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Bronchioles HELP
Based on 317 articles published since 2010

These are the 317 published articles about Bronchioles that originated from Worldwide during 2010-2020.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13
1 Editorial Taking Precise Aim at Lung Disease. 2019

Piedimonte, Giovanni. ·1 Center for Pediatric Research Cleveland Clinic Foundation Cleveland, Ohio. ·Am J Respir Crit Care Med · Pubmed #30557514.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial New Rules for Club Development: New Insights into Human Small Airway Epithelial Club Cell Ontogeny and Function. 2018

Dean, Charlotte H / Snelgrove, Robert J. ·1 National Heart and Lung Institute Imperial College London London, United Kingdom. ·Am J Respir Crit Care Med · Pubmed #29877729.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Evaluating small-airways disease in asthmatic patients: The utility of quantitative computed tomography. 2017

Tashkin, Donald P / Kim, Hyun J / Zeidler, Michelle / Kleerup, Eric / Goldin, Jonathan. ·Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, Calif. Electronic address: dtashkin@mednet.ucla.edu. · Department of Radiologic Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, Calif. · Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, Calif. ·J Allergy Clin Immunol · Pubmed #27884601.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Unmet needs for the assessment of small airways dysfunction in asthma: introduction to the ATLANTIS study. 2015

Postma, Dirkje S / Brightling, Chris / Fabbri, Leo / van der Molen, Thys / Nicolini, Gabriele / Papi, Alberto / Rabe, Klaus F / Siddiqui, Salman / Singh, Dave / van den Berge, Maarten / Kraft, Monica. ·University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Dept of Pulmonology, Groningen, The Netherlands d.s.postma@umcg.nl. · Dept of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Institute for Lung Health, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK. · Dept of Oncology Haematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy. · University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. · Global Clinical Development, Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., Parma, Italy. · Dept of Respiratory Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy. · Dept of Medicine, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel and LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany (Members of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL)). · Dept of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, UK. · Medicines Evaluation Unit, University Hospital of South Manchester Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. · University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Dept of Pulmonology, Groningen, The Netherlands. · Dept of Medicine, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ, USA. ·Eur Respir J · Pubmed #26028618.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Hepatocyte growth factor deficiency in COPD: a mechanism of emphysema and small airway fibrosis? 2014

Barnes, Peter J. ·From the Airway Disease Section, National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, England. Electronic address: p.j.barnes@imperial.ac.uk. ·Chest · Pubmed #25367460.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Alveolar recruitment and lung injury: an issue of timing and location? 2013

Cereda, Maurizio / Xin, Yi. ·Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA Department of Radiology Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA. ·Crit Care Med · Pubmed #24275404.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial A pathologist's view of airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2012

Hogg, James C. · ·Am J Respir Crit Care Med · Pubmed #22942353.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Editorial Bronchiolitis obliterans in children: a ghostly journey to the origin. 2011

De Baets, F. · ·Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) · Pubmed #21872382.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Editorial Small airway disease in asthma: a need for awareness in patients and doctors. 2011

van den Berge, Maarten / ten Hacken, Nicolaas Hubertus Theodorous / Postma, Dirkje Sjoukje. · ·Clin Respir J · Pubmed #21679347.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Editorial Alveolar nitric oxide concentration, small airways inflammation, and targeted asthma therapy: are we there yet? 2010

Kelly, H William. · ·J Allergy Clin Immunol · Pubmed #20920762.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

11 Review Recent Advances in Inflammation and Treatment of Small Airways in Asthma. 2019

Zinellu, Elisabetta / Piras, Barbara / Ruzittu, Giulia G M / Fois, Sara S / Fois, Alessandro G / Pirina, Pietro. ·Respiratory Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (AOU), V.le San Pietro, 07100 Sassari, Italy. elisabetta.zinellu@aousassari.it. · Respiratory Unit, Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, V.le San Pietro, 07100 Sassari, Italy. barbara.piras@aousassari.it. · Respiratory Unit, Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, V.le San Pietro, 07100 Sassari, Italy. giuliaruzittu@hotmail.com. · Respiratory Unit, Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, V.le San Pietro, 07100 Sassari, Italy. sara.solveig.fois@gmail.com. · Respiratory Unit, Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, V.le San Pietro, 07100 Sassari, Italy. agfois@uniss.it. · Respiratory Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (AOU), V.le San Pietro, 07100 Sassari, Italy. pirina@uniss.it. · Respiratory Unit, Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, V.le San Pietro, 07100 Sassari, Italy. pirina@uniss.it. ·Int J Mol Sci · Pubmed #31141956.

ABSTRACT: Small airways were historically considered to be almost irrelevant in the development and control of pulmonary chronic diseases but, as a matter of fact, in the past few years we have learned that they are not so "silent". Asthma is still a worldwide health issue due to the great share of patients being far from optimal management. Several studies have shown that the deeper lung inflammation plays a critical role in asthma pathogenesis, mostly in these not well-controlled subjects. Therefore, assessing the degree of small airways inflammation and impairment appears to be a pivotal step in the asthmatic patient's management. It is now possible to evaluate them through direct and indirect measurements, even if some obstacles still affect their clinical application. The success of any treatment obviously depends on several factors but reaching the deeper lung has become a priority and, for inhaled drugs, this is strictly connected to the molecule's size. The aim of the present review is to summarize the recent evidence concerning the small airway involvement in asthma, its physiopathological characteristics and how it can be evaluated in order to undertake a personalized pharmacological treatment and achieve a better disease control.

12 Review [Are Small Airways the Key to Understanding Pathophysiology and Treatment Efficacy in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases?] 2018

Koehler, U / Hildebrandt, O / Koehler, N / Sohrabi, K. ·Klinik für Innere Medizin, SP Pneumologie, Intensiv- und Schlafmedizin, Philipps-Universität Marburg. · Fachbereich Gesundheit, Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Gießen. ·Pneumologie · Pubmed #30408831.

ABSTRACT: This review presents updated information on small airways in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive respiratory diseases. The lungs have a branching structure, segmentally divided from trachea down to the alveoli (generations 1 - 23). Airways can be divided into a conducting (generations 1 - 16) and a respiratory zone (generations 17 - 23). Conducting zone is mainly for air transportation, respiratory zone for gas exchange. Increasing attention has been directed to the role of small airways in chronic obstructive respiratory diseases. The small conducting airways < 2 mm in diameter are the major site of airway inflammation and obstruction in COPD. It has been shown that the last generation of small conducting airways, the terminal bronchioles, are significantly destroyed in patients with very severe COPD. At what stage in the development of COPD the loss of small airways occurs is not exactly known. The small airways represent the most important target for deposition of inhaled therapeutic particles. Currently there is no gold standard for detecting small airway dysfunction. Techniques such as spirometry and body plethysmography can provide information on air trapping. High-resolution CT enables the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema and diseases of the large airways. Only micro-CT imaging offers the option to describe microstructure of terminal bronchioles. Impulse oscillometry, gas washout techniques and analysis of exhaled nitric oxide are diagnostic tools which have to be validated for diagnosis and treatment response of small airway diseases.

13 Review [Chronic diseases, precancer, and cancer of the lung, which are associated with pathology of the club cells of respiratory and terminal bronchioles]. 2018

Demura, S A / Kogan, E A / Goryachkina, V L. ·I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia. ·Arkh Patol · Pubmed #30335064.

ABSTRACT: The review of the literature deals with the participation of Clara cells now called club cells (CCs) of the epithelium in the respiratory and terminal bronchioles in the pathogenesis and morphogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, precancer, and cancer of the lung, which develop in the respiratory segments. The review summarizes data on the histophysiology of CCs and their participation in the pathogenesis and morphogenesis of chronic interstitial lung diseases, pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive diseases, adenomatosis, and adenocarcinoma of the lung. In this area, there is a bronchioloalveolar junction area (BAJA), one of the most important stem cell niches. CCs are located in the BAJA; they are progenitor tissue stem cells and play an important role in the regeneration of the epithelium of the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli. Pathology of CCs in the BAJA leads to the maintenance of chronic inflammation, to the destruction of the lung elastic frame, and to impaired epithelial regeneration, interstitial fibrosis, and adenomatosis. In this case, decompensated inflammation, pathological regeneration, and fibrosis develop, which, along with the action of carcinogenic agents, can contribute to the accumulation of mutations and epigenetic rearrangements in the CCs, which subsequently results in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma of the lung.

14 Review Therapeutic targets for inflammation-mediated airway remodeling in chronic lung disease. 2018

Brasier, Allan R. ·a Department of Internal Medicine , Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health , Madison , WI , USA. ·Expert Rev Respir Med · Pubmed #30241450.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Acute exacerbations of chronic lung disease account for substantial morbidity and health costs. Repeated inflammatory episodes and attendant bronchoconstriction cause structural remodeling of the airway. Remodeling is a multicellular response to mucosal injury that results in epithelial cell-state changes, enhanced extracellular deposition, and expansion of pro-fibrotic myofibroblast populations. Areas covered: This manuscript overviews mechanistic studies identifying key sentinel cell populations in the airway and how pattern recognition signaling induces maladaptive mucosal changes and airway remodeling. Studies elucidating how NFκB couples with an atypical histone acetyltransferase, bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) that reprograms mucosal fibrogenic responses, are described. The approaches to development and characterization of selective inhibitors of epigenetic reprogramming on innate inflammation and structural remodeling in preclinical models are detailed. Expert commentary: Bronchiolar cells derived from Scgb1a1-expressing progenitors function as major sentinel cells of the airway, responsible for initiating antiviral and aeroallergen responses. In these sentinel cells, activation of innate inflammation is coupled to neutrophilic recruitment, mesenchymal transition and myofibroblast expansion. Therapeutics targeting the NFkB-BRD4 may be efficacious in reducing pathological effects of acute exacerbations in chronic lung disease.

15 Review The emerging spectrum of exposure-related bronchiolitis. 2018

Krefft, Silpa D / Cool, Carlyne D / Rose, Cecile S. ·Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Jewish Health, Denver. · Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine. · Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Colorado School of Public Health. · Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora. · Division of Pathology, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado, USA. ·Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol · Pubmed #29394172.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exposure-related bronchiolitis is increasingly recognized as an important but challenging clinical diagnosis. Acute and chronic inhalational exposures are associated with variable clinical presentations and a spectrum of histopathologic abnormalities affecting the small airways. This review provides an overview of the histologic patterns and occupational settings for exposure-related bronchiolitis, along with recent advances in disease diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: The entire histopathologic spectrum of bronchiolitis (constrictive, obliterative, proliferative, lymphocytic, respiratory) has been reported in exposure-related bronchiolitis. Recent studies have shown that lung clearance index testing and impulse oscillometry are more sensitive than spirometry in detecting small airways abnormalities and may augment the diagnosis of occupational bronchiolitis. Prognosis in indolent occupational bronchiolitis appears more favorable than some other types of bronchiolitis but is variable depending on the extent of bronchiolar inflammation and the stage of disease at which exposure removal occurs. SUMMARY: No specific histopathologic pattern of bronchiolitis is pathognomonic for occupational bronchiolitis as one or more histologic patterns may be present. A high index of suspicion is needed for exposure and disease recognition. Recent advances that may aid in diagnosis include transbronchial cryobiopsy, lung clearance index testing, and impulse oscillometry, although further research is needed.

16 Review [Silent lung zone - application of multi-breath nitrogen washout test (MBNW) in the diagnosis of small airways diseases in children - preliminary report based on literature and own experience]. 2017

Walicka-Serzysko, Katarzyna / Postek, Magdalena / Sands, Dorota. ·Klinika i Zakład Mukowiscydozy Instytutu Matki i Dziecka w Warszawie, Polska, Centrum Leczenia Mukowiscydozy w Dziekanowie Leśnym, Polska. ·Dev Period Med · Pubmed #29291364.

ABSTRACT: Small airways are the site of pathological changes often in an early stage in many diseases such as asthma or cystic fibrosis. However this part of the airways is overlooked in conventional respiratory function tests and it is therefore often referred to as "silent lung zone". This paper presents the theoretical background of MBNW multi-breath nitrogen washout in the diagnosis of minor respiratory diseases. The technical issues related to the preparation of pediatric patients for the test. Clinical applications of the MBNW test results are still subject to a number of studies. There is hope for filling the gaps in the small airway function tests. Due to the authors' involvement in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis, their own experience in the use of this study was also described. Currently, the method is in the phase of intensive analysis for the early diagnosis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis, when still other functional tests are in normal range or impossible to perform due to patient age. Correlation with medical imaging methods (chest computed tomography) and the severity of structural changes may in future limit the amount of radiology tests. In addition this can reduce the patient's exposure to ionizing radiation. Introduction of lung function tests such a MBW in infants and preschool children with cystic fibrosis and other minor respiratory diseases may modify clinical management and improve prognosis.

17 Review Both Ways at Once: Keeping Small Airways Clean. 2017

Quinton, Paul M. ·University of California-San Diego, San Diego, California pquinton@ucsd.edu. ·Physiology (Bethesda) · Pubmed #28814498.

ABSTRACT: The small airways of the lungs are under constant assault from the pathogens and debris in the air that they must conduct to alveoli. Although hygiene is of paramount importance for respiratory health, the underlying principles of airway clearance have not been well integrated or established. Newly emerging concepts of simultaneous absorption and secretion of airway surface liquid (ASL) and the role of [Formula: see text] in the maturation of mucins have advanced from experimental evidence as well as observations from the congenital disease cystic fibrosis (CF) to present a novel model that integrates microanatomy with organ physiology to meet the constant challenge of cleaning small airways.

18 Review Dilemmas, Confusion, and Misconceptions Related to Small Airways Directed Therapy. 2017

Lavorini, Federico / Pedersen, Søren / Usmani, Omar S / Anonymous2380878. ·Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy. Electronic address: federico.lavorini@unifi.it. · Pediatric Research Unit, University of Southern Denmark, Kolding Hospital, Kolding, Denmark. · Airways Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London and Royal Brompton Hospital, London, England. ·Chest · Pubmed #27522955.

ABSTRACT: During the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that the small airways (ie, airways < 2 mm in internal diameter) contribute substantially to the pathophysiologic and clinical expression of asthma and COPD. The increased interest in small airways is, at least in part, a result of innovation in small-particle aerosol formulations that better target the distal lung and also advanced physiologic methods of assessing small airway responses. Increasing the precision of drug deposition may improve targeting of specific diseases or receptor locations, decrease airway drug exposure and adverse effects, and thereby increase the efficiency and effectiveness of inhaled drug delivery. The availability of small-particle aerosols of corticosteroids, bronchodilators, or their combination enables a higher total lung deposition and better peripheral lung penetration and provides added clinical benefit, compared with large-particle aerosol treatment. However, a number of questions remain unanswered about the pragmatic approach relevant for clinicians to consider the role of small airways directed therapy in the day-to-day management of asthma and COPD. We thus have tried to clarify the dilemmas, confusion, and misconceptions related to small airways directed therapy. To this end, we have reviewed all studies on small-particle aerosol therapy systematically to address the dilemmas, confusion, and misconceptions related to small airways directed therapy.

19 Review Imaging of Small Airways Diseases. 2016

Berniker, Abigail V / Henry, Travis S. ·Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. · Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address: Travis.Henry@ucsf.edu. ·Radiol Clin North Am · Pubmed #27719982.

ABSTRACT: Small airways disease, or bronchiolitis, encompasses many conditions that result in bronchiolar inflammation and/or fibrosis. Bronchioles are distal airways within secondary pulmonary lobules that are only visible on imaging when abnormal. High-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in diagnosing small airways disease. The predominant direct high-resolution computed tomography sign of bronchiolitis includes centrilobular nodules, whereas air trapping is the main indirect finding. This article reviews bronchiolar anatomy, discusses the differential diagnosis for cellular and constrictive bronchiolitis with a focus on key imaging features, and discusses how to distinguish important mimics.

20 Review Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Genetic Disease That Involves Mucociliary Dysfunction of the Peripheral Airways. 2016

Evans, Christopher M / Fingerlin, Tasha E / Schwarz, Marvin I / Lynch, David / Kurche, Jonathan / Warg, Laura / Yang, Ivana V / Schwartz, David A. ·Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado; National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado; and Department of Immunology, University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado. ·Physiol Rev · Pubmed #27630174.

ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an incurable complex genetic disorder that is associated with sequence changes in 7 genes (MUC5B, TERT, TERC, RTEL1, PARN, SFTPC, and SFTPA2) and with variants in at least 11 novel loci. We have previously found that 1) a common gain-of-function promoter variant in MUC5B rs35705950 is the strongest risk factor (genetic and otherwise), accounting for 30-35% of the risk of developing IPF, a disease that was previously considered idiopathic; 2) the MUC5B promoter variant can potentially be used to identify individuals with preclinical pulmonary fibrosis and is predictive of radiologic progression of preclinical pulmonary fibrosis; and 3) MUC5B may be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis with MUC5B message and protein expressed in bronchiolo-alveolar epithelia of IPF and the characteristic IPF honeycomb cysts. Based on these considerations, we hypothesize that excessive production of MUC5B either enhances injury due to reduced mucociliary clearance or impedes repair consequent to disruption of normal regenerative mechanisms in the distal lung. In aggregate, these novel considerations should have broad impact, resulting in specific etiologic targets, early detection of disease, and novel biologic pathways for use in the design of future intervention, prevention, and mechanistic studies of IPF.

21 Review Many Faces of Bronchiolitis and Organizing Pneumonia. 2016

Cordier, Jean-François / Cottin, Vincent / Lazor, Romain / Thivolet-Béjui, Françoise. ·Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Reference Center for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Lyon, France. · Department of Pathology, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Lyon, France. ·Semin Respir Crit Care Med · Pubmed #27231865.

ABSTRACT: As the bronchioles have a strategic position between the airways and the alveolar structures, they are at a site where disorders of many origins may develop, including infections, inflammatory and/or fibrosing processes of immune, occupational, environmental, tumoral, and iatrogenic origin, which may result in predominant bronchiolitis and/or organizing pneumonia. This etiologic variety results in many distinct entities and syndromes, common or rare, with new or renewed faces such as bronchiolocentric interstitial pneumonia or organizing pneumonia primed by radiation to the breast.

22 Review Cells and Culture Systems Used to Model the Small Airway Epithelium. 2016

Bhowmick, Rudra / Gappa-Fahlenkamp, Heather. ·Department of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 420 Engineering North, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA. · Department of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 420 Engineering North, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA. Heather.Fahlenkamp@okstate.edu. ·Lung · Pubmed #27071933.

ABSTRACT: The pulmonary epithelium is divided into upper, lower, and alveolar (or small) airway epithelia and acts as the mechanical and immunological barrier between the external environment and the underlying submucosa. Of these, the small airway epithelium is the principal area of gas exchange and has high immunological activity, making it a major area of cell biology, immunology, and pharmaceutical research. As animal models do not faithfully represent the human pulmonary system and ex vivo human lung samples have reliability and availability issues, cell lines, and primary cells are widely used as small airway epithelial models. In vitro, these cells are mostly cultured as monolayers (2-dimensional cultures), either media submerged or at air-liquid interface. However, these 2-dimensional cultures lack a three dimension-a scaffolding extracellular matrix, which establishes the intercellular network in the in vivo airway epithelium. Therefore, 3-dimensional cell culture is currently a major area of development, where cells are cultured in a matrix or are cultured in a manner that they develop ECM-like scaffolds between them, thus mimicking the in vivo phenotype more faithfully. This review focuses on the commonly used small airway epithelial cells, their 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional culture techniques, and their comparative phenotype when cultured under these systems.

23 Review Effects of hydrogen sulphide in smooth muscle. 2016

Dunn, William R / Alexander, Stephen P H / Ralevic, Vera / Roberts, Richard E. ·Pharmacology Research Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, United Kingdom. Electronic address: William.dunn@nottingham.ac.uk. · Pharmacology Research Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, United Kingdom. ·Pharmacol Ther · Pubmed #26706238.

ABSTRACT: In recent years, it has become apparent that the gaseous pollutant, hydrogen sulphide (H2S) can be synthesised in the body and has a multitude of biological actions. This review summarizes some of the actions of this 'gasotransmitter' in influencing the smooth muscle that is responsible for controlling muscular activity of hollow organs. In the vasculature, while H2S can cause vasoconstriction by complex interactions with other biologically important gases, such as nitric oxide, the prevailing response is vasorelaxation. While most vasorelaxation responses occur by a direct action of H2S on smooth muscle cells, it has recently been proposed to be an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. H2S also promotes relaxation in other smooth muscle preparations including bronchioles, the bladder, gastrointestinal tract and myometrium, opening up the opportunity of exploiting the pharmacology of H2S in the treatment of conditions where smooth muscle tone is excessive. The original concept, that H2S caused smooth muscle relaxation by activating ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, has been supplemented with observations that H2S can also modify the activity of other potassium channels, intracellular pH, phosphodiesterase activity and transient receptor potential channels on sensory nerves. While the enzymes responsible for generating endogenous H2S are widely expressed in smooth muscle preparations, it is much less clear what the physiological role of H2S is in determining smooth muscle contractility. Clarification of this requires the development of potent and selective inhibitors of H2S-generating enzymes.

24 Review Contribution of air pollution to COPD and small airway dysfunction. 2016

Berend, Norbert. ·The George Institute for Global Health, Woolcock Institute for Medical Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. ·Respirology · Pubmed #26412571.

ABSTRACT: Although in many Western countries levels of ambient air pollution have been improving with the setting of upper limits and better urban planning, air pollution in developing countries and particularly those with rapid industrialization has become a major global problem. Together with increased motor vehicle ownership and traffic congestion, there is a growing issue with airborne particles of respirable size. These particles are thought responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular effects and have also been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. The pathologic effects in the lung are mediated via inflammatory pathways and involve oxidative stress similar to cigarette smoking. These effects are seen in the peripheral airways where the smaller particle fractions are deposited and lead to airway remodelling. However, emphysema and loss of bronchioles seen with cigarette smoking have not been described with ambient air pollution, and there are few studies specifically looking at peripheral airway function. Definitive evidence of air pollution causing COPD is lacking and a different study design is required to link air pollution and COPD.

25 Review Interstitial Lung Diseases That Are Difficult to Classify: A Review of Bronchiolocentric Interstitial Lung Disease. 2015

Virk, Renu K / Fraire, Armando E. ·From the Department of Pathology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (Dr Virk) · and the Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (Dr Fraire). ·Arch Pathol Lab Med · Pubmed #26230593.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Idiopathic bronchiolocentric interstitial pneumonia, airway-centered interstitial fibrosis, centrilobular fibrosis, and bronchiolitis interstitial pneumonia are increasingly recognized histopathologic variants of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia that are difficult to fit within existing classification schemes. OBJECTIVE: To review and analyze the appropriate literature that describes the spectrum of histopathologic changes in these conditions, in an effort to ascertain similarities as well as their differences. In addition, we examined associations with hypersensitivity, cigarette smoking, and survival data. DATA SOURCES: Relevant and peer-reviewed literature indexed in PubMed (National Library of Medicine) coupled with experience gained by review of personal cases with appropriate histopathology constitute the basis of this study. CONCLUSIONS: As anticipated, the common link among the above-cited conditions is their bronchiolocentricity, with a predominance of either fibrosis or inflammation. Clear-cut associations with hypersensitivity or cigarette smoking are not evident in this study. The airway-centered interstitial fibrosis variant of bronchiolocentric interstitial lung disease appears to have a poor outcome.