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Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: HELP
Articles from Los Angeles
Based on 276 articles published since 2008
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These are the 276 published articles about Urinary Bladder Neoplasms that originated from Los Angeles during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12
1 Guideline SIU-ICUD recommendations on bladder cancer: systemic therapy for metastatic bladder cancer. 2019

Merseburger, Axel S / Apolo, Andrea B / Chowdhury, Simon / Hahn, Noah M / Galsky, Matthew D / Milowsky, Matthew I / Petrylak, Daniel / Powles, Tom / Quinn, David I / Rosenberg, Jonathan E / Siefker-Radtke, Arlene / Sonpavde, Guru / Sternberg, Cora N. ·Department of Urology, Campus Lübeck, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany. · Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH Maryland, Bethesda, USA. · Guy's and St, Thomas' Hospital, Great Maze Pond, London, UK. · Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA. · Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, The Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA. · Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT, USA. · Barts Cancer Institute, London, USA. · Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA. · Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. · Department of Medical Oncology, Bladder Cancer Center, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Medical Oncology, San Camillo Forlanini Hospital, Rome, Italy. cnsternberg@corasternberg.com. ·World J Urol · Pubmed #30238401.

ABSTRACT: The SIU (Société Internationale d'Urologie)-ICUD (International Consultation on Urologic Diseases) working group on systemic therapy for metastatic bladder cancer has summarized the most recent findings on the aforementioned topic and came to conclusions and recommendations according to the evidence published. In Europe and the United States, treatment for metastatic UC has changed a great deal recently, mainly involving a move from chemotherapy to immune checkpoint blockers. This is particularly true in platinum-refractory disease, where supportive randomized data exist. Five checkpoint blockers have been approved in this setting by the FDA: avelumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab. Nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab have been approved in Europe.

2 Guideline Update for the practicing pathologist: The International Consultation On Urologic Disease-European association of urology consultation on bladder cancer. 2015

Amin, Mahul B / Smith, Steven C / Reuter, Victor E / Epstein, Jonathan I / Grignon, David J / Hansel, Donna E / Lin, Oscar / McKenney, Jesse K / Montironi, Rodolfo / Paner, Gladell P / Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A / Algaba, Ferran / Ali, Syed / Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel / Bubendorf, Lukas / Cheng, Liang / Cheville, John C / Kristiansen, Glen / Cote, Richard J / Delahunt, Brett / Eble, John N / Genega, Elizabeth M / Gulmann, Christian / Hartmann, Arndt / Langner, Cord / Lopez-Beltran, Antonio / Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina / Merce, Jorda / Netto, George J / Oliva, Esther / Rao, Priya / Ro, Jae Y / Srigley, John R / Tickoo, Satish K / Tsuzuki, Toyonori / Umar, Saleem A / Van der Kwast, Theo / Young, Robert H / Soloway, Mark S. ·Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA. · Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA. · Department of Pathology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA. · Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of Medicine, United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy. · Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. · Pathology Section, Fundacio Puigvert, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Pathology, Mexican Oncology Hospital, Mexico City, Mexico. · Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland. · Division of Anatomic Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. · Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany. · Department of Pathology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. · Department of Pathology, Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand. · Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Pathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. · Institute of Pathology, University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany. · Institute of Pathology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria. · Unit of Anatomical Pathology, Cordoba University Medical School, Faculty of Medicine, Cordoba, Spain. · James Homer Wright Pathology Laboratories, Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Pathology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. · Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, The Methodist Hospital Physician Organization, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, Houston, TX, USA. · Department Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. · Department of Pathology, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya Daini Hospital, Nagoya, Japan. · Department of Urology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. ·Mod Pathol · Pubmed #25412849.

ABSTRACT: The International Consultations on Urological Diseases are international consensus meetings, supported by the World Health Organization and the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer, which have occurred since 1981. Each consultation has the goal of convening experts to review data and provide evidence-based recommendations to improve practice. In 2012, the selected subject was bladder cancer, a disease which remains a major public health problem with little improvement in many years. The proceedings of the 2nd International Consultation on Bladder Cancer, which included a 'Pathology of Bladder Cancer Work Group,' have recently been published; herein, we provide a summary of developments and consensus relevant to the practicing pathologist. Although the published proceedings have tackled a comprehensive set of issues regarding the pathology of bladder cancer, this update summarizes the recommendations regarding selected issues for the practicing pathologist. These include guidelines for classification and grading of urothelial neoplasia, with particular emphasis on the approach to inverted lesions, the handling of incipient papillary lesions frequently seen during surveillance of bladder cancer patients, descriptions of newer variants, and terminology for urine cytology reporting.

3 Guideline ICUD-EAU International Consultation on Bladder Cancer 2012: Pathology. 2013

Amin, Mahul B / McKenney, Jesse K / Paner, Gladell P / Hansel, Donna E / Grignon, David J / Montironi, Rodolfo / Lin, Oscar / Jorda, Merce / Jenkins, Lawrence C / Soloway, Mark / Epstein, Jonathan I / Reuter, Victor E / Anonymous960740. ·Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Mahul.Amin@cshs.org ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #23083804.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: To present a summary of the 2nd International Consultation on Bladder Cancer recommendations on the pathology of bladder cancer using an evidence-based strategy. OBJECTIVE: To standardize descriptions of the diagnosis and reporting of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and help optimize uniformity between individual pathology practices and institutions. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A detailed Medline analysis was performed for original articles addressing bladder cancer with regard to pathology. Proceedings from the last 5 yr of major conferences were also searched. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The major findings are presented in an evidence-based fashion. Large retrospective and prospective data were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Providing the best management for patients with bladder neoplasia relies on close cooperation and teamwork among urologists, oncologists, radiologists, and pathologists.

4 Editorial Readmission Following Radical Cystectomy: A Ray of Light in the "Black Box"? 2018

McGrath, John S / Daneshmand, Siamak. ·Exeter Surgical Health Services Research Unit, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Exeter, UK. Electronic address: john.mcgrath4@nhs.net. · Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ·Eur Urol Focus · Pubmed #28753859.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Upholding Rigorous Standards: Comparable Patterns and Rates of Recurrence Between Open and Robot-assisted Radical Cystectomy. 2017

Rajarubendra, Nieroshan / Aron, Monish. ·USC Institute of Urology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · USC Institute of Urology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address: monisharon@hotmail.com. ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #27866842.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Cancer surgeons and health system innovation: incentivizing change. 2016

Litwin, Mark S / Tan, Hung-Jui. ·Departments of Urology (David Geffen School of Medicine) and Health Policy & Management (Fielding School of Public Health), University of California, Los Angeles MLitwin@mednet.ucla.edu. · Departments of Urology (David Geffen School of Medicine) and Health Policy & Management (Fielding School of Public Health), University of California, Los Angeles. ·J Natl Cancer Inst · Pubmed #26582064.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial "The devil is in the details": randomized trial of robotic versus open radical cystectomy. 2015

Desai, Mihir M / Gill, Inderbir S. ·Section of Robotic Surgery, Catherine and Joseph Aresty Department of Urology, USC Institute of Urology, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Section of Robotic Surgery, Catherine and Joseph Aresty Department of Urology, USC Institute of Urology, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address: gillindy@gmail.com. ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #25641689.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Editorial Editorial comment. 2015

Gill, Inderbir S. ·Catherine and Joseph Aresty Department of Urology, USC Institute of Urology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. ·Urology · Pubmed #25623691.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Editorial Robotic radical cystectomy: so far, so good--what next? 2015

Aron, Monish / Gill, Inderbir S. ·Center of Advanced Robotic Surgery, Catherine & Joseph Aresty Department of Urology, USC Institute of Urology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Center of Advanced Robotic Surgery, Catherine & Joseph Aresty Department of Urology, USC Institute of Urology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address: gillindy@gmail.com. ·Eur Urol · Pubmed #25592999.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Review Penile Implant Considerations in the Bladder Cancer Survivor. 2019

Loh-Doyle, Jeffrey C. ·Institute of Urology, USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA, 90089-9178, USA. jeffrey.loh-doyle@med.usc.edu. ·Curr Urol Rep · Pubmed #30689132.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After radical cystoprostatectomy, patients often develop erectile dysfunction refractory to first- and second-line treatments. In this review, we summarize and analyze the literature describing the technical considerations and outcomes of penile implant surgery in bladder cancer patients with history of radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. RECENT FINDINGS: Penile prosthesis surgery in patients after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion has been infrequently described in the literature. Recent studies have shown that the three-piece inflatable penile prosthesis can be placed safely after significant prior intraabdominal surgery due to the development and refinement of several techniques to place the reservoir. Further studies are needed to objectively determine the impact of penile prosthetic surgery on functional outcomes in this historically undertreated yet increasingly significant patient population. As health-related quality of life outcomes continue to gain increasing importance after radical cystectomy, urologists should offer motivated bladder cancer survivors the inflatable penile prosthesis as the treatment of choice for refractory erectile dysfunction due to its safety and unmatched ability to restore erectile function.

11 Review Association between precystectomy epithelial tumor marker response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and oncological outcomes in urothelial bladder cancer. 2019

Bazargani, Soroush T / Clifford, Thomas G / Djaladat, Hooman / Schuckman, Anne K / Wayne, Kevin / Miranda, Gus / Cai, Jie / Sadeghi, Sarmad / Dorff, Tanya / Quinn, David I / Daneshmand, Siamak. ·Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, USC Institute of Urology, Los Angeles, CA. · Department of Clinical Medicine, Section of Genitourinary (Gu) Oncology, USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA. · Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, USC Institute of Urology, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address: siadaneshmand@yahoo.com. ·Urol Oncol · Pubmed #30470611.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: We previously reported that elevated precystectomy serum levels of epithelial tumor markers predict worse oncological outcome in patients with invasive bladder cancer (BC). Herein, we evaluated the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) on elevated tumor marker levels and their association with oncological outcomes. METHODS: Under IRB approval, serum levels of Carbohydrate Antigen 125 (CA-125), Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) and Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) were prospectively measured in 480 patients with invasive BC from August 2011 through December 2016. In the subgroup undergoing NAC, markers were measured prior to the first and after the last cycle of chemotherapy (prior to cystectomy). RESULTS: Three hundred and thirty-seven patients were eligible for the study, with a median age was 71 years (range 34-93) and 81% (272) male. Elevated precystectomy level of any tumor markers (31% of patients) was independently associated with worse recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.81; P < 0.001) and overall survival (HR = 3.97; P < 0.001). One hundred and twenty-five (37%) patients underwent NAC, of whom 59 had a complete tumor marker profile and 30 (51%) had an elevated pre-NAC tumor marker. Following completion of chemotherapy, 10/30 (33%) patients normalized their tumor markers, while 20/30 (67%) had one or more persistently elevated markers. There was no difference in clinical or pathological stage between groups (P = 0.54 and P = 0.09, respectively). Further analysis showed a significantly lower rate and longer median time to recurrence/progression in the responder group (50% in responders vs. 90% in nonresponders at a median time of 22 vs. 4.8 months, respectively; P = 0.015). There was also significant difference in mortality rates and median overall survival between the study groups (30% in responders vs. 70% in nonresponders at a median time of 27.3 vs. 11.6 months respectively; P = 0.037). Two of the three patients that died in the normalized tumor marker group had tumor marker relapse at recurrence prior to their death. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study showing tumor marker response to NAC. Patients with persistently elevated markers following NAC have a very poor prognosis following cystectomy, which may help identifying chemotherapy-resistant tumors. A larger, controlled study with longer follow up is needed to determine their role in predicting survival.

12 Review Molecular markers in bladder cancer. 2019

Soria, Francesco / Krabbe, Laura-Maria / Todenhöfer, Tilman / Dobruch, Jakub / Mitra, Anirban P / Inman, Brant A / Gust, Kilian M / Lotan, Yair / Shariat, Shahrokh F. ·Department of Urology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria. · Division of Urology, Department of Surgical Sciences, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, University of Studies of Torino, Turin, Italy. · Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. · Department of Urology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Teubingen, Germany. · Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland. · Institute of Urology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. · Department of Urology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria. shahrokh.shariat@meduniwien.ac.at. · Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. shahrokh.shariat@meduniwien.ac.at. · Karl Landsteiner Institute of Urology and Andrology, Vienna, Austria. shahrokh.shariat@meduniwien.ac.at. · Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, USA. shahrokh.shariat@meduniwien.ac.at. ·World J Urol · Pubmed #30259123.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Use of molecular markers in urine, tissue or blood offers potential opportunities to improve understanding of bladder cancer biology which may help identify disease earlier, risk stratify patients, improve prediction of outcomes or help target therapy. METHODS: A review of the published literature was performed, without restriction of time. RESULTS: Despite the fast-growing literature about the topic and the approval of several urinary biomarkers for use in clinical practice, they have not reached the level of evidence for widespread utilization. Biomarkers could be used in different clinical scenarios, mainly to overcome the limitations of current diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic tools. They have been evaluated to detect bladder cancer in asymptomatic populations or those with hematuria and in surveillance of disease as adjuncts to cystoscopy. There is also a potential role as prognosticators of disease recurrence, progression and survival both in patients with non-invasive cancers and in those with advanced disease. Finally, they promise to be helpful in predicting the response to local and/or systemic chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: To date, due to the lack of high-quality prospective trials, the level of evidence provided by the current literature remains low and, therefore, the potential of biomarkers exceeds utilization in clinical practice.

13 Review Bladder Cancer Survivorship. 2018

Bhanvadia, Sumeet K. ·USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, USC Institute of Urology, 1441 Eastlake Ave, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA, 90094, USA. ssyan@med.usc.edu. ·Curr Urol Rep · Pubmed #30414013.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bladder cancer (BC) is the second most common genitourinary malignancy, with a growing population of survivors globally. Over the past two decades, there has been a growing awareness of not only the oncologic, but also the quality of life ramifications of a BC diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance. In the current review, the literature surrounding the many domains that encompass bladder cancer survivorship is summarized and analyzed. RECENT FINDINGS: There have been ongoing efforts to decrease perioperative morbidity, particularly in patients undergoing radical cystectomy, with mixed results. There is a growing emphasis on the short and long-term health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) impacts of bladder cancer spanning the domains of physical and mental QoL related to urinary function, sexual function, and financial and psychological burden, with validated measures specific to BC patients. There continue to be disparities in oncologic outcomes by race and gender. The impact of BC is prolonged and there is an unmet need for long term support and survivorship resources to address this. There is a growing global population of bladder cancer patients, and their needs are complex and vary by stage, treatment, and certain demographic features. Outcome-centered perioperative strategies show potential to diminish treatment morbidity, and validated BC specific HR-QoL tools have helped to define the impact and burden of BC, but there continue to be large areas of unmet need that warrant greater study and intervention.

14 Review An Update in Enhanced Recovery Following Radical Cystectomy. 2018

Ghodoussipour, Saum / Djaladat, Hooman. ·Institute of Urology, USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA. · Institute of Urology, USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA. djaladat@med.usc.edu. ·Curr Urol Rep · Pubmed #30338450.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the study is to review and summarize major additions to the literature as pertains to enhanced recovery protocols after radical cystectomy in the past year. RECENT FINDINGS: Enhanced recovery after surgery protocols is multimodal pathways that include elements to optimize all stages of care including preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative measures. Several authors have recently presented their results with initial implementation of an enhanced recovery protocol after radical cystectomy, while others have begun to examine outcomes beyond the index admission and to refine the various targeted components of the protocol. Enhanced recovery after surgery protocols has revolutionized patient care following radical cystectomy, a procedure still burdened by high complication rates and lengthy hospital stay. Although still lacking in universal implementation and standardization of the protocol, significant advancements are made each year as we move towards best practice.

15 Review Risk factors for loco-regional recurrence after radical cystectomy of muscle-invasive bladder cancer: A systematic-review and framework for adjuvant radiotherapy. 2018

Sargos, Paul / Baumann, Brian C / Eapen, Libni / Christodouleas, John / Bahl, Amhit / Murthy, Vedang / Efstathiou, Jason / Fonteyne, Valérie / Ballas, Leslie / Zaghloul, Mohamed / Roubaud, Guilhem / Orré, Mathieu / Larré, Stéphane. ·Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Bergonié, F-33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France. Electronic address: p.sargos@bordeaux.unicancer.fr. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Washington, MO 63110, United States. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital, K1H 8L6 Ottawa, ON, Canada. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine, 19104-6021 Philadelphia, PA, United States. · Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Bristol, Bristol BS2 8HW, United Kingdom. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400012, India. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, United States. · Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. · Department of Radiation Oncology, USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, United States. · Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. · Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Bergonié, F-33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Bergonié, F-33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France. · Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Reims, F-51092 Reims, France. ·Cancer Treat Rev · Pubmed #30125800.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Radical cystectomy (RC) associated with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is the most common local therapy in the management of non-metastatic muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Loco-regional recurrence (LRR), however, remains a common and important therapeutic challenge associated with poor oncologic outcomes. We aimed to systematically review evidence regarding factors associated with LRR and to propose a framework for adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in patients with MIBC. METHODS: We performed this systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched the PubMed database for articles related to MIBC and associated treatments, published between January 1980 and June 2015. Articles identified by searching references from candidate articles were also included. We retrieved 1383 publications from PubMed and 34 from other sources. After an initial screening, a review of titles and abstracts, and a final comprehensive full text analysis of papers assessed for eligibility, a final consensus on 32 studies was obtained. RESULTS: LRR is associated with specific patient-, tumor-, center- or treatment-related variables. LRR varies widely, occurring in as many as 43% of the cases and is strongly related to survival outcomes. While perioperative treatment does not impact on LRR, pathological factors such as pT, pN, positive margins status, extent of PLND, number of lymph nodes removed and/or invaded are correlated with LRR. Patients with pT3-T4a and/or positive lymph-nodes and/or limited pelvic lymph-node dissection and/or positive surgical margins have been distributed in LRR risk groups with accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: LRR patterns are well-known and for selected patients, adjuvant treatments could target this event. Intrinsic tumor subtype may guide future criteria to define a personalized treatment strategy. Prospective trials evaluating safety and efficacy of adjuvant RT are ongoing in several countries.

16 Review Enhanced Endoscopy in Bladder Cancer. 2018

Pearce, Shane / Daneshmand, Siamak. ·Institute of Urology, USC Keck/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Ave, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA. shane.pearce@med.usc.edu. · Institute of Urology, USC Keck/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Ave, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA. ·Curr Urol Rep · Pubmed #30116985.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endoscopy coupled with targeted resections represents a cornerstone in the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of patients with bladder cancer. Direct visualization can be challenging and imprecise due to patient-, tumor-, and surgeon-specific factors. We will review contemporary endoscopic technologies and techniques used to improve our ability to safely identify and resect malignant lesions in patients with bladder cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Enhanced endoscopic imaging technology may improve detection rates for bladder cancer throughout the upper and lower urinary tract, which may lead to improvements in recurrence and progression rates for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). New techniques including narrow-band imaging (NBI), photodynamic diagnosis (PDD), Storz Professional Image Enhancement System (SPIES), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and others have shown benefit and may further improve our ability to detect and stage bladder tumors. Enhanced endoscopy technologies have already demonstrated value in improving the sensitivity of bladder cancer detection and early results suggest they may improve short- and long-term oncologic outcomes.

17 Review Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Pathways: Role and Outcomes in the Management of Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer. 2018

Zainfeld, Daniel / Shah, Ankeet / Daneshmand, Siamak. ·Department of Urology, USC Keck/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA. · Department of Urology, USC Keck/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA. Electronic address: daneshma@med.usc.edu. ·Urol Clin North Am · Pubmed #29650138.

ABSTRACT: Radical cystectomy remains the gold standard therapy for the treatment of muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma, yet is accompanied by significant rates of perioperative complications and readmission. Enhanced recovery protocols aim to apply evidence-based principles of care to ameliorate the morbidity of this procedure by enabling better tolerance of and recovery from radical cystectomy. Multiple patient series have demonstrated the capacity for enhanced-recovery-after-surgery (ERAS) principles to improve outcomes among patients undergoing radical cystectomy through decreased incidence of gastrointestinal complications and decreased length of hospitalization without increased readmissions or overall morbidity. Opportunities remain for adoption of established ERAS principles.

18 Review Unmasking molecular profiles of bladder cancer. 2018

Piao, Xuan-Mei / Byun, Young Joon / Kim, Wun-Jae / Kim, Jayoung. ·Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Korea. · Departments of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ·Investig Clin Urol · Pubmed #29520382.

ABSTRACT: Precision medicine is designed to tailor treatments for individual patients by factoring in each person's specific biology and mechanism of disease. This paradigm shifted from a "one size fits all" approach to "personalized and precision care" requires multiple layers of molecular profiling of biomarkers for accurate diagnosis and prediction of treatment responses. Intensive studies are also being performed to understand the complex and dynamic molecular profiles of bladder cancer. These efforts involve looking bladder cancer mechanism at the multiple levels of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, lipidome, metabolome etc. The aim of this short review is to outline the current technologies being used to investigate molecular profiles and discuss biomarker candidates that have been investigated as possible diagnostic and prognostic indicators of bladder cancer.

19 Review Durvalumab: an investigational anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma. 2018

Faiena, Izak / Cummings, Amy L / Crosetti, Anna M / Pantuck, Allan J / Chamie, Karim / Drakaki, Alexandra. ·Department of Urology. · Institute of Urologic Oncology. · Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ·Drug Des Devel Ther · Pubmed #29416316.

ABSTRACT: Our expanding knowledge of immunotherapy for solid tumors has led to an explosion of clinical trials aimed at urothelial carcinoma. The primary strategy is centered on unleashing the immune system by releasing the inhibitory signals propagated by programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1). Many antibody constructs have been developed to block these interactions and are used in clinical trials. The Food and Drug Administration has already approved a number of checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) monoclonal antibodies including ipilimumab; anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies including nivolumab and pembrolizumab; anti-PD-L1 antibodies including atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab. One of the latest inhibitors is durvalumab, which is a high-affinity human immunoglobulin G1 kappa monoclonal antibody and blocks the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 and CD80. Currently, there are a number of ongoing trials in advanced urothelial carcinoma both using durvalumab monotherapy and in combination with other targeted therapies. In addition, durvalumab is being investigated in the non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma, which is centered around intravenous formulations. These exciting developments have added a significant number of therapies in a previously limited treatment landscape.

20 Review Implementing risk-aligned bladder cancer surveillance care. 2018

Schroeck, Florian R / Smith, Nicholas / Shelton, Jeremy B. ·VA Outcomes Group, White River Junction VA Medical Center, White River Junction, VT; Section of Urology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH; Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH; The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH. Electronic address: florian.r.schroeck@dartmouth.edu. · Department of Urology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. · Department of Urology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA; Greater Los Angeles VA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA. ·Urol Oncol · Pubmed #29395957.

ABSTRACT: Implementation science is a rapidly developing field dedicated to the scientific investigation of strategies to facilitate improvements in healthcare delivery. These strategies have been shown in several settings to lead to more complete and sustained change. In this essay, we discuss how refined surveillance recommendations for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, which involve a complex interplay between providers, healthcare facilities, and patients, could benefit from use of implementation strategies derived from the growing literature of implementation science. These surveillance recommendations are based on international consensus and indicate that the frequency of surveillance cystoscopy should be aligned with each patient's risk for recurrence and progression of disease. Risk-aligned surveillance entails cystoscopy at 3 and 12 months followed by annual surveillance for low-risk cancers, with surveillance every 3 months reserved for high-risk cancers. However, risk-aligned care is not the norm. Implementing risk-aligned surveillance could curtail overuse among low-risk patients, while curbing underuse among high-risk patients. Despite clear direction from respected and readily available clinical guidelines, there are multiple challenges to implementing risk-aligned surveillance in a busy clinical setting. Here, we describe how implementation science methods can be systematically used to understand determinants of care and to develop strategies to improve care. We discuss how the tailored implementation for chronic diseases framework can facilitate systematic assessment and how intervention mapping can be used to develop implementation strategies to improve care. Taken together, these implementation science methods can help facilitate practice transformation to improve risk-aligned surveillance for bladder cancer.

21 Review The Current Status and Future Role of the Phosphoinositide 3 Kinase/AKT Signaling Pathway in Urothelial Cancer: An Old Pathway in the New Immunotherapy Era. 2018

Liu, Sandy T / Hui, Gavin / Mathis, Colleen / Chamie, Karim / Pantuck, Allan J / Drakaki, Alexandra. ·Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. · David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. · Institute of Urologic Oncology, Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. · Institute of Urologic Oncology, Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. · Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; Institute of Urologic Oncology, Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address: adrakaki@mednet.ucla.edu. ·Clin Genitourin Cancer · Pubmed #29199023.

ABSTRACT: The phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a well studied signaling pathway that regulates diverse cellular functions including proliferation, metabolism, and transcription. Aberrant activation of this pathway has been implicated in multiple cancers. Genomic studies have shown that activating mutations in oncogenes as well as inactivating mutations in tumor suppressor genes are present across a variety of malignancies, including urothelial carcinoma. In bladder cancer, up to 40% of tumors exhibit constitutive activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Current treatments for non-muscle-invasive disease confer a 5-year cancer-specific survival rate as high as 90%. However, patients with muscle-invasive, recurrent, or metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. Although the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors is certainly changing the therapeutic landscape and is a great addition to the platinum-based therapy that was the standard of care for the past 3 decades, it is anticipated that a great number of patients would fail to respond or their disease would progress with either chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Therefore, the use of agents that target members of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway represent an attractive, alternative therapeutic strategy for patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma. In this review we describe the pathway, with a focus on the rationale for targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma and considers the challenges that we face from the current clinical trials. Novel agents such as PI3K inhibitors and microRNA inhibitors that target this pathway might lead to durable responses especially when used in combination with chemotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors, however, toxicity remains an obstacle. Finally, in this review we discuss the importance of developing biomarkers to help select appropriate patients and identify optimal treatment options.

22 Review Continent Cutaneous Diversion. 2018

Pearce, Shane M / Daneshmand, Siamak. ·Department of Urology, USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute of Urology, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA. · Department of Urology, USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute of Urology, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA. Electronic address: daneshma@med.usc.edu. ·Urol Clin North Am · Pubmed #29169451.

ABSTRACT: Techniques in continent cutaneous urinary diversion (CCUD) have evolved significantly over the last 30 years resulting in several well-established procedures. CCUD is well suited for patients in whom the urethra cannot be used for orthotopic diversion due to preexisting incontinence, radiation damage, or malignancy. Reservoirs are constructed with adherence to basic principles of continent urinary diversion, including the use of detubularized bowel in a spherical conformation for pouch creation with either ileum or the right colon. The article reviews the history, patient selection, preoperative evaluation, surgical technique, and outcomes of CCUD.

23 Review Immunotherapy in urothelial cancer, part 2: adjuvant, neoadjuvant, and adjunctive treatment. 2017

Yu, Steven S / Ballas, Leslie K / Skinner, Eila C / Dorff, Tanya B / Sadeghi, Sarmad / Quinn, David I. ·Division of Oncology, University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California. · Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California. · Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. ·Clin Adv Hematol Oncol · Pubmed #28749918.

ABSTRACT: Urothelial cancer, which is predominantly seen in men, is common throughout the world. Most disease presents as non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), with cancer recurring or progressing to muscle invasive disease in more than 50% of patients after initial therapy. NMIBC is an immune responsive disease, as indicated by the use of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin as treatment for more than 3 decades. The advent of T-cell checkpoint inhibitors, especially those directed at programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), has had a significant impact on the therapy of advanced urothelial cancer. This had led to a revisitation of immunotherapy in urothelial cancer, as well as the genesis of trials using novel immunotherapeutic agents. This review focuses on immunotherapy in NMIBC, both on its own and as a potential treatment in combination with RT. It also discusses the development of immunotherapies in early bladder cancer disease states, and in neoadjuvant and adjuvant perioperative settings for localized muscle invasive cancers.

24 Review Immunotherapy in urothelial cancer, part 1: T-cell checkpoint inhibition in advanced or metastatic disease. 2017

Yu, Steven S / Dorff, Tanya B / Ballas, Leslie K / Sadeghi, Sarmad / Skinner, Eila C / Quinn, David I. ·Division of Oncology, University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California. · Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, California. · Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. ·Clin Adv Hematol Oncol · Pubmed #28749907.

ABSTRACT: Cancer of the urothelium is the sixth most common cancer in the United States and is seen predominantly in men. Most cases of this disease present as non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), with cancer recurrence or progression to muscle-invasive cancer in more than 50% of patients after initial therapy. NMIBC is an immune-responsive disease, as indicated by the use of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin as treatment for more than 3 decades. More recently, immunotherapy has seen much progress in a variety of cancers, including advanced and metastatic bladder cancer, in which historical 5-year survival rates are approximately 15%. The advent of T-cell checkpoint inhibitors, especially those directed at programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), has had a significant effect on the therapy of advanced urothelial cancer. This had led to accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for atezolizumab and nivolumab in advanced urothelial cancer previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. In addition, level 1 evidence supports the use of pembrolizumab over single-agent tubulin-directed chemotherapy in the same setting. Several other treatments with immune-mediating mechanisms of action are in development and hold great promise, including monoclonal antibodies directed at other checkpoint molecules, oncolytic virus therapy, adoptive T-cell therapy, combination immunotherapy, and antibody-drug conjugates. This review focuses on the recent development of T-cell checkpoint inhibitors in advanced and metastatic urothelial cancer and addresses their potential use in combination. It also discusses a spectrum of novel immunotherapies with potential use in urothelial cancer.

25 Review S100P as a Marker for Urothelial Histogenesis: A Critical Review and Comparison With Novel and Traditional Urothelial Immunohistochemical Markers. 2017

Suryavanshi, Moushumi / Sanz-Ortega, Julian / Sirohi, Deepika / Divatia, Mukul K / Ohe, Chisato / Zampini, Claudia / Luthringer, Daniel / Smith, Steven C / Amin, Mahul B. ·*Department of Laboratory and Transfusion Services, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Research Institute, Delhi, India †Department of Pathological Anatomy, San Carlos Hospital Clinic/Complutense University, Madrid, Spain §Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy ‡Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA ∥Departments of Pathology and Urology, VCU School of Medicine, Richmond, VA ¶Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN. ·Adv Anat Pathol · Pubmed #28398953.

ABSTRACT: S100P, or placental S100, is a member of a large family of S100 proteins and considered to be a promising immunohistochemical marker to support urothelial differentiation. This review synthesizes published data regarding the expression of S100P in urothelial carcinoma across histological grade and variant patterns, and in other malignancies, in an effort to summarize the state of understanding of this marker and evaluate its potential. We provide also a broad comparison of S100P with other contemporary and traditional urothelial markers and outline the potential utility of S100P in various diagnostically challenging scenarios. Taken in context, we recommend that to provide immunohistochemical support for consideration of urothelial differentiation, S100P may be included in a panel of markers (due to its high sensitivity), with better established (GATA3) and more specific (uroplakin 2) markers, for comparison with corresponding markers of other primary sites under consideration, depending on the clinical context. We emphasize that the overall most appropriate panel for any given case depends on the differential diagnosis engendered by the morphology encountered, and the constellation of clinical findings. As always with immunohistochemical panels, expected positive and negative markers for each diagnostic consideration should be included. Finally, since as of date there are no optimally sensitive or specific markers of urothelial differentiation, all final diagnoses relying on immunohistochemical support should be made in the appropriate clinical and histological context.

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