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Autistic Disorder: HELP
Articles from University College London
Based on 429 articles published since 2010
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These are the 429 published articles about Autistic Disorder that originated from University College London during 2010-2020.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18
1 Editorial Editorial: Autism Spectrum Disorders in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: Possible Association With Social Deficits but Not Conversion Rates. 2019

Kyriakopoulos, Marinos. ·National and Specialist Acorn Lodge Inpatient Children's Unit, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Clinical Academic Group, South London and the Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Electronic address: marinos.kyriakopoulos@kcl.ac.uk. ·J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry · Pubmed #30797037.

ABSTRACT: The relationship between autistic and psychotic disorders has been a subject of considerable scientific debate for a large part of the 20th century before the wider agreement on their distinct nosological status was reached. However, refinement and broadening of these diagnostic constructs, as well as evidence from epidemiological studies and advances in genetics and neuroimaging, still keep their association at the focus of systematic enquiry.

2 Review Annual Research Review: Looking back to look forward - changes in the concept of autism and implications for future research. 2020

Happé, Francesca / Frith, Uta. ·Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. · Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK. ·J Child Psychol Psychiatry · Pubmed #31994188.

ABSTRACT: The concept of autism is a significant contribution from child psychiatry that has entered wider culture and public consciousness, and has evolved significantly over the last four decades. Taking a rather personal retrospective, reflecting on our own time in autism research, this review explores changes in the concept of autism and the implications of these for future research. We focus on seven major changes in how autism is thought of, operationalised, and recognised: (1) from a narrow definition to wide diagnostic criteria; (2) from a rare to a relatively common condition, although probably still under-recognised in women; (3) from something affecting children, to a lifelong condition; (4) from something discreet and distinct, to a dimensional view; (5) from one thing to many 'autisms', and a compound or 'fractionable' condition; (6) from a focus on 'pure' autism, to recognition that complexity and comorbidity is the norm; and finally, (7) from conceptualising autism purely as a 'developmental disorder', to recognising a neurodiversity perspective, operationalised in participatory research models. We conclude with some challenges for the field and suggestions for areas currently neglected in autism research.

3 Review Infant regulatory function acts as a protective factor for later traits of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder but not callous unemotional traits. 2019

Bedford, Rachael / Gliga, Teodora / Hendry, Alexandra / Jones, Emily J H / Pasco, Greg / Charman, Tony / Johnson, Mark H / Pickles, Andrew / Anonymous19541124. ·Biostatistics and Health Informatics Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. rachael.bedford@kcl.ac.uk. · Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, UK. · Experimental Psychology Department, Oxford University, Oxford, UK. · Psychology Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. · Psychology Department, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK. · Biostatistics and Health Informatics Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. ·J Neurodev Disord · Pubmed #31351456.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reduced executive functions (EF) are commonly associated with developmental conditions (e.g., autism spectrum disorder, ASD; attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD), although EF seems to be typical in children with callous unemotional (CU) traits. Regulatory function (RF) is a proposed infant precursor that maps on onto factors driving later EF. Here, we first test whether RF is specifically and negatively associated with ASD and ADHD traits, but not CU traits. Second, we test whether RF can act as a protective factor, by moderating the association between infant markers and subsequent ASD and ADHD traits. METHODS: Participants were 79 infants at high (N = 42) and low (N = 37) familial risk for ASD. Data come from the 14-month infant visit (Autism Observational Scale for Infants; AOSI; activity level and RF from the Infant Behavior Questionnaire; IBQ) and the 7-year visit (ASD traits: Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS; ADHD traits: Conners 3, CU traits: Inventory of Callous Unemotional Traits). RESULTS: Infant RF was negatively associated with later traits of ASD (B = - 0.5, p = 0.01) and ADHD inattention (B = - 0.24, p = 0.02) but not hyperactivity (B = - 0.25, p = 0.10) or CU traits (B = 0.02, p = 0.86). RF moderated the association between infant AOSI score and ASD traits, with a significant effect in those with low RF (B = 0.10, p = 0.006), not high RF (B = 0.01, p = 0.78). Similarly, for ADHD, infant activity level was associated with later ADHD inattention in those with low (B = 0.17, p = 0.04) but not high RF (B = 0.07, p = 0.48). For ADHD hyperactivity symptoms, activity level was predictive at both high and low levels of RF. CONCLUSIONS: Strong RF may allow children to compensate for other atypicalities, thus attenuating the association between infant markers and later disorder traits. Whilst infant RF was associated with both ASD and ADHD inattention traits, there was no association with ADHD hyperactivity or CU traits. This suggests that any protective effect may not be universal and emphasises the need for a better understanding of the underlying moderating mechanisms.

4 Review Social cognition and psychopathology in childhood and adolescence. 2019

Besag, Frank M C / Vasey, Michael J. ·East London Foundation NHS Trust, 5-7 Rush Court, Bedford MK40 3JT, UK; University College, London, UK; King's College, London, UK. Electronic address: FBesag@aol.com. ·Epilepsy Behav · Pubmed #31196824.

ABSTRACT: There is a substantial body of research on social cognition in adults with epilepsy, and in broad categories such as focal and generalized epilepsies, but much less has been written about social cognition in children with epilepsy (CWE), and in childhood-onset epilepsy syndromes specifically. In several of these syndromes, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), two disorders with social cognitive impairments, are reported. There is strong evidence for social cognitive deficits in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). There is also a considerable amount of evidence for such deficits in a number of syndromes that may be associated with ASD or ADHD, including West syndrome (WS), Dravet syndrome (DS), and the Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS). However, the evidence is of variable quality and incomplete across the range of childhood epilepsy syndromes. In some syndromes, childhood epilepsy substantially increases the risk of severe social cognitive impairment, which may persist after the seizures remit. This paper presents an overview of current research on social cognition in childhood epilepsy, with a particular focus on syndromes with a high prevalence of autistic and behavioral comorbidities. Social cognitive impairments represent a considerable additional challenge for patients and caregivers. Early diagnosis and intervention might significantly improve long-term social cognitive outcomes, highlighting the need for greater awareness among clinicians of this important topic. This article is part of the Special Issue "Epilepsy and social cognition across the lifespan".

5 Review Flux of life. 2019

Frith, Uta. ·UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, United Kingdom. Electronic address: u.frith@ucl.ac.uk. ·Dev Cogn Neurosci · Pubmed #31176283.

ABSTRACT: Developmental cognitive neuroscience is flourishing but there are new challenges and new questions to be asked. I argue that we need a bigger picture and an evolutionary framework. This brings some challenges, such as the need to rewrite the old story of nature and nurture, and the need to systematically investigate innate predispositions. While brain imaging has provided some splendid insights and new puzzles to solve, its limitations must not be ignored. Can they help us to find out more about the extent to which the infant brain already configures the adult brain? Can we find out why neurodevelopmental disorders often have severe consequences on cognition and behaviour, despite the mitigating force of brain plasticity? I wish to encourage researchers of the future to take risks by letting their imagination inspire theories to pursue hard questions. I end with a wish list of topics, from start-up kits to abstract reasoning, that I hope can be tackled afresh. However, collecting physiological and behavioural data is not enough. We need a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of cognitive development.

6 Review The Role of Eye Gaze During Natural Social Interactions in Typical and Autistic People. 2019

Cañigueral, Roser / Hamilton, Antonia F de C. ·Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, United Kingdom. ·Front Psychol · Pubmed #30930822.

ABSTRACT: Social interactions involve complex exchanges of a variety of social signals, such as gaze, facial expressions, speech and gestures. Focusing on the dual function of eye gaze, this review explores how the presence of an audience, communicative purpose and temporal dynamics of gaze allow interacting partners to achieve successful communication. First, we focus on how being watched modulates social cognition and behavior. We then show that the study of interpersonal gaze processing, particularly gaze temporal dynamics, can provide valuable understanding of social behavior in real interactions. We propose that the Interpersonal Gaze Processing model, which combines both sensing and signaling functions of eye gaze, provides a framework to make sense of gaze patterns in live interactions. Finally, we discuss how autistic individuals process the belief in being watched and interpersonal dynamics of gaze, and suggest that systematic manipulation of factors modulating gaze signaling can reveal which aspects of social eye gaze are challenging in autism.

7 Review Stopping, rationalising or optimising antipsychotic drug treatment in people with intellectual disability and/or autism. 2019

Shankar, Rohit / Wilcock, Mike / Oak, Katy / McGowan, Paula / Sheehan, Rory. ·Cornwall Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Truro, UK. · University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK. · Royal Cornwall Hospitals Trust, Truro, UK. · Expert by Experience. · University College London, London, UK. ·Drug Ther Bull · Pubmed #30567853.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Review The contribution of [1H] magnetic resonance spectroscopy to the study of excitation-inhibition in autism. 2019

Ajram, Laura A / Pereira, Andreia C / Durieux, Alice M S / Velthius, Hester E / Petrinovic, Marija M / McAlonan, Grainne M. ·Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK; Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopment, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK. · Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK; Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopment, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK; CIBIT - Coimbra Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Translational Research, Faculty of Medicine, ICNAS - Institute of Nuclear Sciences Applied to Health, University of Coimbra, Polo 3, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal. · Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK. · Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK; Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopment, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK. Electronic address: marija-magdalena.petrinovic@kcl.ac.uk. · Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK; Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopment, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK. Electronic address: grainne.mcalonan@kcl.ac.uk. ·Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry · Pubmed #30248378.

ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects over 1:100 of the population and costs the UK more than £32bn and the USA more than $175bn (£104bn) annually. Its core symptoms are social and communication difficulties, repetitive behaviours and sensory hyper- or hypo-sensitivities. A highly diverse phenotypic presentation likely reflects its etiological heterogeneity and makes finding treatment targets for ASD challenging. In addition, there are no means to identify biologically responsive individuals who may benefit from specific interventions. There is hope however, and in this review we consolidate how findings from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) add to the evidence that differences in the brain's excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) balance may be both a key biomarker and a tractable treatment target in ASD.

9 Review Rapid Eye Movements in Sleep Furnish a Unique Probe Into Consciousness. 2018

Hong, Charles C-H / Fallon, James H / Friston, Karl J / Harris, James C. ·Patuxent Institution, Correctional Mental Health Center - Jessup, Jessup, MD, United States. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, United States. · Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States. · Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States. · The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom. ·Front Psychol · Pubmed #30429814.

ABSTRACT: The neural correlates of rapid eye movements (REMs) in sleep are extraordinarily robust; including REM-locked multisensory-motor integration and accompanying activation in the retrosplenial cortex, the supplementary eye field and areas encompassing cholinergic basal nucleus (Hong et al., 2009). The phenomenology of REMs speaks to the notion that perceptual experience in both sleep and wakefulness is a constructive process - in which we generate predictions of sensory inputs and then test those predictions through actively sampling the sensorium with eye movements. On this view, REMs during sleep may index an internalized active sampling or 'scanning' of self-generated visual constructs that are released from the constraints of visual input. If this view is correct, it renders REMs an ideal probe to study consciousness as "an exclusively internal affair" (Metzinger, 2009). In other words, REMs offer a probe of active inference - in the sense of predictive coding - when the brain is isolated from the sensorium in virtue of the natural blockade of sensory afferents during REM sleep. Crucially, REMs are temporally precise events that enable powerful inferences based on time series analyses. As a natural, task-free probe, (REMs) could be used in non-compliant subjects, including infants and animals. In short, REMs constitute a promising probe to study the ontogenetic and phylogenetic development of consciousness and perhaps the psychopathology of schizophrenia and autism, which have been considered in terms of aberrant predictive coding.

10 Review Progress in Understanding and Treating SCN2A-Mediated Disorders. 2018

Sanders, Stephan J / Campbell, Arthur J / Cottrell, Jeffrey R / Moller, Rikke S / Wagner, Florence F / Auldridge, Angie L / Bernier, Raphael A / Catterall, William A / Chung, Wendy K / Empfield, James R / George, Alfred L / Hipp, Joerg F / Khwaja, Omar / Kiskinis, Evangelos / Lal, Dennis / Malhotra, Dheeraj / Millichap, John J / Otis, Thomas S / Petrou, Steven / Pitt, Geoffrey / Schust, Leah F / Taylor, Cora M / Tjernagel, Jennifer / Spiro, John E / Bender, Kevin J. ·Department of Psychiatry, UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address: stephan.sanders@ucsf.edu. · Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 75 Ames Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. · The Danish Epilepsy Centre, Dianalund, Denmark; Institute for Regional Health Services, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense, Denmark. · FamilieSCN2a Foundation, P.O. Box 82, East Longmeadow, MA 01028, USA. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. · Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7280, USA. · Simons Foundation, New York, NY 10010, USA; Department of Pediatrics and Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. · Xenon Pharmaceuticals Inc., 3650 Gilmore Way, Burnaby, BC V5G 4W8, Canada. · Department of Pharmacology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. · Roche Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland. · Department of Neurology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA; Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. · Department of Neurology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA; Epilepsy Center and Division of Neurology, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, IL 60611, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. · Sainsbury Wellcome Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour, University College London, 25 Howland Street, London W1T 4JG, UK. · Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. · Cardiovascular Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. · Geisinger Health System, 100 North Academy Avenue, Danville, PA 17822, USA. · Simons Foundation, New York, NY 10010, USA. · Department of Neurology, UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address: kevin.bender@ucsf.edu. ·Trends Neurosci · Pubmed #29691040.

ABSTRACT: Advances in gene discovery for neurodevelopmental disorders have identified SCN2A dysfunction as a leading cause of infantile seizures, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability. SCN2A encodes the neuronal sodium channel Na

11 Review Differences in the Theory of Mind profiles of patients with anorexia nervosa and individuals on the autism spectrum: A meta-analytic review. 2018

Leppanen, Jenni / Sedgewick, Felicity / Treasure, Janet / Tchanturia, Kate. ·Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London, United Kingdom. · Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London, United Kingdom; Illia State University, Department of Psychology, Tbilisi, Georgia. Electronic address: kate.tchanturia@kcl.ac.uk. ·Neurosci Biobehav Rev · Pubmed #29656033.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This meta-analytic review examines the theory of mind profiles in both patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and autistic individuals. METHODOLOGY: The studies examining theory of mind were divided into the following categories: emotional theory of mind, understanding simple social situations, understanding complex social interactions, and implicit social attribution. All included studies investigated differences between healthy control (HCs) individuals and people with AN or autistic people. Differences in theory of mind profile between people with AN and autistic people were explored by conducting moderator analyses. RESULTS: People with AN and autistic people showed a similar theory of mind profile, but autistic individuals showed greater difficulties, particularly in emotional theory of mind. CONCLUSIONS: Although both people with AN and autistic people have significant difficulties in all aspects of theory of mind relative to the HCs, some differences in the underlying profile may be present. However, due to relative paucity of theory of mind research among people with AN, further research is still needed before firm conclusion can be drawn.

12 Review Can sex ratios at birth be used in the assessment of public health, and in the identification of causes of selected pathologies? 2018

James, William H / Grech, Victor. ·Galton Laboratory, Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London WC1E 6HH, UK. · Victor Grech, Academic Department of Paediatrics, University of Malta Medical School, Msida, Malta. Electronic address: victor.e.grech@gov.mt. ·Early Hum Dev · Pubmed #29428574.

ABSTRACT: This paper will consist of two parts. In the first, further support is given to the proposal that offspring sex ratios (proportions male) may usefully be regarded as indicators of public health. In the second, it is shown that sex ratios may help in the identification of the causes and effects of several pathologies that seriously impinge on public health viz. autism, testicular cancer, hepatitis B and toxoplasmosis.

13 Review The zebrafish as a promising tool for modeling human brain disorders: A review based upon an IBNS Symposium. 2018

Shams, Soaleha / Rihel, Jason / Ortiz, Jose G / Gerlai, Robert. ·Department of Cell and System Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. · Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, University College London, London UK. · Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico - Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico. · Department of Cell and System Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, Canada. Electronic address: robert_gerlai@yahoo.com. ·Neurosci Biobehav Rev · Pubmed #28887224.

ABSTRACT: The zebrafish represents an excellent compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity, features that make it useful for modeling and mechanistic analysis of complex brain disorders. Also promising are screens for psychoactive drugs with effects on larval and adult zebrafish behavior. This review, based upon a recent symposium held at the 2016 IBNS Congress, provides different perspectives on how the zebrafish may be utilized to advance research into human central nervous system disorders. It starts with a discussion on an important bottleneck in zebrafish research, measuring the behavior of this species (specifically shoaling), and continues with examples on research on autism spectrum disorder in larval zebrafish, on screening natural products for compounds with psychoactive properties in adult zebrafish, and on the development of a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. By providing information on a broad spectrum of brain disorders, experimental methods, and scientific approaches using both larval and adult zebrafish, the review is intended to showcase this underutilized laboratory species for behavioral neuroscience and psychopharmacology research.

14 Review Differential effects of anxiety and autism on social scene scanning in males with fragile X syndrome. 2017

Crawford, Hayley / Moss, Joanna / Oliver, Chris / Riby, Deborah. ·Centre for Research in Psychology, Behaviour and Achievement, Coventry University, Coventry, CV1 5FB, UK. hayley.crawford@coventry.ac.uk. · Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT, UK. hayley.crawford@coventry.ac.uk. · Cerebra Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT, UK. · Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AR, UK. · Department of Psychology, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK. ·J Neurodev Disord · Pubmed #28946865.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Existing literature draws links between social attention and socio-behavioural profiles in neurodevelopmental disorders. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with a known socio-behavioural phenotype of social anxiety and social communication difficulties alongside high social motivation. However, studies investigating social attention in males with FXS are scarce. Using eye tracking, this study investigates social attention and its relationship with both anxiety and autism symptomatology in males with FXS. METHODS: We compared dwell times to the background, body, and face regions of naturalistic social scenes in 11 males with FXS (M RESULTS: Males with FXS did not differ to TD children on overall dwell time to the background, body, or face regions of the naturalistic social scenes. Whilst males with FXS displayed developmentally 'typical' social attention, increased looking at faces was associated with both heightened anxiety and fewer social communication impairments in this group. CONCLUSIONS: These results offer novel insights into the mechanisms associated with social attention in FXS and provide evidence to suggest that anxiety and autism symptomatology, which are both heightened in FXS, have differential effects on social attention.

15 Review Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females. 2017

Hull, Laura / Mandy, William / Petrides, K V. ·University College London, UK. ·Autism · Pubmed #28749232.

ABSTRACT: Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included in meta-analyses of sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition symptoms (social/communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviours and interests) and intelligence quotient. A total of 20 studies were included in a qualitative review of sex/gender differences in additional autism spectrum condition symptoms. For core traits and intelligence quotient, sex/gender differences were comparable in autism spectrum conditions and typical samples. Some additional autism spectrum condition symptoms displayed different patterns of sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions and typically developing groups, including measures of executive function, empathising and systemising traits, internalising and externalising problems and play behaviours. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions display typical sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition traits, suggesting that diagnostic criteria based on these symptoms should take into account typical sex/gender differences. However, awareness of associated autism spectrum condition symptoms should include the possibility of different male and female phenotypes, to ensure those who do not fit the 'typical' autism spectrum condition presentation are not missed.

16 Review Development of a College Transition and Support Program for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. 2017

White, Susan W / Elias, Rebecca / Capriola-Hall, Nicole N / Smith, Isaac C / Conner, Caitlin M / Asselin, Susan B / Howlin, Patricia / Getzel, Elizabeth E / Mazefsky, Carla A. ·Department of Psychology, Child Study Center, Virginia Tech, 460 Turner St., Blacksburg, VA, 24060, USA. sww@vt.edu. · Department of Psychology, Child Study Center, Virginia Tech, 460 Turner St., Blacksburg, VA, 24060, USA. · School of Education, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA. · Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, Australia. · Center on Transition Innovations, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. ·J Autism Dev Disord · Pubmed #28685409.

ABSTRACT: Empirically based, consumer-informed programming to support students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) transitioning to college is needed. Informed by theory and research, the Stepped Transition in Education Program for Students with ASD (STEPS) was developed to address this need. The first level (Step 1) supports high school students and the second level (Step 2) is for postsecondary students with ASD. Herein, we review the extant research on transition supports for emerging adults with ASD and describe the development of STEPS, including its theoretical basis and how it was informed by consumer input. The impact of STEPS on promotion of successful transition into college and positive outcomes for students during higher education is currently being evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

17 Review Inhibitory engrams in perception and memory. 2017

Barron, Helen C / Vogels, Tim P / Behrens, Timothy E / Ramaswami, Mani. ·The Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom; helen.barron@merton.ox.ac.uk tim.vogels@cncb.ox.ac.uk behrens@fmrib.ox.ac.uk mani.ramaswami@tcd.ie. · Medical Research Council Brain Network Dynamics Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QT, United Kingdom. · Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SR, United Kingdom; helen.barron@merton.ox.ac.uk tim.vogels@cncb.ox.ac.uk behrens@fmrib.ox.ac.uk mani.ramaswami@tcd.ie. · The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom. · Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, School of Genetics and Microbiology and School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; helen.barron@merton.ox.ac.uk tim.vogels@cncb.ox.ac.uk behrens@fmrib.ox.ac.uk mani.ramaswami@tcd.ie. · National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bangalore 560065, India. ·Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · Pubmed #28611219.

ABSTRACT: Nervous systems use excitatory cell assemblies to encode and represent sensory percepts. Similarly, synaptically connected cell assemblies or "engrams" are thought to represent memories of past experience. Multiple lines of recent evidence indicate that brain systems create and use inhibitory replicas of excitatory representations for important cognitive functions. Such matched "inhibitory engrams" can form through homeostatic potentiation of inhibition onto postsynaptic cells that show increased levels of excitation. Inhibitory engrams can reduce behavioral responses to familiar stimuli, thereby resulting in behavioral habituation. In addition, by preventing inappropriate activation of excitatory memory engrams, inhibitory engrams can make memories quiescent, stored in a latent form that is available for context-relevant activation. In neural networks with balanced excitatory and inhibitory engrams, the release of innate responses and recall of associative memories can occur through focused disinhibition. Understanding mechanisms that regulate the formation and expression of inhibitory engrams in vivo may help not only to explain key features of cognition but also to provide insight into transdiagnostic traits associated with psychiatric conditions such as autism, schizophrenia, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

18 Review What Is the Male-to-Female Ratio in Autism Spectrum Disorder? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 2017

Loomes, Rachel / Hull, Laura / Mandy, William Polmear Locke. ·University College London, UK. · University College London, UK. Electronic address: w.mandy@ucl.ac.uk. ·J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry · Pubmed #28545751.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To derive the first systematically calculated estimate of the relative proportion of boys and girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through a meta-analysis of prevalence studies conducted since the introduction of the DSM-IV and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. METHOD: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. The Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched, and study quality was rated using a risk-of-bias tool. Random-effects meta-analysis was used. The pooled outcome measurement was the male-to-female odds ratio (MFOR), namely the odds of being male in the group with ASD compared with the non-ASD group. In effect, this is the ASD male-to-female ratio, controlling for the male-to-female ratio among participants without ASD. RESULTS: Fifty-four studies were analyzed, with 13,784,284 participants, of whom 53,712 had ASD (43,972 boys and 9,740 girls). The overall pooled MFOR was 4.20 (95% CI 3.84-4.60), but there was very substantial between-study variability (I CONCLUSION: Of children meeting criteria for ASD, the true male-to-female ratio is not 4:1, as is often assumed; rather, it is closer to 3:1. There appears to be a diagnostic gender bias, meaning that girls who meet criteria for ASD are at disproportionate risk of not receiving a clinical diagnosis.

19 Review Cognitive, behavioral, and neural consequences of sex chromosome aneuploidy. 2017

Printzlau, Frida / Wolstencroft, Jeanne / Skuse, David H. ·Great Ormond Street Hospital Institute of Child Health, University College London, United Kingdom. ·J Neurosci Res · Pubmed #27870409.

ABSTRACT: The X chromosome has played a critical role in the development of sexually selected characteristics for over 300 million years, and during that time it has accumulated a disproportionate number of genes concerned with mental functions. There are relatively specific effects of X-linked genes on social cognition, language, emotional regulation, visuospatial, and numerical skills. Many human X-linked genes outside the X-Y pairing pseudoautosomal regions escape X-inactivation. Dosage differences in the expression of such genes (which constitute at least 15% of the total) are likely to play an important role in male-female neural differentiation, and in cognitive deficits and behavioral characteristics, particularly in the realm of social communication, that are associated with sex chromosome aneuploidies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

20 Review Pharmaceuticals and Stem Cells in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Wishful Thinking? 2017

Sivanesan, Senthilkumar / Tan, Aaron / Jeyaraj, Rebecca / Lam, James / Gole, Monica / Hardan, Antonio / Ashkan, Keyoumars / Rajadas, Jayakumar. ·Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA. · Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA; UCL Medical School, University College London, London, United Kingdom. · UCL Medical School, University College London, London, United Kingdom. · UCL Medical School, University College London, London, United Kingdom; Queens' College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. · Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA. · Department of Neurosurgery, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, King's College London, London, United Kingdom. · Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA; Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA. Electronic address: jayraja@stanford.edu. ·World Neurosurg · Pubmed #27725300.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We provide a contemporary account of the key pathologic events pertaining to autism: the theory of oxidative stress and inflammatory causes, ideas of immune dysfunction, the probable biomarkers that can be used for diagnostics, and the use of pharmaceuticals and stem cells as possible candidates for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). METHODS: ASDs are a group of complex neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by abnormal patterns of attention and impaired social and communication skills. ASDs are also associated with numerous functional challenges and potentially harmful deficits, including restricted and repetitive behaviors, anxiety, irritability, seizures, and self-harm. RESULTS: Although the exact causes of ASDs are unknown, it is suggested that genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors play critical roles. More recent findings support evidence for synaptic defects and impairments in brain information processing that are linked to social and perceptual skills. CONCLUSIONS: Owing to the clinical heterogeneity and lack of precise diagnostic tools, current therapeutic approaches aimed at managing ASD-associated conditions are not definitive.

21 Review Language deficits in schizophrenia and autism as related oscillatory connectomopathies: An evolutionary account. 2017

Murphy, Elliot / Benítez-Burraco, Antonio. ·Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: elliot.murphy.13@ucl.ac.uk. · Department of Philology, University of Huelva, Huelva, Spain. ·Neurosci Biobehav Rev · Pubmed #27475632.

ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterised by marked language deficits, but it is not clear how these arise from gene mutations associated with the disorders. Our goal is to narrow the gap between SZ and ASD and, ultimately, give support to the view that they represent abnormal (but related) ontogenetic itineraries for the human faculty of language. We will focus on the distinctive oscillatory profiles of the SZ and ASD brains, in turn using these insights to refine our understanding of how the brain implements linguistic computations by exploring a novel model of linguistic feature-set composition. We will argue that brain rhythms constitute the best route to interpreting language deficits in both conditions and mapping them to neural dysfunction and risk alleles of the genes. Importantly, candidate genes for SZ and ASD are overrepresented among the gene sets believed to be important for language evolution. This translational effort may help develop an understanding of the aetiology of SZ and ASD and their high prevalence among modern populations.

22 Review Active interoceptive inference and the emotional brain. 2016

Seth, Anil K / Friston, Karl J. ·Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, School of Engineering and Informatics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ, UK a.k.seth@sussex.ac.uk. · Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London WC1N 3BG, UK. ·Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci · Pubmed #28080966.

ABSTRACT: We review a recent shift in conceptions of interoception and its relationship to hierarchical inference in the brain. The notion of interoceptive inference means that bodily states are regulated by autonomic reflexes that are enslaved by descending predictions from deep generative models of our internal and external milieu. This re-conceptualization illuminates several issues in cognitive and clinical neuroscience with implications for experiences of selfhood and emotion. We first contextualize interoception in terms of active (Bayesian) inference in the brain, highlighting its enactivist (embodied) aspects. We then consider the key role of uncertainty or precision and how this might translate into neuromodulation. We next examine the implications for understanding the functional anatomy of the emotional brain, surveying recent observations on agranular cortex. Finally, we turn to theoretical issues, namely, the role of interoception in shaping a sense of embodied self and feelings. We will draw links between physiological homoeostasis and allostasis, early cybernetic ideas of predictive control and hierarchical generative models in predictive processing. The explanatory scope of interoceptive inference ranges from explanations for autism and depression, through to consciousness. We offer a brief survey of these exciting developments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interoception beyond homeostasis: affect, cognition and mental health'.

23 Review Autism genes are selectively targeted by environmental pollutants including pesticides, heavy metals, bisphenol A, phthalates and many others in food, cosmetics or household products. 2016

Carter, C J / Blizard, R A. ·PolygenicPathways, Flat 2, 40 Baldslow Road, Hastings, East Sussex, TN34 2EY, UK. Electronic address: chris_car@yahoo.com. · Molecular Psychiatry Laboratory, Mental Health Sciences Unit, University College, London, UK. ·Neurochem Int · Pubmed #27984170.

ABSTRACT: The increasing incidence of autism suggests a major environmental influence. Epidemiology has implicated many candidates and genetics many susceptibility genes. Gene/environment interactions in autism were analysed using 206 autism susceptibility genes (ASG's) from the Autworks database to interrogate ∼1 million chemical/gene interactions in the comparative toxicogenomics database. Any bias towards ASG's was statistically determined for each chemical. Many suspect compounds identified in epidemiology, including tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, pesticides, particulate matter, benzo(a)pyrene, heavy metals, valproate, acetaminophen, SSRI's, cocaine, bisphenol A, phthalates, polyhalogenated biphenyls, flame retardants, diesel constituents, terbutaline and oxytocin, inter alia showed a significant degree of bias towards ASG's, as did relevant endogenous agents (retinoids, sex steroids, thyroxine, melatonin, folate, dopamine, serotonin). Numerous other suspected endocrine disruptors (over 100) selectively targeted ASG's including paraquat, atrazine and other pesticides not yet studied in autism and many compounds used in food, cosmetics or household products, including tretinoin, soy phytoestrogens, aspartame, titanium dioxide and sodium fluoride. Autism polymorphisms influence the sensitivity to some of these chemicals and these same genes play an important role in barrier function and control of respiratory cilia sweeping particulate matter from the airways. Pesticides, heavy metals and pollutants also disrupt barrier and/or ciliary function, which is regulated by sex steroids and by bitter/sweet taste receptors. Further epidemiological studies and neurodevelopmental and behavioural research is warranted to determine the relevance of large number of suspect candidates whose addition to the environment, household, food and cosmetics might be fuelling the autism epidemic in a gene-dependent manner.

24 Review Audience effects: what can they tell us about social neuroscience, theory of mind and autism? 2016

Hamilton, Antonia F de C / Lind, Frida. ·Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AZ UK. · 0000000121901201 · grid.83440.3b · University of Surrey, Guildford, UK. · 0000 0004 0407 4824 · grid.5475.3 ·Cult Brain · Pubmed #27867833.

ABSTRACT: An audience effect arises when a person's behaviour changes because they believe someone else is watching them. Though these effects have been known about for over 110 years, the cognitive mechanisms of the audience effect and how it might vary across different populations and cultures remains unclear. In this review, we examine the hypothesis that the audience effect draws on implicit mentalising abilities. Behavioural and neuroimaging data from a number of tasks are consistent with this hypothesis. We further review data suggest that how people respond to audiences may vary over development, personality factors, cultural background and clinical diagnosis including autism and anxiety disorder. Overall, understanding and exploring the audience effect may contribute to our models of social interaction, including reputation management and mentalising.

25 Review Autism spectrum disorder in adults: diagnosis, management, and health services development. 2016

Murphy, Clodagh M / Wilson, C Ellie / Robertson, Dene M / Ecker, Christine / Daly, Eileen M / Hammond, Neil / Galanopoulos, Anastasios / Dud, Iulia / Murphy, Declan G / McAlonan, Grainne M. ·Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopment, Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience; Behavioural and Developmental Psychiatry Clinical Academic Group, Behavioural Genetics Clinic, National Adult Autism Service, South London and Maudsley Foundation NHS Trust, London, UK. · Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopment, Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience; Behavioural and Developmental Psychiatry Clinical Academic Group, Behavioural Genetics Clinic, National Adult Autism Service, South London and Maudsley Foundation NHS Trust, London, UK; Individual Differences, Language and Cognition Lab, Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Seville, Spain. · Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopment, Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ·Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat · Pubmed #27462160.

ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive difficulties since early childhood across reciprocal social communication and restricted, repetitive interests and behaviors. Although early ASD research focused primarily on children, there is increasing recognition that ASD is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. However, although health and education services for children with ASD are relatively well established, service provision for adults with ASD is in its infancy. There is a lack of health services research for adults with ASD, including identification of comorbid health difficulties, rigorous treatment trials (pharmacological and psychological), development of new pharmacotherapies, investigation of transition and aging across the lifespan, and consideration of sex differences and the views of people with ASD. This article reviews available evidence regarding the etiology, legislation, diagnosis, management, and service provision for adults with ASD and considers what is needed to support adults with ASD as they age. We conclude that health services research for adults with ASD is urgently warranted. In particular, research is required to better understand the needs of adults with ASD, including health, aging, service development, transition, treatment options across the lifespan, sex, and the views of people with ASD. Additionally, the outcomes of recent international legislative efforts to raise awareness of ASD and service provision for adults with ASD are to be determined. Future research is required to identify high-quality, evidence-based, and cost-effective models of care. Furthermore, future health services research is also required at the beginning and end of adulthood, including improved transition from youth to adult health care and increased understanding of aging and health in older adults with ASD.

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