Pick Topic
Review Topic
List Experts
Examine Expert
Save Expert
  Site Guide ··   
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: HELP
Articles by James W. F. Catto
Based on 87 articles published since 2010
(Why 87 articles?)
||||

Between 2010 and 2020, J. Catto wrote the following 87 articles about Urinary Bladder Neoplasms.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4
1 Guideline Robot-assisted radical cystectomy and urinary diversion: technical recommendations from the Pasadena Consensus Panel. 2015

Chan, Kevin G / Guru, Khurshid / Wiklund, Peter / Catto, James / Yuh, Bertram / Novara, Giacomo / Murphy, Declan G / Al-Tartir, Tareq / Collins, Justin W / Zhumkhawala, Ali / Wilson, Timothy G / Anonymous790818. ·City of Hope Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USA. Electronic address: kchan@coh.org. · Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. · Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. · University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. · City of Hope Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USA. · University of Padua, Padua, Italy. · Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia. ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #25595099.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The technique of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) has evolved significantly since its inception >10 yr ago. Several high-volume centers have reported standardized techniques with refinements and subsequent outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To review all existing literature on RARC and urinary diversion techniques and summarize key points that may affect oncologic, surgical, and functional outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Pasadena Consensus Panel on RARC and urinary reconstruction convened May 3-4, 2014, to review the existing peer-reviewed literature and create recommendations for best practice. The panel consisted of experts in open radical cystectomy and RARC. No commercial support was received. SURGICAL PROCEDURE: The consensus panel extensively reviewed the surgical technique of RARC in men and women, extended pelvic lymph node dissection, extracorporeal urinary diversion, and intracorporeal urinary diversion. Critical aspects of the technique are described. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Preoperative, operative, and postoperative parameters from the largest and most contemporary RARC series, stratified by urinary diversion technique, are presented. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Preoperative, operative, and postoperative measures of RARC technique adhere closely to the standards established in open surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Refinement of techniques for RARC and urinary diversion over the past 10 yr has made it safe, reproducible, and oncologically sound. PATIENT SUMMARY: We summarize the critical aspects of surgical techniques reviewed at the Pasadena international consensus meeting on RARC and urinary reconstruction. Preoperative, operative, and postoperative measures of RARC technique adhere closely to the standards established in open surgery.

2 Guideline Best practices in robot-assisted radical cystectomy and urinary reconstruction: recommendations of the Pasadena Consensus Panel. 2015

Wilson, Timothy G / Guru, Khurshid / Rosen, Raymond C / Wiklund, Peter / Annerstedt, Magnus / Bochner, Bernard H / Chan, Kevin G / Montorsi, Francesco / Mottrie, Alexandre / Murphy, Declan / Novara, Giacomo / Peabody, James O / Palou Redorta, Joan / Skinner, Eila C / Thalmann, George / Stenzl, Arnulf / Yuh, Bertram / Catto, James / Anonymous4100817. ·City of Hope Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USA. Electronic address: twilson@coh.org. · Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. · New England Research Institutes, Inc., Watertown, MA, USA. · Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. · Urology STHLM, Stockholm, Sweden. · Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · City of Hope Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USA. · University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. · O.L.V. Clinic, Aalst, Belgium. · Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · University of Padua, Padua, Italy. · Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA. · Fundació Puigvert, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. · Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. · University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. · Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tubingen, Germany. · University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #25582930.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Robot-assisted surgery is increasingly used for radical cystectomy (RC) and urinary reconstruction. Sufficient data have accumulated to allow evidence-based consensus on key issues such as perioperative management, comparative effectiveness on surgical complications, and oncologic short- to midterm outcomes. OBJECTIVE: A 2-d conference of experts on RC and urinary reconstruction was organized in Pasadena, California, and the City of Hope Cancer Center in Duarte, California, to systematically review existing peer-reviewed literature on robot-assisted RC (RARC), extended lymphadenectomy, and urinary reconstruction. No commercial support was obtained for the conference. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of the literature was performed in agreement with the PRISMA statement. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Systematic literature reviews and individual presentations were discussed, and consensus on all key issues was obtained. Most operative, intermediate-term oncologic, functional, and complication outcomes are similar between open RC (ORC) and RARC. RARC consistently results in less blood loss and a reduced need for transfusion during surgery. RARC generally requires longer operative time than ORC, particularly with intracorporeal reconstruction. Robotic assistance provides ergonomic value for surgeons. Surgeon experience and institutional volume strongly predict favorable outcomes for either open or robotic techniques. CONCLUSIONS: RARC appears to be similar to ORC in terms of operative, pathologic, intermediate-term oncologic, complication, and most functional outcomes. RARC consistently results in less blood loss and a reduced need for transfusion during surgery. RARC can be more expensive than ORC, although high procedural volume may attenuate this difference. PATIENT SUMMARY: Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) is an alternative to open surgery for patients with bladder cancer who require removal of their bladder and reconstruction of their urinary tract. RARC appears to be similar to open surgery for most important outcomes such as the rate of complications and intermediate-term cancer-specific survival. Although RARC has some ergonomic advantages for surgeons and may result in less blood loss during surgery, it is more time consuming and may be more expensive than open surgery.

3 Editorial Reply from Authors re: Peter Albers. Volume Matters: Can We Rely on the Evidence? Eur Urol Oncol 2019;2:274-5. 2019

Williams, Stephen B / Catto, James W F. ·Division of Urology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. Electronic address: stbwilli@utmb.edu. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. ·Eur Urol Oncol · Pubmed #31103722.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Speeding up recovery from radical cystectomy: how low can we go? 2017

Catto, James W F. ·Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. ·BJU Int · Pubmed #28719111.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Micropapillary Variant Bladder Cancer: A Bad Apple or a New Fruit? 2016

Cumberbatch, Marcus G / Catto, James W F. ·Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. Electronic address: j.catto@sheffield.ac.uk. ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #27140723.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Thirty-five years of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin for bladder cancer: where now? 2011

Catto, James W F. · ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #21543152.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial Improving the outcome for invasive bladder cancer: the debate regarding pelvic lymphadenectomy moves from if to how. 2011

Catto, James W F. · ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #21367517.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Review Risks from Deferring Treatment for Genitourinary Cancers: A Collaborative Review to Aid Triage and Management During the COVID-19 Pandemic. 2020

Wallis, Christopher J D / Novara, Giacomo / Marandino, Laura / Bex, Axel / Kamat, Ashish M / Karnes, R Jeffrey / Morgan, Todd M / Mottet, Nicolas / Gillessen, Silke / Bossi, Alberto / Roupret, Morgan / Powles, Thomas / Necchi, Andrea / Catto, James W F / Klaassen, Zachary. ·Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. · Department of Surgery, Oncology, and Gastroenterology-Urology Clinic, University of Padua, Padua, Italy. · Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. · Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, UCL Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, London, UK. · Department of Urology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. · Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. · Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · Department of Urology, University hospital Nord, St Etienne, France. · Department of Medical Oncology, Istituto Oncologico della Svizzera Italiana, Bellinzona, Switzerland; Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France. · Urology, GRC n°5, PREDICTIVE ONCO-URO, AP-HP, Pitié Salpetriere Hospital, Sorbonne University, Paris, France; European Section of Onco Urology, EAU. · Barts Cancer Center, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. Electronic address: j.catto@sheffield.ac.uk. · Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Augusta University-Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA; Georgia Cancer Center, Augusta, GA, USA. Electronic address: zklaassen19@gmail.com. ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #32414626.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is leading to delays in the treatment of many urologic cancers. OBJECTIVE: To provide a contemporary picture of the risks from delayed treatment for urologic cancers to assist with triage. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A collaborative review using literature published as of April 2, 2020. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Patients with low-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer are unlikely to suffer from a 3-6-month delay. Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer are at risk of disease progression, with radical cystectomy delays beyond 12 wk from diagnosis or completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Prioritization of these patients for surgery or management with radiochemotherapy is encouraged. Active surveillance should be used for low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). Treatment of most patients with intermediate- and high-risk PCa can be deferred 3-6 mo without change in outcomes. The same may be true for cancers with the highest risk of progression. With radiotherapy, neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard of care. For surgery, although the added value of neoadjuvant ADT is questionable, it may be considered if a patient is interested in such an approach. Intervention may be safely deferred for T1/T2 renal masses, while locally advanced renal tumors (≥T3) should be treated expeditiously. Patients with metastatic renal cancer may consider vascular endothelial growth factor targeted therapy over immunotherapy. Risks for delay in the treatment of upper tract urothelial cancer depend on grade and stage. For patients with high-grade disease, delays of 12 wk in nephroureterectomy are not associated with adverse survival outcomes. Expert guidance recommends expedient local treatment of testis cancer. In penile cancer, adverse outcomes have been observed with delays of ≥3 mo before inguinal lymphadenectomy. Limitations include a paucity of data and methodologic variations for many cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Patients and clinicians should consider the oncologic risk of delayed cancer intervention versus the risks of COVID-19 to the patient, treating health care professionals, and the health care system. PATIENT SUMMARY: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to delays in the treatment of patients with urologic malignancies. Based on a review of the literature, patients with high-grade urothelial carcinoma, advanced kidney cancer, testicular cancer, and penile cancer should be prioritized for treatment during these challenging times.

9 Review Diagnostic Performance of Vesical Imaging Reporting and Data System for the Prediction of Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 2020

Woo, Sungmin / Panebianco, Valeria / Narumi, Yoshifumi / Del Giudice, Francesco / Muglia, Valdair F / Takeuchi, Mitsuru / Ghafoor, Soleen / Bochner, Bernard H / Goh, Alvin C / Hricak, Hedvig / Catto, James W F / Vargas, Hebert Alberto. ·Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomopathological Sciences, "Sapienza" Rome University, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome, Italy. · Departments of Radiology and Health Science, Kyoto Tachibana University, Kyoto, Japan. · Imaging Division, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. · Department of Radiology, Radiolonet Tokai, Nagoya, Japan. · Urology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. · Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: vargasah@mskcc.org. ·Eur Urol Oncol · Pubmed #32199915.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: A noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based scoring system for predicting muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), the "Vesical Imaging Reporting and Data System" (VI-RADS), was recently developed by an international multidisciplinary panel. Since then, a few studies evaluating the value of VI-RADS for predicting MIBC have been published. OBJECTIVE: To review the diagnostic performance of VI-RADS for the prediction of MIBC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched up to November 10, 2019. We included diagnostic accuracy studies using VI-RADS to predict MIBC using cystectomy or transurethral resection as the reference standard. Methodological quality was evaluated with Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. Sensitivity and specificity were pooled and plotted using hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristics (HSROC) modeling. Meta-regression analyses were done to explore heterogeneity. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Six studies (1770 patients) were included. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.90) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.95), and the area under the HSROC curve was 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.95). Heterogeneity was present among the studies (Q = 29.442, p <  0.01; I CONCLUSIONS: VI-RADS shows good sensitivity and specificity for determining MIBC. Technical factors associated with MRI acquisition and cutoff scores need to be taken into consideration as they may affect performance. PATIENT SUMMARY: A recently established noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging-based scoring system shows good diagnostic performance in detecting muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

10 Review Non-visible haematuria for the Detection of Bladder, Upper Tract, and Kidney Cancer: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 2020

Jubber, Ibrahim / Shariat, Shahrokh F / Conroy, Samantha / Tan, Wei Shen / Gordon, Patrick C / Lotan, Yair / Messing, Edward M / Stenzl, Arnulf / Rhijn, Bas van / Kelly, John D / Catto, James W F / Cumberbatch, Marcus G. ·Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. · Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA; Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA; Department of Urology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia. · Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK; Department of Urology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK. · Department of Urology, Sheffield Teaching Hospital NHS Trust, Sheffield, UK. · Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA. · University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA. · Department of Urology, University of Tübingen Medical School, Tübingen, Germany. · Department of Surgical Oncology (Urology), Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK; Department of Urology, University College London Hospitals, London, UK. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. Electronic address: m.g.cumberbatch@sheffield.ac.uk. ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #31791622.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Non-visible haematuria (NVH) is a common finding and may indicate undiagnosed urological cancer. The optimal investigation of NVH is unclear, given the incidence of cancer and the public health implications of testing all individuals with this finding. OBJECTIVE: We review contemporary literature to determine the association of NVH with the diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC), upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), and kidney cancer (KC). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of original articles in English was completed in May 2019. Meta-analyses for the diagnostic accuracy of NVH and urine cytology were performed. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We screened 1529 articles and selected 78 manuscripts that fulfilled our inclusion criteria for narrative synthesis. Forty manuscripts were eligible for a meta-analysis (reporting 19 193 persons). The likelihood of a urological cancer in patients with NVH increased with age (<1% in those aged <40yr), male sex, and cigarette smoking. Less than 1% of patients are found to have a urological cancer after a negative NVH evaluation. Cancer detection rates in individuals evaluated for NVH ranged from 0% to 16% for BC in 37 studies, 0% to 3.5% for UTUC in 30 studies, and 0% to 9.7% for KC in 29 studies. Substantial statistical heterogeneity was present for the meta-analysis of detection rates. CONCLUSIONS: We present an up-to-date review of the association of NVH with the diagnosis of BC, UTUC, and KC. Individuals with dipstick positive haematuria aged ≥40yr, who have had potential precipitating causes excluded, should undergo an evaluation. Re-evaluation of patients with unremarkable initial investigations should be performed in high-risk patients or if new symptoms occur. PATIENT SUMMARY: One in five people have microscopic traces of blood in their urine. This is an important indicator of urological cancer. Investigating all patients is uncomfortable and expensive. We evaluate the risk of cancer and estimate risks to groups of individuals.

11 Review Quality Indicators for Bladder Cancer Services: A Collaborative Review. 2019

Leow, Jeffrey J / Catto, James W F / Efstathiou, Jason A / Gore, John L / Hussein, Ahmed A / Shariat, Shahrokh F / Smith, Angela B / Weizer, Alon Z / Wirth, Manfred / Witjes, J Alfred / Trinh, Quoc-Dien. ·Department of Urology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; Division of Urological Surgery and Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Academic Urology Unit, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Urology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA. · Department of Urology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. · Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Departments of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA; Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA; Department of Urology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia. · Department of Urology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, UNC-Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · Department of Urology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany. · Department of Urology, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Division of Urological Surgery and Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address: qtrinh@bwh.harvard.edu. ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #31563501.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: There is a lack of accepted consensus on what should constitute appropriate quality-of-care indicators for bladder cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the optimal management of bladder cancer and propose quality indicators (QIs). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review was performed to identify literature on current optimal management and potential quality indicators for both non-muscle-invasive (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive (MIBC) bladder cancer. A panel of experts was convened to select a recommended list of QIs. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: For NMIBC, preoperative QIs include tobacco cessation counselling and appropriate imaging before initial transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). Intraoperative QIs include administration of antibiotics, proper safe conduct of TURBT using a checklist, and performing restaging TURBT with biopsy of the prostatic urethra in appropriate cases. Postoperative QIs include appropriate receipt of perioperative adjuvant therapy, risk-stratified surveillance, and appropriate decision to change therapy when indicated (eg, bacillus Calmette-Guerin [BCG] unresponsive). For MIBC, preoperative QIs include multidisciplinary care, selection for candidates for continent urinary diversion, receipt of neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy, time to commencing radical treatment, consideration of trimodal therapy as a bladder-sparing alternative in select patients, preoperative counselling with stoma marking, surgical volume of radical cystectomy, and enhanced recovery after surgery protocols. Intraoperative QIs include adequacy of lymphadenectomy, blood loss, and operative time. Postoperative QIs include prospective standardised monitoring of morbidity and mortality, negative surgical margins for pT2 disease, appropriate surveillance after primary treatment, and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy in appropriate cases. Participation in clinical trials was highlighted as an important component indicating high quality of care. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a set of QIs for both NMIBC and MIBC based on established clinical guidelines and the available literature. Although there is currently a lack of level 1 evidence for the benefit of implementing these QIs, we believe that the measurement of these QIs could aid in the improvement and benchmarking of optimal care for bladder cancer. PATIENT SUMMARY: After a systematic review of existing guidelines and literature, a panel of experts has recommended a set of quality indicators that can help providers and patients measure and strive towards optimal outcomes for bladder cancer care.

12 Review Bladder-sparing treatment in MIBC: where do we stand? 2019

Murali-Krishnan, Srikanth / Pang, Karl H / Greco, Francesco / Fiori, Cristian / Catto, James W / Vavassori, Vittorio L / Esperto, Francesco / Anonymous450984. ·Department of Urology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospital, Sheffield, UK - Srikanth@hotmail.co.uk. · Unit of Academic, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. · Department of Urology, Humanitas Gavazzeni Hospital, Bergamo, Italy. · Department of Urology, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy. · Department of Urology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospital, Sheffield, UK. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Humanitas Gavazzeni, Bergamo, Italy. ·Minerva Urol Nefrol · Pubmed #30895765.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The gold-standard treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer is radical cystectomy (RC), but this can be associated with morbidity and perioperative risks. Patients may not be fit for RC or choose to preserve their bladders. There are evolving bladder-sparing treatments that are often delivered in a multimodal approach. Here, we aim to review recent advances in bladder-sparing treatments. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We undertook a narrative review informed by a Medline/PubMed literature search using a combination of terms for recent (5 years) articles in English. Relevant studies from authors' bibliographies were retrieved. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Bladder-sparing treatment consists of transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT), radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Experimental approaches with immunotherapy and using gene signatures for radiation therapy and chemotherapy response are being explored. CONCLUSIONS: Bladder-sparing treatment is an option for patients with bladder cancer. Those who may benefit most are those with solitary invasive cancers, those with good bladder capacity and compliance, those who choose to preserve their bladder and sexual function and who are not fit for RC. Multimodal bladder-sparing approaches may have comparable oncological outcomes to RC and so appear an attractive alternative in suitable patients.

13 Review Staging the Host: Personalizing Risk Assessment for Radical Cystectomy Patients. 2018

Psutka, Sarah P / Barocas, Daniel A / Catto, James W F / Gore, John L / Lee, Cheryl T / Morgan, Todd M / Master, Viraj A / Necchi, Andrea / Rouprêt, Morgan / Boorjian, Stephen A. ·Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Urology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address: spsutka@cookcounty.hhs.org. · Department of Urologic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Center for Surgical Quality and Outcomes Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. · Academic Units of Urology and Molecular Oncology, Department of Oncology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. · University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. · Department of Urology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. · Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · Department of Urology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. · Department of Urology, Sorbonne Université, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France. · Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. ·Eur Urol Oncol · Pubmed #31100250.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Perioperative and long-term functional and oncologic outcomes following radical cystectomy (RC) for localized bladder cancer remain unchanged despite advances in technique and perioperative management, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy. Accurate assessment of a patient's perioperative risk is critical to inform preoperative counseling and determine a patient's fitness for RC. OBJECTIVE: To review and synthesize conventional and novel objective patient-specific risk assessment tools that may be incorporated into clinical practice for perioperative risk prognostication with respect to both postoperative complications and long-term oncologic outcomes, patient counseling, and decision-making when RC is being considered. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A collaborative review was performed to synthesize currently available evidence on comorbidity, age, body composition, nutrition, frailty, and geriatric assessments for patients undergoing RC. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Current guidelines recommend that pre-RC risk assessment should take into account age, performance status, and comorbidity. However, conventional comorbidity indices perform inconsistently in accurate assessment of the risk of perioperative complications, prolonged rehabilitation, and long-term oncologic outcomes. Novel metrics including standardized assessments of dependency, comorbidity severity, sarcopenia, malnutrition, physical and cognitive frailty, and comprehensive geriatric assessments may offer more precise estimates of physiologic age and relative vulnerability to adverse outcomes following RC. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative risk assessment before RC should incorporate objective measures of physiologic age, physical function, nutrition, lean muscularity, and frailty. The use of standardized multidimensional instruments should be encouraged for patients undergoing consideration for RC to identify potentially modifiable risk factors that can be targeted with prehabilitation interventions. Future work is needed to validate the performance of these metrics with respect to predicting perioperative complications and oncologic outcomes and to define and assess the effectiveness of specific prehabilitation interventions to optimize patients before surgery. PATIENT SUMMARY: We review several metrics that doctors can use to measure the risks associated with bladder removal, a major surgical procedure. Moving beyond evaluating a patient's age, the burden of other health problems, and surgeon intuition, these tools may be used to counsel patients regarding their surgical risk, to predict oncologic outcomes, and to help identify potential interventions to improve surgical readiness.

14 Review Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Bladder Cancer: Development of VI-RADS (Vesical Imaging-Reporting And Data System). 2018

Panebianco, Valeria / Narumi, Yoshifumi / Altun, Ersan / Bochner, Bernard H / Efstathiou, Jason A / Hafeez, Shaista / Huddart, Robert / Kennish, Steve / Lerner, Seth / Montironi, Rodolfo / Muglia, Valdair F / Salomon, Georg / Thomas, Stephen / Vargas, Hebert Alberto / Witjes, J Alfred / Takeuchi, Mitsuru / Barentsz, Jelle / Catto, James W F. ·Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy. Electronic address: valeria.panebianco@uniroma1.it. · Department of Radiology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan. · Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey, UK; The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey, UK. · Department of Radiology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield, UK. · Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. · Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy. · Imaging Division, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. · Martini Clinic, University Clinic Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. · Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. · Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Urology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Department of Radiology, Radiolonet Tokai, Nagoya, Japan. · Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #29755006.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Management of bladder cancer (BC) is primarily driven by stage, grade, and biological potential. Knowledge of each is derived using clinical, histopathological, and radiological investigations. This multimodal approach reduces the risk of error from one particular test, but may present a staging dilemma when results conflict. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) may improve patient care through imaging of the bladder with better resolution of the tissue planes than computed tomography and without radiation exposure. OBJECTIVE: To define a standardized approach to imaging and reporting mpMRI for BC, by developing a VI-RADS score. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We created VI-RADS (Vesical Imaging-Reporting And Data System) through consensus using existing literature. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We describe standard imaging protocols and reporting criteria (including size, location, multiplicity, and morphology) for bladder mpMRI. We propose a five-point VI-RADS score, derived using T2-weighted MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast enhancement, which suggests the risks of muscle invasion. We include sample images used to understand VI-RADS. CONCLUSIONS: We hope that VI-RADS will standardize reporting, facilitate comparisons between patients, and in future years, will be tested and refined if necessary. While we do not advocate mpMRI for all patients with BC, this imaging may compliment pathology or reduce radiation-based imaging. Bladder mpMRI may be most useful in patients with non-muscle-invasive cancers, in expediting radical treatment or for determining response to bladder-sparing approaches. PATIENT SUMMARY: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for bladder cancer are becoming more common and may provide accurate information that helps improve patient care. Here, we describe a standardized reporting criterion for bladder MRI. This should improve communication between doctors and allow better comparisons between patients.

15 Review Precision surgery and genitourinary cancers. 2017

Autorino, R / Porpiglia, F / Dasgupta, P / Rassweiler, J / Catto, J W / Hampton, L J / Lima, E / Mirone, V / Derweesh, I H / Debruyne, F M J. ·Urology Institute, University Hospitals, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address: ricautor@gmail.com. · Division of Urology, University of Turin, San Luigi Hospital, Orbassano, Italy. Electronic address: porpiglia@libero.it. · King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London, UK. Electronic address: prokarurol@gmail.com. · Department of Urology, SLK Kliniken Heilbronn, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address: jens.rassweiler@slk-kliniken.de. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. Electronic address: j.catto@sheffield.ac.uk. · Division of Urology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA. Electronic address: lance.hampton@vcuhealth.org. · Life and Health Sciences Research Institute, The Clinic Academic Center, University of Minho, and Department of CUF Urology, Braga, Portugal. Electronic address: estevaolima@ecsaude.uminho.pt. · Department of Urology, Federico II University, Naples, Italy. Electronic address: mirone@unina.it. · Department of Urology, UC San Diego Health System, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address: iderweesh@gmail.com. · Andros Men's Health Institutes, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Electronic address: f.debruyne@uroweb.org. ·Eur J Surg Oncol · Pubmed #28254473.

ABSTRACT: The landscape of the surgical management of urologic malignancies has dramatically changed over the past 20 years. On one side, better diagnostic and prognostic tools allowed better patient selection and more reliable surgical planning. On the other hand, the implementation of minimally invasive techniques and technologies, such as robot-assisted laparoscopy surgery and image-guided surgery, allowed minimizing surgical morbidity. Ultimately, these advances have translated into a more tailored approach to the management of urologic cancer patients. Following the paradigm of "precision medicine", contemporary urologic surgery has entered a technology-driven era of "precision surgery", which entails a range of surgical procedures tailored to combine maximal treatment efficacy with minimal impact on patient function and health related quality of life. Aim of this non-systematic review is to provide a critical analysis of the most recent advances in the field of surgical uro-oncology, and to define the current and future role of "precision surgery" in the management of genitourinary cancers.

16 Review The patients' experience of a bladder cancer diagnosis: a systematic review of the qualitative evidence. 2017

Edmondson, Amanda J / Birtwistle, Jacqueline C / Catto, James W F / Twiddy, Maureen. ·Centre for Applied Research in Health, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK. a.edmondson@hud.ac.uk. · Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. ·J Cancer Surviv · Pubmed #28213769.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Bladder cancer (BC) is a common disease with disparate treatment options and variable outcomes. Despite the disease's high prevalence, little is known of the lived experience of affected patients. National patient experience surveys suggest that those with BC have poorer experiences than those with other common cancers. The aim of this review is to identify first-hand accounts of the lived experiences of diagnosis through to survivorship. METHOD: This is a systematic review of the qualitative evidence reporting first-hand accounts of the experiences of being diagnosed with, treated for and surviving bladder cancer. A thematic analysis and 'best-fit' framework synthesis was undertaken to classify these experiences. RESULTS: The inconsistent nature of symptoms contributes to delays in diagnosis. Post-diagnosis, many patients are not actively engaged in the treatment decision-making process and rely on their doctor's expertise. This can result in patients not adequately exploring the consequences of these decisions. Learning how to cope with a 'post-surgery body', changing sexuality and incontinence are distressing. Much less is known about the quality of life of patients receiving conservative treatments such as Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). CONCLUSIONS: The review contributes to a greater understanding of the lived experience of bladder cancer. Findings reflect a paucity of relevant literature and a need to develop more sensitive patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and incorporate patient-reported outcomes in BC care pathways. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Collective knowledge of the patients' self-reported experience of the cancer care pathway will facilitate understanding of the outcomes following treatment.

17 Review Robotic intracorporeal urinary diversion: practical review of current surgical techniques. 2017

Dal Moro, Fabrizio / Haber, Georges P / Wiklund, Peter / Canda, Abdullah E / Balbay, Mevlana D / Stenzl, Arnulf / Zattoni, Filiberto / Palou, Joan / Gill, Inderbir / Catto, James W. ·University of Padua, Padua, Italy - fabrizio.dalmoro@unipd.it. · Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA. · Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. · Department of Urology, Yildirim Beyazit University, School of Medicine, Ankara Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. · Department of Urology, Memorial Şişli Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. · Department of Urology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Germany. · University of Padua, Padua, Italy. · Fundació Puigvert, Barcelona, Spain. · Institute of Urology, Keck School of Medicine, USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. ·Minerva Urol Nefrol · Pubmed #28009143.

ABSTRACT: In this practical review, we discuss current surgical techniques reported in the literature to perform intracorporeal urinary diversion (ICUD) after robotic radical cystectomy (RARC), emphasizing criticisms of single approaches and making comparisons with extracorporeal urinary diversion (ECUD). Although almost 97% of all RARCs use an ECUD, ICUD is gaining in popularity, in view of its potential benefits (i.e., decreased bowel exposure, etc.), although there are a few studies comparing ICUD and ECUD. Analyzing single experiences and the data from recent metanalyses, we emphasize the current critiques to ICUD, stressing particular technical details which could reduce operative time, lowering the postoperative complications rate, and improving functional outcomes. Only analysis of long-term follow-up data from large-scale homogeneous series can ascertain whether robotic intracorporeal urinary diversion is superior to other approaches.

18 Review The contemporary landscape of occupational bladder cancer within the United Kingdom: a meta-analysis of risks over the last 80 years. 2017

Cumberbatch, Marcus G / Windsor-Shellard, Ben / Catto, James W F. ·Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. · Office for National Statistics, Newport, Gwent, UK. ·BJU Int · Pubmed #27332981.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To profile the contemporary risks of occupational bladder in the UK, as this is a common malignancy that arises through occupational carcinogen exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review using PubMed, Medline, Embase and Web of Science was performed in March 2016. We selected reports of British workers in which bladder cancer or occupation were the main focus, with sufficient cases or with confidence intervals (CIs). We used the most recent data in populations with multiple reports. We combined odds ratios and risk ratios (RRs) to provide pooled RRs of incidence and disease-specific mortality (DSM). We tested for heterogeneity and publication bias. We extracted bladder cancer mortality from Office of National Statistics death certificates. We compered across regions and with our meta-analysis. RESULTS: We identified 25 articles reporting risks in 702 941 persons. Meta-analysis revealed significantly increased incidence for 12/37 and DSM for five of 37 occupational classes. Three classes had reduced bladder cancer risks. The greatest risk of bladder cancer incidence occurred in chemical process (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.50-2.34), rubber (RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.4-2.38), and dye workers (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.07-3.04). The greatest risk of DSM occurred in electrical (RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.19-1.87) and chemical process workers (RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.68). Bladder cancer mortality was higher in the North of England, probably reflecting smoking patterns and certain industries. Limitations include the lack of sufficient robust data, missing occupational tasks, and no adjustment for smoking. CONCLUSION: Occupational bladder cancer occurs in many workplaces and the risks for incidence and DSM may differ. Regional differences may reflect changes in industry and smoking patterns. Relatively little is known about bladder cancer within British industry, suggesting official data underestimate the disease.

19 Review Improving Staging in Bladder Cancer: The Increasing Role of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2016

Panebianco, Valeria / Barchetti, Flavio / de Haas, Robbert J / Pearson, Rachel A / Kennish, Steven J / Giannarini, Gianluca / Catto, James W F. ·Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. · Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Northern Centre for Cancer Care, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. · Department of Radiology, Sheffield Teaching Hospital NHS Trust, Sheffield, UK. · Urology Unit, Academic Medical Centre Hospital "Santa Maria della Misericordia" Udine, Italy. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. Electronic address: j.catto@sheffield.ac.uk. ·Eur Urol Focus · Pubmed #28723525.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: In bladder cancer (BCa) patients, accurate local and regional tumor staging is required when planning treatment. Clinical understaging frequently occurs and leads to undertreatment of the disease, with a negative impact on survival. An improvement in staging accuracy could be attained by advances in imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the best imaging technique for locoregional staging for several malignancies because of its superior soft tissue contrast resolution with the advantage of avoiding exposure to ionizing radiation. Important improvements in MRI technology have led to the introduction of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI), which combines anatomic and functional evaluation. OBJECTIVE: To review the fundamentals of mpMRI in BCa and to provide a contemporary overview of the available data on the role of this emerging imaging technology. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A nonsystematic literature search using the Medline and Cochrane Library databases was performed up to March 2016. Additional articles were retrieved by cross-matching references of selected articles. Only articles reporting complete data with regard to image acquisition protocols, locoregional staging, monitoring response to therapy, and detection of locoregional recurrence after primary treatment in BCa patients were selected. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Standardization of acquisition and reporting protocols for bladder mpMRI is paramount. Combining anatomic and functional sequences improves the accuracy of local tumor staging compared with conventional imaging alone. Diffusion-weighted imaging may distinguish BCa type and grade. Functional sequences are capable of monitoring response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Diffusion-weighted imaging enhanced by lymphotropic nanoparticles showed high accuracy in pelvic lymph node staging compared with conventional cross-sectional imaging. CONCLUSIONS: In BCa patients, mpMRI appears a promising tool for accurate locoregional staging, predicting tumor aggressiveness and monitoring response to therapy. Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm these findings. PATIENT SUMMARY: Better imaging through improved technology will improve outcomes in bladder cancer patients. We reviewed the emerging use of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for staging and monitoring bladder cancer. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging appears more accurate than current methods for local and nodal staging and monitoring tumor response to treatment, but requires further investigation.

20 Review Critical Review of Outcomes from Radical Cystectomy: Can Complications from Radical Cystectomy Be Reduced by Surgical Volume and Robotic Surgery? 2016

Moschini, Marco / Simone, Giuseppe / Stenzl, Arnulf / Gill, Inderbir S / Catto, James. ·Unit of Urology/Division of Oncology, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, URI Milan, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: marco.moschini87@gmail.com. · Department of Urology, "Regina Elena" National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy. · Department of Urology, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. · University of Southern California Institute of Urology, Keck School of Medicine, Catherine and Joseph Aresty Department of Urology, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. ·Eur Urol Focus · Pubmed #28723446.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Radical cystectomy (RC) is a highly complex procedure with multiple risks for perioperative complications. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the literature to report perioperative outcomes and the incidence of complications in contemporary RC series. We focused on the potential impact of surgical approach and surgeon volume on these outcomes. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic literature search was performed in December 2015 using the Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases for articles published in English between 2005 and 2015. The search strategy included the terms complications, cystectomy, robotic assisted radical cystectomy, and surgical volume, alone or in combination. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were followed. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Our searches retrieved 49 papers. Open RC (ORC) and robot-assisted RC (RARC) are morbid procedures with consistent risk of perioperative complications (mean weighted incidence: 48.7%; range: 27.0-72.5%). Higher hospital and surgeon volumes were associated with reduced risks of perioperative complications. Prior robotic expertise in radical prostatectomy showed a beneficial protective risk on development of complications after RARC. Surgical volume appears to be a good predictor of safety in ORC and RARC. RARC is associated with reduced estimated blood loss and lower perioperative transfusion rates compared with ORC. Further evidence is needed to support the reproducibility of intracorporeal diversion during RARC, beyond large tertiary referral centers. Several strategies have been demonstrated to be effective for reducing the risk of incurring perioperative complications and should be pursued by physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Despite improvements in quality of care, RC remains a challenging procedure with high morbidity, regardless of surgical approach. RARC is a safe procedure with potential advantages in terms of reduced blood loss and transfusion rates. Surgical volume appears to be related to the improvement of perioperative outcomes and complications. PATIENT SUMMARY: Radical cystectomy is a challenging and morbid procedure. The robotic approach has gained popularity and proved to be safe and effective in tertiary referral centers, although further studies are needed to confirm its wide reproducibility. Centers with higher surgical volume have lower incidence of perioperative complications.

21 Review The Role of Tobacco Smoke in Bladder and Kidney Carcinogenesis: A Comparison of Exposures and Meta-analysis of Incidence and Mortality Risks. 2016

Cumberbatch, Marcus G / Rota, Matteo / Catto, James W F / La Vecchia, Carlo. ·Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, The Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield, UK. Electronic address: m.cumberbatch@sheffield.ac.uk. · Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, The Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield, UK. · Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #26149669.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Tobacco smoke includes a mix of carcinogens implicated in the etiology of bladder cancer (BC) and renal cell cancer (RCC). OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the impact of tobacco exposure on BCC and RCC incidence and mortality, and whether smoking cessation decreases the risk. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of original articles in English was performed in August 2013. Meta-analysis of risks was performed using adjusted risk ratios where available. Publication bias was assessed using Begg and Egger tests. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We identified 2683 papers, of which 107 fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of which 83 studies investigated BC and 24 investigated RCC. The pooled relative risk (RR) of BC incidence was 2.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.37-2.80) for all smokers, 3.47 (3.07-3.91) for current smokers, and 2.04 (1.85-2.25) for former smokers. The corresponding pooled RR of BC disease-specific mortality (DSM) was 1.47 (1.24-1.75), 1.53 (1.12-2.09) and 1.44 (0.99-2.11). The pooled RR of RCC incidence was 1.31 (1.22-1.40) for all smokers, 1.36 (1.19-1.56) for current smokers, and 1.16 (1.08-1.25) for former smokers. The corresponding RCC DSM risk was 1.23 (1.08-1.40), 1.37 (1.19-1.59), and 1.02 (0.90-1.15). CONCLUSIONS: We present an up-to-date review of tobacco smoking and BC and RCC incidence and mortality. Tobacco smoking significantly increases the risk of BC and RCC incidence. BC incidence and DSM risk are greatest in current smokers and lowest in former smokers, indicating that smoking cessation confers benefit. We found that secondhand smoke exposure is associated with a significant increase in BC risk. PATIENT SUMMARY: Tobacco smoking affects the development and progression of bladder cancer and renal cell cancer. Smoking cessation reduces the risks of developing and dying from these common cancers. We quantify these risks using the most up-to-date results published in the literature.

22 Review Contemporary Occupational Carcinogen Exposure and Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 2015

Cumberbatch, Marcus G K / Cox, Angela / Teare, Dawn / Catto, James W F. ·Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England. · Academic Unit of Molecular Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England. · School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England2Academic Unit of Molecular Oncology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England. ·JAMA Oncol · Pubmed #26448641.

ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE: Bladder cancer (BC) is a common disease. Despite manufacturing and legislative changes to workplace hygiene, many BCs still arise through occupational carcinogen exposure. OBJECTIVE: To profile contemporary risks of occupational BC. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review using PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science was performed in October 2012 (initial review) and May 2014 (final review) and was updated in June 2015. STUDY SELECTION: We identified 263 eligible articles. We excluded reports in which BC or occupation were not the main focus, and those with insufficient case, risk, or confidence interval data. We selected the most recent data from populations with multiple reports. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Reports were selected by 2 of us independently. We combined odds ratios and risk ratios (RRs) to provide pooled RRs, using maximally adjusted RRs in a random effects model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed using I2 and Begg and Egger tests. Risk estimates were annotated by occupational class using Nordisk Yrkesklassificering, or Nordic Occupational Classification, and International Standard Classifications of Occupations (NYK and ISCO-1958) Codes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Occupations were profiled by BC incidence and mortality risk over time. After data collection, we detected a sex difference in these profiles and recorded this as a secondary outcome. RESULTS: Meta-analysis revealed increased BC incidence in 42 of 61 occupational classes and increased BC-specific mortality in 16 of 40 occupational classes. Reduced incidence and mortality were seen in 6 of 61 and 2 of 40 classes, respectively. Risk varied with sex and was greatest in men (standardized incidence ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.02-1.03]; P < .001]). From the 1960s to the 1980s, there was a steady decline in standarized incidence ratio (SIR) for both sexes. This trend reversed from the 1980s, as in the decade 2000 to 2010 the SIR increased to 1.13 (95% CI, 1.07-1.19) for men and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.12-1.43) for women. In contrast, mortality risk declined for both sexes from the 1960s to the 1990s. The overall risk of BC mortality was also greater for men (standardized mortality ratio [SMR], 1.32 [95% CI, 1.18-1.48]) than for women (SMR, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.80-1.63]). Limitations include possible publication bias, that reports stratify workers mostly by job title not task, that not all studies adjusted for smoking, and that the population was mostly derived from Western nations. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The profile of contemporary occupations with increased BC risk is broad and differs for incidence and mortality. Currently the incidence seems to be increasing, and this increase is occurring faster in women than men. Improved detection mechanisms and screening are possible reasons for this. Workers with aromatic amine exposure have the highest incidence, while those exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals have the greatest mortality.

23 Review Prognostic and Prediction Tools in Bladder Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature. 2015

Kluth, Luis A / Black, Peter C / Bochner, Bernard H / Catto, James / Lerner, Seth P / Stenzl, Arnulf / Sylvester, Richard / Vickers, Andrew J / Xylinas, Evanguelos / Shariat, Shahrokh F. ·Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA; Department of Urology, University Medical-Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. · Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. · Department of Urology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Kimmel Center for Prostate and Urologic Tumors, New York, NY, USA. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. · Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. · Department of Urology, Eberhard-Karls University, Tuebingen, Germany. · EORTC Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA; Department of Urology, Cochin Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France. · Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA; Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Department of Urology, UT Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA; Division of Medical Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: sfshariat@gmail.com. ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #25709027.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: This review focuses on risk assessment and prediction tools for bladder cancer (BCa). OBJECTIVE: To review the current knowledge on risk assessment and prediction tools to enhance clinical decision making and counseling of patients with BCa. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search in English was performed using PubMed in July 2013. Relevant risk assessment and prediction tools for BCa were selected. More than 1600 publications were retrieved. Special attention was given to studies that investigated the clinical benefit of a prediction tool. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Most prediction tools for BCa focus on the prediction of disease recurrence and progression in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer or disease recurrence and survival after radical cystectomy. Although these tools are helpful, recent prediction tools aim to address a specific clinical problem, such as the prediction of organ-confined disease and lymph node metastasis to help identify patients who might benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Although a large number of prediction tools have been reported in recent years, many of them lack external validation. Few studies have investigated the clinical utility of any given model as measured by its ability to improve clinical decision making. There is a need for novel biomarkers to improve the accuracy and utility of prediction tools for BCa. CONCLUSIONS: Decision tools hold the promise of facilitating the shared decision process, potentially improving clinical outcomes for BCa patients. Prediction models need external validation and assessment of clinical utility before they can be incorporated into routine clinical care. PATIENT SUMMARY: We looked at models that aim to predict outcomes for patients with bladder cancer (BCa). We found a large number of prediction models that hold the promise of facilitating treatment decisions for patients with BCa. However, many models are missing confirmation in a different patient cohort, and only a few studies have tested the clinical utility of any given model as measured by its ability to improve clinical decision making.

24 Review Systematic review and cumulative analysis of perioperative outcomes and complications after robot-assisted radical cystectomy. 2015

Novara, Giacomo / Catto, James W F / Wilson, Timothy / Annerstedt, Magnus / Chan, Kevin / Murphy, Declan G / Motttrie, Alexander / Peabody, James O / Skinner, Eila C / Wiklund, Peter N / Guru, Khurshid A / Yuh, Bertram. ·Department of Surgery, Oncology, and Gastroenterology - Urology Clinic, University of Padua, Italy. Electronic address: giacomonovara@gmail.com. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. · City of Hope National Cancer Center Duarte, CA, USA. · Department of Urology, Herlev University Hospital, Denmark. · Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St. Andrews Place, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Department of Urology, Onze-Lieve-Vrouw Hospital, Aalst, Belgium. · Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, USA. · Department of Urology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. · Karolinska University Hospital, Urology, Stockholm, Sweden. · Department of Urology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #25560798.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Although open radical cystectomy (ORC) is still the standard approach, laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) and robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) have gained popularity. OBJECTIVE: To report a systematic literature review and cumulative analysis of perioperative outcomes and complications of RARC in comparison with ORC and LRC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched using a free-text protocol including the terms robot-assisted radical cystectomy or da Vinci radical cystectomy or robot* radical cystectomy. RARC case series and studies comparing RARC with either ORC or LRC were collected. Cumulative analysis was conducted. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The searches retrieved 105 papers. According to the different diversion type, overall mean operative time ranged from 360 to 420 min. Similarly, mean blood loss ranged from 260 to 480 ml. Mean in-hospital stay was about 9 d for all diversion types, with consistently high readmission rates. In series reporting on RARC with either extracorporeal or intracorporeal conduit diversion, overall 90-d complication rates were 59% (high-grade complication: 15%). In series reporting RARC with intracorporeal continent diversion, the overall 30-d complication rate was 45.7% (high-grade complication: 28%). Reported mortality rates were ≤3% for all diversion types. Comparing RARC and ORC, cumulative analyses demonstrated shorter operative time for ORC, whereas blood loss and in-hospital stay were better with RARC (all p values <0.003). Moreover, 90-d complication rates of any-grade and 90-d grade 3 complication rates were lower for RARC (all p values <0.04), whereas high-grade complication and mortality rates were similar. CONCLUSIONS: RARC can be performed safely with acceptable perioperative outcome, although complications are common. Cumulative analyses demonstrated that operative time was shorter with ORC, whereas RARC may provide some advantages in terms of blood loss and transfusion rates and, more limitedly, for postoperative complication rates over ORC and LRC. PATIENT SUMMARY: Although open radical cystectomy (RC) is still regarded as a standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, laparoscopic and robot-assisted RC are becoming more popular. Robotic RC can be safely performed with acceptably low risk of blood loss, transfusion, and intraoperative complications; however, as for open RC, the risk of postoperative complications is high, including a substantial risk of major complication and reoperation.

25 Review Systematic review and cumulative analysis of oncologic and functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical cystectomy. 2015

Yuh, Bertram / Wilson, Timothy / Bochner, Bernie / Chan, Kevin / Palou, Joan / Stenzl, Arnulf / Montorsi, Francesco / Thalmann, George / Guru, Khurshid / Catto, James W F / Wiklund, Peter N / Novara, Giacomo. ·City of Hope National Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USA. Electronic address: byuh@coh.org. · City of Hope National Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USA. · Urology Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · Fundació Puigvert, Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Urology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. · Department of Urology, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. · Department of Urology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. · Department of Urology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. · Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. · Karolinska University Hospital, Urology, Stockholm, Sweden. · Department of Surgery, Oncology, and Gastroenterology - Urology Clinic, University of Padua, Padua, Italy. ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #25560797.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Although open radical cystectomy (ORC) is still the standard approach, laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) and robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) are increasingly performed. OBJECTIVE: To report on a systematic literature review and cumulative analysis of pathologic, oncologic, and functional outcomes of RARC in comparison with ORC and LRC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched using a free-text protocol including the terms robot-assisted radical cystectomy or da Vinci radical cystectomy or robot* radical cystectomy. RARC case series and studies comparing RARC with either ORC or LRC were collected. A cumulative analysis was conducted. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The searches retrieved 105 papers, 87 of which reported on pathologic, oncologic, or functional outcomes. Most series were retrospective and had small case numbers, short follow-up, and potential patient selection bias. The lymph node yield during lymph node dissection was 19 (range: 3-55), with half of the series following an extended template (yield range: 11-55). The lymph node-positive rate was 22%. The performance of lymphadenectomy was correlated with surgeon and institutional volume. Cumulative analyses showed no significant difference in lymph node yield between RARC and ORC. Positive surgical margin (PSM) rates were 5.6% (1-1.5% in pT2 disease and 0-25% in pT3 and higher disease). PSM rates did not appear to decrease with sequential case numbers. Cumulative analyses showed no significant difference in rates of surgical margins between RARC and ORC or RARC and LRC. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy use ranged from 0% to 31%, with adjuvant chemotherapy used in 4-29% of patients. Only six series reported a mean follow-up of >36 mo. Three-year disease-free survival (DFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 67-76%, 68-83%, and 61-80%, respectively. The 5-yr DFS, CSS, and OS rates were 53-74%, 66-80%, and 39-66%, respectively. Similar to ORC, disease of higher pathologic stage or evidence of lymph node involvement was associated with worse survival. Very limited data were available with respect to functional outcomes. The 12-mo continence rates with continent diversion were 83-100% in men for daytime continence and 66-76% for nighttime continence. In one series, potency was recovered in 63% of patients who were evaluable at 12 mo. CONCLUSIONS: Oncologic and functional data from RARC remain immature, and longer-term prospective studies are needed. Cumulative analyses demonstrated that lymph node yields and PSM rates were similar between RARC and ORC. Conclusive long-term survival outcomes for RARC were limited, although oncologic outcomes up to 5 yr were similar to those reported for ORC. PATIENT SUMMARY: Although open radical cystectomy (RC) is still regarded as the standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, laparoscopic and robot-assisted RCs are becoming more popular. Templates of lymph node dissection, lymph node yields, and positive surgical margin rates are acceptable with robot-assisted RC. Although definitive comparisons with open RC with respect to oncologic or functional outcomes are lacking, early results appear comparable.

Next