antipsychotic drug treatment in people with intellectual disability and/or autism. 2019

Shankar, Rohit / Wilcock, Mike / Oak, Katy / McGowan, Paula / Sheehan, Rory. ·Cornwall Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Truro, UK. · University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK. · Royal Cornwall Hospitals Trust, Truro, UK. · Expert by Experience. · University College London, London, UK. ·Drug Ther Bull · Pubmed #30567853.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Review Jurors' and Judges' Evaluation of Defendants with Autism and the Impact on Sentencing: A Systematic Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) Review of Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Courtroom. 2017

Allely, Clare S / Cooper, Penny. ·Lecturer in Psychology, Centre for Health Sciences Research, University of Salford, Salford, England; affiliate member of the Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. · Honorary Research Fellow position in the College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences affiliated to the Institute of Health and Wellbeing at the University of Glasgow, Scotland. · Barrister (39 Essex Chambers, London). · Honorary Visiting Professor at City Law School, City, University London. · Senior research fellow at the Institute for Criminal Policy Research (Birkbeck, University of London). · Visiting Professor University of Roehampton; co-founder. · Chair of The Advocate's Gateway (The Advocacy Training Council). · A former governor of the Expert Witness Institute. ·J Law Med · Pubmed #29978627.

ABSTRACT: Concern has been highlighted in the literature regarding how juries and judges handle cases which involve a defendant with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The relatively little research on judicial perceptions or decision-making regarding individuals with ASD indicates that judges have limited understanding and familiarity with high-functioning ASD (hfASD) and ASD. The present systematic review will identify studies which investigate jurors' (eg using mock jurors) and/or judges' evaluations of defendants with ASD and studies which investigate whether the defendant diagnosis of ASD impacts on sentencing. Only four studies were identified which investigated jurors' and/or judges' evaluations of a defendant with an ASD or investigated whether the defendant diagnosis of ASD impacts on sentencing. Further research is recommended which should include an evaluation of cases involving a defendant with an hfASD or ASD diagnosis comparing charges, pleas entered, procedural adjustments at court, evidence adduced about the defendant's condition, directions to juries, judicial remarks on the evidence (eg summing-up for the jury), verdicts and sentencing. This would enable the assessment of the specific offending behaviour and disorder of the defendant, and how these may be relevant to their mental capacity and culpability.

5 Review Visual impairment and traits of autism in children. 2017

Wrzesińska, Magdalena / Kapias, Joanna / Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna / Kocur, Józef. ·Zakład Rehabilitacji Psychospołecznej UM w Łodzi. · Wydział Etnologii i Nauk o Edukacji Uniwersytetu Śląskiego w Katowicach. · Zakład Kognitywistyki, Instytut Psychologii, Wydział Nauk o Wychowaniu Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego. · Wyższa Szkoła Informatyki i Umiejętności w Łodzi. ·Psychiatr Pol · Pubmed #28581542.

ABSTRACT: Visual impairment present from birth or from an early childhood may lead to psychosocial and emotional disorders. 11-40% of children in the group with visual impairment show traits of autism. The aim of this paper was to present the selected examples of how visual impairment in children is related to the occurrence of autism and to describe the available tools for diagnosing autism in children with visual impairment. So far the relation between visual impairment in children and autism has not been sufficiently confirmed. Psychiatric and psychological diagnosis of children with visual impairment has some difficulties in differentiating between "blindism" and traits typical for autism resulting from a lack of standardized diagnostic tools used to diagnosing children with visual impairment. Another difficulty in diagnosing autism in children with visual impairment is the coexistence of other disabilities in case of most children with vision impairment. Additionally, apart from difficulties in diagnosing autistic disorders in children with eye dysfunctions there is also a question of what tools should be used in therapy and rehabilitation of patients.

6 Review Sleep and mental disorders: A meta-analysis of polysomnographic research. 2016

Baglioni, Chiara / Nanovska, Svetoslava / Regen, Wolfram / Spiegelhalder, Kai / Feige, Bernd / Nissen, Christoph / Reynolds, Charles F / Riemann, Dieter. ·Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychophysiology. · Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh. ·Psychol Bull · Pubmed #27416139.

ABSTRACT: Investigating sleep in mental disorders has the potential to reveal both disorder-specific and transdiagnostic psychophysiological mechanisms. This meta-analysis aimed at determining the polysomnographic (PSG) characteristics of several mental disorders. Relevant studies were searched through standard strategies. Controlled PSG studies evaluating sleep in affective, anxiety, eating, pervasive developmental, borderline and antisocial personality disorders, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia were included. PSG variables of sleep continuity, depth, and architecture, as well as rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep were considered. Calculations were performed with the "Comprehensive Meta-Analysis" and "R" software. Using random effects modeling, for each disorder and each variable, a separate meta-analysis was conducted if at least 3 studies were available for calculation of effect sizes as standardized means (Hedges' g). Sources of variability, that is, sex, age, and mental disorders comorbidity, were evaluated in subgroup analyses. Sleep alterations were evidenced in all disorders, with the exception of ADHD and seasonal affective disorders. Sleep continuity problems were observed in most mental disorders. Sleep depth and REM pressure alterations were associated with affective, anxiety, autism and schizophrenia disorders. Comorbidity was associated with enhanced REM sleep pressure and more inhibition of sleep depth. No sleep parameter was exclusively altered in 1 condition; however, no 2 conditions shared the same PSG profile. Sleep continuity disturbances imply a transdiagnostic imbalance in the arousal system likely representing a basic dimension of mental health. Sleep depth and REM variables might play a key role in psychiatric comorbidity processes. Constellations of sleep alterations may define distinct disorders better than alterations in 1 single variable. (PsycINFO Database Record

7 Review Synapse alterations in autism: Review of animal model findings. 2016

Zatkova, Martina / Bakos, Jan / Hodosy, Julius / Ostatnikova, Daniela. ·Institute of Physiology, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. · Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. · Institute of Molecular Biomedicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. · Center for Molecular Medicine, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. ·Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub · Pubmed #26740047.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recent research has produced an explosion of experimental data on the complex neurobiological mechanisms of developmental disorders including autism. Animal models are one approach to studying the phenotypic features and molecular basis of autism. In this review, we describe progress in understanding synaptogenesis and alterations to this process with special emphasis on the cell adhesion molecules and scaffolding proteins implicated in autism. Genetic mouse model experiments are discussed in relation to alterations to selected synaptic proteins and consequent behavioral deficits measured in animal experiments. METHODS: Pubmed databases were used to search for original and review articles on animal and human clinical studies on autism. RESULTS: The cell adhesion molecules, neurexin, neurolignin and the Shank family of proteins are important molecular targets associated with autism. CONCLUSION: The heterogeneity of the autism spectrum of disorders limits interpretation of information acquired from any single animal model or animal test. We showed synapse-specific/ model-specific defects associated with a given genotype in these models. Characterization of mouse models with genetic variations may help study the mechanisms of autism in humans. However, it will be necessary to apply new analytic paradigms in using genetically modified mice for understanding autism etiology in humans. Further studies are needed to create animal models with mutations that match the molecular and neural bases of autism.

8 Review [Sleep disturbances in children with autistic spectrum disorders]. 2015

Kelmanson, I A. ·Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Special Education and Psychology of International University for Family and Child, St. Petersburg. ·Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova · Pubmed #26322364.

ABSTRACT: An association between sleep disorders and autistic spectrum disorders in children is considered. Characteristic variants of sleep disorders, including resistance to going to bed, frequent night awakenings, parasomnias, changes in sleep structure, primarily, the decrease in the percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, are presented. Attention is focused on the possibility of the direct relationship between sleep disturbance and the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorders. A role of pathological alterations in the production of neuromediators and morphological changes in the brain structures characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders in the genesis of sleep disorders in children is discussed. Possible non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches are suggested.

9 Review Thiomersal-containing vaccines - a review of the current state of knowledge. 2015

Gołoś, Aleksandra / Lutyńska, Anna. ·Department of Sera and Vaccines Evaluation, National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw. ·Przegl Epidemiol · Pubmed #25862449.

ABSTRACT: Thiomersal is an organomercury compound known for its antiseptic and antifungal properties and used as an antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical products, including vaccines and other injectable biological products. In recent years, concerns about the possible link between immunization with thiomersal-containing vaccines and autism development have grown. Many case-control and cohort studies have been conducted on a number of populations, and none of them have confirmed the hypothetical relation between thiomersal and increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) development. It is also confirmed by the fact, that since 1999, number of thiomersal-containing vaccines used worldwide is decreasing year by year, while the prevalence of ASDs cases is rising. There are no contraindications to the use of vaccines with thiomersal in infants, children and non-pregnant women. The risk of serious complications associated with the development of diseases in unvaccinated individuals far outweighs the potential risk of adverse consequences associated with immunization with thiomersal-containing vaccines.

10 Review The apoptotic perspective of autism. 2014

Wei, Hongen / Alberts, Ian / Li, Xiaohong. ·Central Laboratory, Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Affiliate of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China. Electronic address: hongenwei@gmail.com. · Department of Natural Sciences, LaGuardia CC, CUNY, New York, NY 11101, USA. · Department of Neurochemistry, NY State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, New York, NY 10314, USA. ·Int J Dev Neurosci · Pubmed #24798024.

ABSTRACT: Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and repetitive behavior and restricted interests. The normal brain development during fetal brain development and the first year of life is critical to the behaviors and cognitions in adulthood. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important mechanism that determines the size and shape of the brain and regulates the proper wiring of developing neuronal networks. Pathological activation of apoptotic death pathways under pathological conditions may lead to neuroanatomic abnormalities and possibly to developmental disabilities. It has been demonstrated a possible association between neural cell death and autism. Here, the abnormal apoptosis found in autism from postmortem and animal studies was reviewed and the possible mechanism was discussed.

11 Review Brain IL-6 and autism. 2013

Wei, H / Alberts, I / Li, X. ·Central Laboratory, Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Affiliate of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China. Electronic address: hongenwei@gmail.com. ·Neuroscience · Pubmed #23994594.

ABSTRACT: Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant neuroimmune responses may contribute to phenotypic deficits and could be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. Interleukin (IL)-6, one of the most important neuroimmune factors, has been shown to be involved in physiological brain development and in several neurological disorders. For instance, findings from postmortem and animal studies suggest that brain IL-6 is an important mediator of autism-like behaviors. In this review, a possible pathological mechanism behind autism is proposed, which suggests that IL-6 elevation in the brain, caused by the activated glia and/or maternal immune activation, could be an important inflammatory cytokine response involved in the mediation of autism-like behaviors through impairments of neuroanatomical structures and neuronal plasticity. Further studies to investigate whether IL-6 could be used for therapeutic interventions in autism would be of great significance.

12 Review Comorbidity of physical and motor problems in children with autism. 2011

Matson, Michael L / Matson, Johnny L / Beighley, Jennifer S. ·Center for Research, Disability Consultants, LLC, United States. ·Res Dev Disabil · Pubmed #21890317.

ABSTRACT: Autism and the related pervasive developmental disorders are a heavily researched group of neurodevelopmental conditions. In addition to core symptoms, there are a number of other physical and motor conditions that co-occur at high rates. This paper provides a review of factors and behaviors that correlate highly with disorders on the autism spectrum. Among these conditions are premature birth, birth defects, gross and fine motor skills, and obesity. Each of these topics is addressed, and what researchers have found are presented. These data have important implications for the types of collateral behaviors that should be assessed and treated, along with the core symptoms of autism.

13 Review [Oxytocin, a neuropeptide regulating affection and social behavior]. 2011

Kortesluoma, Susanna / Karlsson, Hasse. ·Turun yliopiston kliininen laitos. ·Duodecim · Pubmed #21648164.

ABSTRACT: Oxytocin has been reported to modulate human behavior in many social interactions of which attachment between mother and child is the child's first social relationship. Quality of the attachment might affect the sensitivity of child's stress regulation system by modulating the development of the child's oxytocin system. This might affect social behavior in adulthood and could be one of the risk or resilience factors for mental disorders and coronary artery diseases. Oxytocin has been linked to conditions like autism and depression that significantly disturb social interaction capabilities and coping with daily life activities. Better treatment and preventative methods might be found to those diseases by investigating the effects of oxytocin to the formation of the mother-child attachment and child's development.

14 Review Theoretical aspects of autism: biomarkers--a review. 2011

Ratajczak, Helen V. ·hratajcz@comcast.net ·J Immunotoxicol · Pubmed #21299356.

ABSTRACT: Autism is dramatically increasing in incidence and is now considered an epidemic. There are no objective means to diagnose the disorder. Diagnosis is made subjectively, based on the perceived behavior of the subject. This review presents an approach toward development of an objective measure of autism. Covering the literature from 1943 to the present in the PubMed and Ovid Medline databases, this review summarizes evidence of hormones, metabolites, amino acids, and other biomarkers present in significantly different quantities in autistic subjects compared to age- and sex-matched controls. These differences can be measured in the gastrointestinal, immunologic, neurologic, and toxicologic systems of the body, with some biomarkers showing ubiquitous application. In addition, there are unifying concepts, i.e., increased vulnerability to oxidative stress, immune glutamatergic dysfunction, and pineal gland malfunction. The variances of the biomarkers from the norm present the opportunity to create biomarker arrays that when properly developed and analyzed could result in an objective diagnosis with a ranking of the severity of autism for each subject. The contribution of each biomarker to the overall diagnosis could be calculated, thus providing a profile pattern unique to the individual. This profile could consequently provide information for therapeutic interventions on an individual basis.

15 Review Theoretical aspects of autism: causes--a review. 2011

Ratajczak, Helen V. ·hratajcz@comcast.net ·J Immunotoxicol · Pubmed #21299355.

ABSTRACT: Autism, a member of the pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), has been increasing dramatically since its description by Leo Kanner in 1943. First estimated to occur in 4 to 5 per 10,000 children, the incidence of autism is now 1 per 110 in the United States, and 1 per 64 in the United Kingdom, with similar incidences throughout the world. Searching information from 1943 to the present in PubMed and Ovid Medline databases, this review summarizes results that correlate the timing of changes in incidence with environmental changes. Autism could result from more than one cause, with different manifestations in different individuals that share common symptoms. Documented causes of autism include genetic mutations and/or deletions, viral infections, and encephalitis following vaccination. Therefore, autism is the result of genetic defects and/or inflammation of the brain. The inflammation could be caused by a defective placenta, immature blood-brain barrier, the immune response of the mother to infection while pregnant, a premature birth, encephalitis in the child after birth, or a toxic environment.

16 Review [Pubertal behavioral decompensation in patients with pervasive developmental disorders]. 2010

Grañana, Nora / Taddeo, Paulo / Espoueys, Pía / Nazer, Claudia. ·Hospital A. Zubizarreta. ngranana@hotmail.com ·Vertex · Pubmed #21188302.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To describe behavioral descompensation in adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). METHODS: We analyzed in a prospective study the stories of 11 children and adolescents with ASD, their demographic characteristics, initial symptoms of descompensation at pubertal or adolescence stages, interventions developed and evolution with them. RESULTS: We studied the clinical stories of eleven patients, 8 men and 3 women, who consulted with behavioral descompensation periods at a mean age of 13 years (range 10- 16 years). They presented with hyperactivity/agitation (6), injuries and aggression against others or themselves (6), irritability/ emotional labiality (6), inappropriate shouting (6), inflexibility/ rituals (4) and catatonia (2). Almost all patients had received psychiatric medication before descompensation, except patients with catatonia. Four of 11 presented two episodes and seven patients only one episode during a period of 2.7 years of follow-up (range 1- 6 years). Eight of 11 patients recovered with psychological and pharmacological (a medium of 2 drugs) interventions in a mean time of 4 months. Both patients with catatonia didn't recovered, and one more patient didn't improved with pharmacological treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Behavioral descompensations are very frequent complications in patients with autism at puberty or adolescence stages. Most of them recover with very close combined interventions and familial support.

17 Review Autistic spectrum disorder: the challenge for dentists. 2010

Berman, Marvin H. ·marvy18@prodigy.net ·Dent Today · Pubmed #21086798.

ABSTRACT: Those who actively work with children are, with increasing frequency, encountering patients who have been diagnosed with autistic disorders. Often, dentists may be the first healthcare providers to recognize that a 1- or 2-year-old child has some type of extraordinary pervasive behavioral disorder that a parent, fearing the worst, may have suspected instinctively and emotionally but never faced objectively. Currently, there are no empirical biological tests (eg, blood tests or brain scans) for ASD that are reliable. The definitive diagnosis of ASD is usually made by pediatricians, psychologists, or psychiatrists who institute a process of analysis which involves a developmental and clinical history, tests for cognitive function, and assessment of receptive and expressive language skills. The etiology of ASD is an enigma. Highly regarded researchers are of the opinion that there is probably more than one cause since the disorder can have such disparate manifestations. Genetics, environmental poisons, neurologic psychopathy, dietary deficiencies, and allergies have all been implicated. Pervasive developmental disorders, Asperger's syndrome, Rett syndrome, and childhood degenerative disorders are all considered a part of the ASD group, but the distinction between the various entities is not always clear. Given the fact that the etiology and the increased incidence of the various ASDs are scientifically puzzling, treatment modalities tend to be wide ranging and very much trial and error, especially since there is no cure. Dental professionals who treat patients with ASDs should be knowledgeable about the special needs of not only these patients, but also of their parents.

18 Review The Savant Hypothesis: is autism a signal-processing problem? 2010

Fabricius, Thomas. ·tjafab@gmail.com ·Med Hypotheses · Pubmed #20347529.

ABSTRACT: Autism is being investigated through many different approaches. This paper suggests the genetic, perceptual, cognitive, and histological findings ultimately manifest themselves as variations of the same signal-processing problem of defective compression. The Savant Hypothesis is formulated from first principles of both mathematical signal-processing and primary neuroscience to reflect the failure of compression. The Savant Hypothesis is applied to the problem of autism in a surprisingly straightforward application. The enigma of the autistic savant becomes intuitive when observed from this approach.

19 Review Did acetaminophen provoke the autism epidemic? 2009

Good, Peter. ·petergood1@mac.com ·Altern Med Rev · Pubmed #20030462.

ABSTRACT: Schultz et al (2008) raised the question whether regression into autism is triggered, not by the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, but by acetaminophen (Tylenol) given for its fever and pain. Considerable evidence supports this contention, most notably the exponential rise in the incidence of autism since 1980, when acetaminophen began to replace aspirin for infants and young children. The impetus for this shift - a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warning that aspirin was associated with Reye's syndrome - has since been compellingly debunked. If aspirin is not to be feared as a cause of Reyes syndrome, and acetaminophen is to be feared as a cause of autism, can the autism epidemic be reversed by replacing acetaminophen with aspirin or other remedies?

20 Review Nutritional and environmental approaches to preventing and treating autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a review. 2008

Curtis, Luke T / Patel, Kalpana. ·LukeTCurtis@aol.com ·J Altern Complement Med · Pubmed #18199019.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to concisely review the available literature of nutritional and environmental factors on autistic spectrum and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). DESIGN AND METHODS: Review of journal articles found on the PubMed database and from information from several conference proceedings. RESULTS: Many, but not all, studies link exposure to toxins such as mercury, lead, pesticides, and in utero smoking exposure to higher levels of autism and/or ADHD. Some studies have reported many nutritional deficiencies in autism/ADHD patients. Numerous studies have reported that supplemental nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, zinc, magnesium, and phytochemicals may provide moderate benefits to autism/ADHD patients. Avoidance of food allergens, food chemicals, and chelation therapy may also provide some relief to autism/ADHD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autistic spectrum disorders and ADHD are complicated conditions in which nutritional and environmental factors play major roles. Larger studies are needed to determine optimum multifactorial treatment plans involving nutrition, environmental control,medication, and behavioral/education/speech/physical therapies.

21 Article Autism spectrum disorder in a patient with a genomic rearrangement that only involves the EPHA5 gene. 2019

Pascolini, Giulia / Majore, Silvia / Valiante, Michele / Bottillo, Irene / Laino, Luigi / Agolini, Emanuele / Novelli, Antonio / Grammatico, Barbara / Calvani, Mauro / Grammatico, Paola. ·Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University, San Camillo-Forlanini Hospital. · Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Department of Laboratories, Bambino Gesù Pediatrics Hospital, IRCCS. · Woman and Child Department, Division of Pediatrics, San Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Rome, Italy. ·Psychiatr Genet · Pubmed #30724859.

ABSTRACT: About one child in 68 is affected by the autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders linked to intellectual disability, especially in males, intellectual disability being diagnosable in about 60-70% of autistic individuals. The biological bases of ASD are not yet fully known, but they are generally considered multifactorial, although many genes and genomic loci have been proposed to be possibly associated with this condition. In this report, we describe the case of a 14-year-old female Italian proband affected by ASD, carrying a novel ~ 270 kb interstitial microduplication, localized at the distal portion of the 4q13.1 region. The rearrangement was inherited from a mild symptomatic father and included a large part of the single EPHA5 gene, a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the neural development, already indicated to be linked to ASD by previous Genome Wide Association Studies. This imbalance represents, to the best of our knowledge, the smallest duplication identified to date that only impacts the EPHA5 gene. We hypothesize that the duplication of this gene may alter EPHA5 expression and that this may impact the autistic phenotype of the patient.

22 Article The effect of implementation climate on program fidelity and student outcomes in autism support classrooms. 2019

Kratz, Hilary E / Stahmer, Aubyn / Xie, Ming / Marcus, Steven C / Pellecchia, Melanie / Locke, Jill / Beidas, Rinad / Mandell, David S. ·Department of Psychology. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. · Department of Psychiatry. · Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences. ·J Consult Clin Psychol · Pubmed #30570312.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: An organization's implementation climate, or the extent to which use of an intervention is expected, supported, and rewarded by colleagues and supervisors, has been identified as critical to successful intervention implementation and outcomes. The effect of implementation climate has not been well studied in special education settings. The present study examines the association between teachers' perceptions of implementation climate, teacher fidelity to a school-based program for students with autism, and student outcomes (measured as changes in IQ) over time. METHOD: Participants included 158 students from 45 classrooms and their teachers. Teachers provided a measure of implementation climate at the beginning of the academic year; program fidelity was measured monthly throughout the year. The main and interaction effects of perceived implementation climate and fidelity on student outcomes were examined using longitudinal nested linear models with random effects for classroom and student, controlling for important covariates. RESULTS: On average, IQ scores improved 2.2 points ( CONCLUSIONS: While preliminary and requiring replication, these findings suggest that perceived implementation climate and program fidelity each may be important but not sufficient for optimizing outcomes for students with autism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

23 Article Do comorbidities among patients with mental retardation differ across various age groups? 2019

Singh, Sharda / Singh, Lokesh Kumar / Sahu, Manoj / Tikka, Sai Krishna. ·Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Tatibandh, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, 492099, India. Electronic address: s.pasari@rediffmail.com. · Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Tatibandh, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, 492099, India. Electronic address: singhlokesh123@gmail.com. · Department of Psychiatry, Pt. JNM Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, 492001, India. Electronic address: drmanojksahu@gmail.com. · Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Tatibandh, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, 492099, India. Electronic address: cricsai@gmail.com. ·Asian J Psychiatr · Pubmed #30466056.

ABSTRACT: Distribution of comorbidities in patients with mental retardation or intellectual disabilities (MR/ID) across various age groups is not recognized adequately. Data from 426 patients diagnosed with MR/ID was collected out of 546 samples referred for intelligence assessment. 42.3% had psychiatric comorbidities. The prevalence ratio of psychiatric comorbidity associated with MR/ID was 2.11. Frequency of comorbidities in the order of occurrence was "behavioral impairment > Epilepsy > autism/ADHD" for age-groups 10years and below, and "behavioral impairment > Epilepsy > depression/anxiety" for age-groups 11years and above. We conclude that irrespective of age distribution, behavioral impairment followed by epilepsy are found to be the most common comorbidities.

24 Article Regional and sex-dependent alterations in Purkinje cell density in the valproate mouse model of autism. 2019

Roux, Sébastien / Bailly, Yannick / Bossu, Jean L. ·Physiology of Neuronal Networks. · Intracellular Membrane Trafficking in Nervous and Endocrine Systems, INCI - CNRS UPR 3212, ULP, 5 rue Blaise Pascal, Strasbourg, France. ·Neuroreport · Pubmed #30461560.

ABSTRACT: Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies indicate a decrease in Purkinje cell (PC) density in the cerebellum of autistic patients and rodent models of autism. Autism is far more prevalent in males than females, and sex-specific properties of PCs have been reported recently. We investigated the differential sensitivity of PCs in the valproate acid (VPA) mouse model of autism by estimating the linear density of PCs immununolabelled with calbindin in the cerebellum of males and females. Whereas prenatal VPA treatment surprisingly increased PC linear density in both sexes 13 days after birth (P13), it significantly reduced the linear density of PCs in the cerebellum of 40-day-old (P40) males, but not females. In males, PC loss was more pronounced in the posterior part of the cerebellum and was significant in the VIth, VIIth, IXth and paramedian lobules. In females, PC loss was restricted to the paramedian lobule. These results suggest that this sex-specific sensitivity of PCs to VPA may contribute towards the motor disturbances and behavioural abnormalities observed in autism.

25 Article [Autism: Language, body and writing]. 2018

Rosenfeld, Silvia / Sujarchuk, Susana. ·silviarosen967@gmail.com. ·Vertex · Pubmed #30785975.

ABSTRACT: This work aims to convey to health professionals, an exhaustive clinical approach of children and adolescents, diagnosed in the category of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), performed during the last twenty years, in public hospitals and therapeutic educational centers in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Here are presented tools to overcome the sameness behavior and loneliness originally defined in said clinical picture.