Pick Topic
Review Topic
List Experts
Examine Expert
Save Expert
  Site Guide ··   
Cat Diseases HELP
Based on 7,866 articles published since 2008
||||

These are the 7866 published articles about Cat Diseases that originated from Worldwide during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline ACVIM consensus statement: Support for rational administration of gastrointestinal protectants to dogs and cats. 2018

Marks, Stanley L / Kook, Peter H / Papich, Mark G / Tolbert, M K / Willard, Michael D. ·Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, California. · Vetsuisse Faculty, Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, North Carolina. · Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas. ·J Vet Intern Med · Pubmed #30378711.

ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal barrier is continuously exposed to noxious toxins, reactive oxygen species, microbes, and drugs, leading to the development of inflammatory, erosive, and ultimately ulcerative lesions. This report offers a consensus opinion on the rational administration of GI protectants to dogs and cats, with an emphasis on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine type-2 receptor antagonists (H

2 Guideline STANDARDS OF CARE Anaesthesia guidelines for dogs and cats. 2018

Warne, L N / Bauquier, S H / Pengelly, J / Neck, D / Swinney, G. ·Lecturer in Veterinary Anaesthesia, College of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia. · Board of Directors - Regional Officer, American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia; Senior Lecturer in Veterinary Anaesthesia, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria, Australia. · Vice President, Veterinary Nurses Council of Australia; Chair, National Industry Advisory Group for Veterinary Nurses; Training Consultant, Animal Industries Resource Centre; Veterinary Nurse, East Port Veterinary Hospital, Port Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia. · Deputy Board Member, Veterinary Surgeons' Board of Western Australia; Cottesloe Vet, Cottesloe, Western Australia, Australia. · Medical Affairs Veterinarian and Internal Medicine Consultant Australia and New Zealand, IDEXX Laboratories Pty Ltd, Rydalmere, New South Wales, Australia. ·Aust Vet J · Pubmed #30370594.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Guideline ACVIM consensus statement: Guidelines for the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats. 2018

Acierno, Mark J / Brown, Scott / Coleman, Amanda E / Jepson, Rosanne E / Papich, Mark / Stepien, Rebecca L / Syme, Harriet M. ·Department of Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Midwestern University, 5715 W. Utopia Rd, Glendale Arizona 85308. · College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. · Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, London, United Kingdom. · College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina. · Department of Medical Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin. ·J Vet Intern Med · Pubmed #30353952.

ABSTRACT: An update to the 2007 American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) consensus statement on the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats was presented at the 2017 ACVIM Forum in National Harbor, MD. The updated consensus statement is presented here. The consensus statement aims to provide guidance on appropriate diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in dogs and cats.

4 Guideline 2018 AAHA Diabetes Management Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. 2018

Behrend, Ellen / Holford, Amy / Lathan, Patty / Rucinsky, Renee / Schulman, Rhonda. ·From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama (E.B.) · Department of Small Animal Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee (A.H.) · Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi (P.L.) · Mid Atlantic Cat Hospital, Queenstown, Maryland (R.R.) · and Animal Specialty Group, Los Angeles, California (R.S.). ·J Am Anim Hosp Assoc · Pubmed #29314873.

ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease encountered in canine and feline medicine. The 2018 AAHA Diabetes Management Guidelines for Dogs and Cats revise and update earlier guidelines published in 2010. The 2018 guidelines retain much of the information in the earlier guidelines that continues to be applicable in clinical practice, along with new information that represents current expert opinion on controlling DM. An essential aspect of successful DM management is to ensure that the owner of a diabetic dog or cat is capable of administering insulin, recognizing the clinical signs of inadequately managed DM, and monitoring blood glucose levels at home, although this is ideal but not mandatory; all topics that are reviewed in the guidelines. Insulin therapy is the mainstay of treatment for clinical DM. The guidelines provide recommendations for using each insulin formulation currently available for use in dogs and cats, the choice of which is generally based on efficacy and duration of effect in the respective species. Also discussed are non-insulin therapeutic medications and dietary management. These treatment modalities, along with insulin therapy, give the practitioner an assortment of options for decreasing the clinical signs of DM while avoiding hypoglycemia, the two conditions that represent the definition of a controlled diabetic. The guidelines review identifying and monitoring patients at risk for developing DM, which are important for avoiding unnecessary insulin therapy in patients with transient hyperglycemia or mildly elevated blood glucose.

5 Guideline Recommendations for approaches to meticillin-resistant staphylococcal infections of small animals: diagnosis, therapeutic considerations and preventative measures.: Clinical Consensus Guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology. 2017

Morris, Daniel O / Loeffler, Anette / Davis, Meghan F / Guardabassi, Luca / Weese, J Scott. ·Department of Clinical Studies - Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3900 Delancey St, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. · Department of Clinical Sciences and Services, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK. · Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA. · Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ross University, Basseterre, St Kitts and Nevis, West Indies. · Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, N1G 2W1. ·Vet Dermatol · Pubmed #28516494.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Multiple drug resistance (MDR) in staphylococci, including resistance to the semi-synthetic penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as meticillin, is a problem of global proportions that presents serious challenges to the successful treatment of staphylococcal infections of companion animals. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this document is to provide harmonized recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of meticillin-resistant staphylococcal infections in dogs and cats. METHODS: The authors served as a Guideline Panel (GP) and reviewed the literature available prior to September 2016. The GP prepared a detailed literature review and made recommendations on selected topics. The World Association of Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD) provided guidance and oversight for this process. A draft of the document was presented at the 8th World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology (May 2016) and was then made available via the World Wide Web to the member organizations of the WAVD for a period of three months. Comments were solicited and posted to the GP electronically. Responses were incorporated by the GP into the final document. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to guidelines for the diagnosis, laboratory reporting, judicious therapy (including restriction of use policies for certain antimicrobial drugs), personal hygiene, and environmental cleaning and disinfection may help to mitigate the progressive development and dissemination of MDR staphylococci.

6 Guideline Diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats.: Clinical Consensus Guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology. 2017

Moriello, Karen A / Coyner, Kimberly / Paterson, Susan / Mignon, Bernard. ·Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2015 Linden Drive West, Madison, WI, 53706, USA. · Dermatology Clinic for Animals, 8300 Quinault Drive NE Suite A, Lacey, WA, 98516, USA. · Department of Veterinary Dermatology, Rutland House Referral Hospital, Abbotsfield Road, St Helens, WA9 4HU, UK. · Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Veterinary Mycology, FARAH (Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals & Health), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Quartier Vallée 2, Avenue de Cureghem 10, B43A, 4000, Liège, Belgium. ·Vet Dermatol · Pubmed #28516493.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal skin disease of cats and dogs. The most common pathogens of small animals belong to the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. It is an important skin disease because it is contagious, infectious and can be transmitted to people. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this document is to review the existing literature and provide consensus recommendations for veterinary clinicians and lay people on the diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis in cats and dogs. METHODS: The authors served as a Guideline Panel (GP) and reviewed the literature available prior to September 2016. The GP prepared a detailed literature review and made recommendations on selected topics. The World Association of Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD) provided guidance and oversight for this process. A draft of the document was presented at the 8th World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology (May 2016) and was then made available via the World Wide Web to the member organizations of the WAVD for a period of three months. Comments were solicited and posted to the GP electronically. Responses were incorporated by the GP into the final document. CONCLUSIONS: No one diagnostic test was identified as the gold standard. Successful treatment requires concurrent use of systemic oral antifungals and topical disinfection of the hair coat. Wood's lamp and direct examinations have good positive and negative predictability, systemic antifungal drugs have a wide margin of safety and physical cleaning is most important for decontamination of the exposed environments. Finally, serious complications of animal-human transmission are exceedingly rare.

7 Guideline ISFM Consensus Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension in Cats. 2017

Taylor, Samantha S / Sparkes, Andrew H / Briscoe, Katherine / Carter, Jenny / Sala, Salva Cervantes / Jepson, Rosanne E / Reynolds, Brice S / Scansen, Brian A. ·1 International Cat Care/ISFM, Tisbury, Wiltshire SP3 6LD, UK. · 2 Animal Referral Hospital, 250 Parramatta Road, Homebush, Sydney, NSW 2140, Australia. · 3 PO Box 128209, Remuera, Auckland 1541, New Zealand. · 4 Clínica Felina Barcelona, C/Marqués de Campo Sagrado 12, Barcelona, Spain. · 5 Clinical Sciences and Services, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK. · 6 Université de Toulouse, ENVT, Toulouse, France. · 7 Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Campus Delivery 1678, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #28245741.

ABSTRACT: Practical relevance: Feline hypertension is a common disease in older cats that is frequently diagnosed in association with other diseases such as chronic kidney disease and hyperthyroidism (so-called secondary hypertension), although some cases of apparent primary hypertension are also reported. The clinical consequences of hypertension can be severe, related to 'target organ damage' (eye, heart and vasculature, brain and kidneys), and early diagnosis followed by appropriate therapeutic management should help reduce the morbidity associated with this condition. Clinical challenges: Despite being a common disease, routine blood pressure (BP) monitoring is generally performed infrequently, probably leading to underdiagnosis of feline hypertension in clinical practice. There is a need to: (i) ensure BP is measured as accurately as possible with a reproducible technique; (ii) identify and monitor patients at risk of developing hypertension; (iii) establish appropriate criteria for therapeutic intervention; and (iv) establish appropriate therapeutic targets. Based on current data, amlodipine besylate is the treatment of choice to manage feline hypertension and is effective in the majority of cats, but the dose needed to successfully manage hypertension varies between individuals. Some cats require long-term adjuvant therapy and, occasionally, additional therapy is necessary for emergency management of hypertensive crises. Evidence base: These Guidelines from the International Society of Feline Medicine (ISFM) are based on a comprehensive review of the currently available literature, and are aimed at providing practical recommendations to address the challenges of feline hypertension for veterinarians. There are many areas where more data is required which, in the future, will serve to confirm or modify some of the recommendations in these Guidelines.

8 Guideline Antimicrobial use Guidelines for Treatment of Respiratory Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats: Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. 2017

Lappin, M R / Blondeau, J / Boothe, D / Breitschwerdt, E B / Guardabassi, L / Lloyd, D H / Papich, M G / Rankin, S C / Sykes, J E / Turnidge, J / Weese, J S. ·Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, Denmark. · University of Saskatoon, Saskatoon, SK, Denmark. · Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Denmark. · North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, Denmark. · University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Royal Veterinary College, London, UK. · University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, Australia. · University of California, Davis, CA, Australia. · The Women's and Children Hospital, Adelaide, SA,, Australia. · Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph, ON, Australia. ·J Vet Intern Med · Pubmed #28185306.

ABSTRACT: Respiratory tract disease can be associated with primary or secondary bacterial infections in dogs and cats and is a common reason for use and potential misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases convened a Working Group of clinical microbiologists, pharmacologists, and internists to share experiences, examine scientific data, review clinical trials, and develop these guidelines to assist veterinarians in making antimicrobial treatment choices for use in the management of bacterial respiratory diseases in dogs and cats.

9 Guideline 2016 AAFP Guidelines for the Management of Feline Hyperthyroidism. 2016

Carney, Hazel C / Ward, Cynthia R / Bailey, Steven J / Bruyette, David / Dennis, Sonnya / Ferguson, Duncan / Hinc, Amy / Rucinsky, A Renee. ·WestVet Emergency and Specialty Center, 5019 North Sawyer Avenue, Garden City, ID 83617, USA Email: hcarney@westvet.net. · University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2200 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605,USA Email: crward@uga.edu. · Exclusively Cats Veterinary Hospital, 6650 Highland Road, Ste 116, Waterford, MI 48327, USA. · VCA West Los Angeles Animal Hospital, 1900 South Sepulveda Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA. · Stratham-Newfields Veterinary Hospital, 8 Main Street, Newfields, NH 03856, USA. · College of Veterinary Medicine - University of Illinois, Department of Comparative Biosciences, 3840 Veterinary Medicine Basic Sciences Bldg, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802, USA. · Cosmic Cat Veterinary Clinic, 220 East Main Street, Branford, CT 06405, USA. · Mid Atlantic Cat Hospital, 201 Grange Hall Road, Queenstown, MD 21658, USA. ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #27143042.

ABSTRACT: CLINICAL CONTEXT: Since 1979 and 1980 when the first reports of clinical feline hyperthyroidism (FHT) appeared in the literature, our understanding of the disease has evolved tremendously. Initially, FHT was a disease that only referral clinicians treated. Now it is a disease that primary clinicians routinely manage. Inclusion of the measurement of total thyroxine concentration in senior wellness panels, as well as in diagnostic work-ups for sick cats, now enables diagnosis of the condition long before the cat becomes the classic scrawny, unkempt, agitated patient with a bulge in its neck. However, earlier recognition of the problem has given rise to several related questions: how to recognize the health significance of the early presentations of the disease; how early to treat the disease; whether to treat FHT when comorbid conditions are present; and how to manage comorbid conditions such as chronic kidney disease and cardiac disease with treatment of FHT. The 2016 AAFP Guidelines for the Management of Feline Hyperthyroidism (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines) will shed light on these questions for the general practitioner and suggest when referral may benefit the cat. SCOPE: The Guidelines explain FHT as a primary disease process with compounding factors, and provide a concise explanation of what we know to be true about the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease.The Guidelines also:Distill the current research literature into simple recommendations for testing sequences that will avoid misdiagnosis and separate an FHT diagnosis into six clinical categories with associated management strategies.Emphasize the importance of treating all hyperthyroid cats, regardless of comorbidities, and outline the currently available treatments for the disease.Explain how to monitor the treated cat to help avoid exacerbating comorbid diseases.Dispel some of the myths surrounding certain aspects of FHT and replace them with an evidence-based narrative that veterinarians and their practice teams can apply to feline patients and communicate to their owners. EVIDENCE BASE: To help ensure better case outcomes, the Guidelines reflect currently available, evidenced-based knowledge. If research is lacking, or if a consensus does not exist, the expert panel of authors has made recommendations based on their extensive, cumulative clinical experience.

10 Guideline WSAVA Guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. 2016

Day, M J / Horzinek, M C / Schultz, R D / Squires, R A / Anonymous3220855. ·University of Bristol, United Kingdom. · (Formerly) University of Utrecht, the Netherlands. · University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin, USA. · James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. ·J Small Anim Pract · Pubmed #26780857.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

11 Guideline WSAVA Guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. 2016

Day, M J / Horzinek, M C / Schultz, R D / Squires, R A / Anonymous3200855. ·University of Bristol, United Kingdom. · (Formerly) University of Utrecht, the Netherlands. · University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin, USA. · James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. ·J Small Anim Pract · Pubmed #26780853.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

12 Guideline Cytauxzoonosis in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Lloret, Albert / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Frymus, Tadeusz / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Hartmann, Katrin / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Lutz, Hans / Marsilio, Fulvio / Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1260834. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101317.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: Cytauxzoon species are apicomplexan haemoparasites, which may cause severe disease in domestic cats, as well as lions and tigers. For many years, cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats was only reported in North and South America, but in recent years the infection has also been seen in Europe (Spain, France and Italy). INFECTION: Cytauxzoon felis is the main species; it occurs as numerous different strains or genotypes and is transmitted via ticks. Therefore, the disease shows a seasonal incidence from spring to early autumn and affects primarily cats with outdoor access in areas where tick vectors are prevalent. Domestic cats may experience subclinical infection and may also act as reservoirs. CLINICAL SIGNS: Cytauxzoonosis caused by C felis in the USA is an acute or peracute severe febrile disease with non-specific signs. Haemolytic anaemia occurs frequently; in some cats neurological signs may occur in late stages. The Cytauxzoon species identified in Europe differ from C felis that causes disease in the USA and are probably less virulent. The majority of infected cats have been healthy; in some cases anaemia was found, but disease as it occurs in the USA has not been reported to date. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is usually obtained by Cytauxzoon detection in blood smears and/or fine-needle aspirates from the liver, spleen and lymph nodes. PCR assays are able to detect low levels of parasitaemia and may be used for confirmation. TREATMENT: Currently a combination of the antiprotozoal drugs atovaquone and azithromycin is the treatment of choice. Concurrent supportive and critical care treatment is extremely important to improve the prognosis. Cats that survive the infection may become chronic carriers for life. PREVENTION: Cats with outdoor access in endemic areas should receive effective tick treatment.

13 Guideline Lungworm disease in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Hartmann, Katrin / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Frymus, Tadeusz / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Lloret, Albert / Lutz, Hans / Marsilio, Fulvio / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1240834. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101316.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid Capillaria aerophila has a low host specificity and is not uncommon in cats. Additionally the lung flukes Paragonimus species are reported in many species outside of Europe, including cats. CLINICAL SIGNS: Lungworm infections may be asymptomatic, or cause mild to severe respiratory signs, dependent on the worm species and burden; mixed infections are observed. Kittens can be vertically infected and may develop a more severe disease. Affected cats show a productive cough, mucopurulent nasal discharge, tachypnoea, dyspnoea and, in severe cases, respiratory failure and death. MANAGEMENT: Early diagnosis and treatment greatly improves the prognosis. First-stage larvae can be easily detected in fresh faecal samples; the Baermann migration method is the enrichment technique of choice, but takes 24 h. Lungworm larvae can be found in tracheal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but with less sensitivity than in faeces. Molecular methods have been developed that exhibit high specificity and sensitivity, and allow diagnosis in the prepatent phase. Treatment options include fenbendazole paste, milbemycin oxime/praziquantel and various spot-on formulations. Severe cases should receive prompt medical care in an intensive care unit. PREVENTION: Avoiding predation is at present the only preventive measure for pulmonary worms with indirect life cycles. ZOONOTIC RISK: C aerophila has zoonotic potential, causing severe pulmonary disease in humans. Some Paragonimus species are also of zoonotic concern.

14 Guideline Streptococcal infections in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Frymus, Tadeusz / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Hartmann, Katrin / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Lloret, Albert / Lutz, Hans / Marsilio, Fulvio / Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1230834. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101315.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: Streptococcus canis is most prevalent in cats, but recently S equi subsp zooepidemicus has been recognised as an emerging feline pathogen. S CANIS INFECTION: S canis is considered part of the commensal mucosal microflora of the oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, genital organs and perianal region in cats. The prevalence of infection is higher in cats housed in groups; and, for example, there may be a high rate of vaginal carriage in young queens in breeding catteries. A wide spectrum of clinical disease is seen, encompassing neonatal septicaemia, upper respiratory tract disease, abscesses, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, polyarthritis, urogenital infections, septicaemia, sinusitis and meningitis. S EQUI SUBSP ZOOEPIDEMICUS INFECTION: S equi subsp zooepidemicus is found in a wide range of species including cats. It was traditionally assumed that this bacterium played no role in disease of cats, but it is now considered a cause of respiratory disease with bronchopneumonia and pneumonia, as well as meningoencephalitis, often with a fatal course. Close confinement of cats, such as in shelters, appears to be a major risk factor. As horses are common carriers of this bacterium, contact with horses is a potential source of infection. Additionally, the possibility of indirect transmission needs to be considered. DIAGNOSIS: Streptococci can be detected by conventional culture techniques from swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or organ samples. Also real-time PCR can be used, and is more sensitive than culture. TREATMENT: In suspected cases, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics should be initiated as soon as possible and, if appropriate, adapted to the results of culture and sensitivity tests.

15 Guideline West Nile virus infection in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Egberink, Herman / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Frymus, Tadeusz / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Hartmann, Katrin / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Marsilio, Fulvio / Lloret, Albert / Lutz, Hans / Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1220834. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101314.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus with a broad host range that infects mainly birds and mosquitos, but also mammals (including humans), reptiles, amphibians and ticks. It is maintained in a bird-mosquito-bird transmission cycle. The most important vectors are bird-feeding mosquitos of the Culex genus; maintenance and amplification mainly involve passerine birds. WNV can cause disease in humans, horses and several species of birds following infection of the central nervous system. INFECTION IN CATS: Cats can also be infected through mosquito bites, and by eating infected small mammals and probably also birds. Although seroprevalence in cats can be high in endemic areas, clinical disease and mortality are rarely reported. If a cat is suspected of clinical signs due to an acute WNV infection, symptomatic treatment is indicated.

16 Guideline Borna disease virus infection in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Lutz, Hans / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Frymus, Tadeusz / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Hartmann, Katrin / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Lloret, Albert / Marsilio, Fulvio / Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1210834. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101313.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: Borna disease virus (BDV) has a broad host range, affecting primarily horses and sheep, but also cattle, ostriches, cats and dogs. In cats, BDV may cause a non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis ('staggering disease'). INFECTION: The mode of transmission is not completely elucidated. Direct and indirect virus transmission is postulated, but BDV is not readily transmitted between cats. Vectors such as ticks may play a role and shrews have been identified as a potential reservoir host. Access to forested areas has been reported to be an important risk factor for staggering disease. DISEASE SIGNS: It is postulated that BDV may infect nerve endings in the oropharynx and spread via olfactory nerve cells to the central nervous system. A strong T-cell response may contribute to the development of clinical disease. Affected cats develop gait disturbances, ataxia, pain in the lower back and behavioural changes. DIAGNOSIS: For diagnostic purposes, detection of viral RNA by reverse transcription PCR in samples collected from cats with clinical signs of Borna disease can be considered diagnostic. Serology is of little value; cats without signs of Borna disease may be seropositive and yet not every cat with BDV infection has detectable levels of antibodies. HUMAN INFECTION: A hypothesis that BDV infection may be involved in the development of selected neurological disorders in man could not be confirmed. A research group within the German Robert Koch Institute studied the potential health threat of BDV to humans and concluded that BDV was not involved in the aetiology of human psychiatric diseases.

17 Guideline Feline injection-site sarcoma: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Hartmann, Katrin / Day, Michael J / Thiry, Etienne / Lloret, Albert / Frymus, Tadeusz / Addie, Diane / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Lutz, Hans / Marsilio, Fulvio / Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Radford, Alan D / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1200834. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101312.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: In cats, the most serious of adverse effects following vaccination is the occurrence of invasive sarcomas (mostly fibrosarcomas): so-called 'feline injection-site sarcomas' (FISSs). These develop at sites of previous vaccination or injection. They have characteristics that are distinct from those of fibrosarcomas in other areas and behave more aggressively. The rate of metastasis ranges from 10-28%. PATHOGENESIS: The pathogenesis of these sarcomas is not yet definitively explained. However, chronic inflammatory reactions are considered the trigger for subsequent malignant transformation. Injections of long-acting drugs (such as glucocorticoids, and others) have been associated with sarcoma formation. Adjuvanted vaccines induce intense local inflammation and seem therefore to be particularly linked to the development of FISS. The risk is lower for modified-live and recombinant vaccines, but no vaccine is risk-free. TREATMENT AND PREVENTION: Aggressive, radical excision is required to avoid tumour recurrence. The prognosis improves if additional radiotherapy and/or immunotherapy (such as recombinant feline IL-2) are used. For prevention, administration of any irritating substance should be avoided. Vaccination should be performed as often as necessary, but as infrequently as possible. Non-adjuvanted, modified-live or recombinant vaccines should be selected in preference to adjuvanted vaccines. Injections should be given at sites at which surgery would likely lead to a complete cure; the interscapular region should generally be avoided. Post-vaccination monitoring should be performed.

18 Guideline Blood transfusion in cats: ABCD guidelines for minimising risks of infectious iatrogenic complications. 2015

Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Hartmann, Katrin / Addie, Diane D / Lutz, Hans / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Frymus, Tadeusz / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Lloret, Albert / Marsilio, Fulvio / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1180834. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101310.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: The availability of blood components has increased the number of indications for transfusing cats, and fresh whole blood is readily accessible to clinicians because it can be taken from in-house donor cats or 'volunteer' feline blood donors. A certain amount of risk remains to the recipient cat, as immediate or delayed adverse reactions can occur during or after transfusion, related to immunemediated mechanisms. This article, however, focuses on adverse events caused by infectious agents, which may originate either from contamination of blood following incorrect collection, storage or transfusion, or from transfusion of contaminated blood obtained from an infected donor. PREVENTION OF BLOOD CONTAMINATION: In cats, blood cannot be collected through a closed system and, therefore, collection of donor blood requires a multi-step manipulation of syringes and other devices. It is crucial that each step of the procedure is performed under the strictest aseptic conditions and that bacterial contamination of blood bags is prevented, as bacterial endotoxins can cause an immediate febrile reaction or even fatal shock in the recipient cat. PREVENTION OF DISEASE TRANSMISSION: With a view to preventing transmission of blood-borne infectious diseases, the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine has adopted basic criteria for selecting pathogens to be tested for in donor pets. The worldwide core screening panel for donor cats includes feline leukaemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Bartonella species and feline haemoplasma. The list should be adapted to the local epidemiological situation concerning other vector-borne feline infections. The most practical, rapid and inexpensive measure to reduce transfusion risk is to check the risk profile of donor cats on the basis of a written questionnaire. Blood transfusion can never, however, be considered entirely safe.

19 Guideline Matrix vaccination guidelines: 2015 ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries. 2015

Hosie, Margaret J / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Frymus, Tadeusz / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Hartmann, Katrin / Horzinek, Marian C / Lloret, Albert / Lutz, Hans / Marsilio, Fulvio / Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1170834. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101309.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: In 2013, the ABCD published 'Matrix vaccination guidelines: ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries' in a Special Issue of the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (Volume 15, Issue 7, pages 540-544). The ABCD's vaccination recommendations were presented in tabulated form, taking into account that there is no universal vaccination protocol for all cats. To support the veterinarian's decision making, recommendations for four lifestyles were made: for cats with outdoors access, cats kept solely indoors, rescue shelter cats and cats in breeding catteries. This update article follows the same approach, offering current and, where relevant, expanded recommendations.

20 Guideline 2015 AAHA/AAFP pain management guidelines for dogs and cats. 2015

Epstein, Mark E / Rodanm, Ilona / Griffenhagen, Gregg / Kadrlik, Jamie / Petty, Michael C / Robertson, Sheilah A / Simpson, Wendy / Anonymous4850821 / Anonymous4860821. ·TotalBond Veterinary Hospitals PC, 3200 Union Road, Gastonia, NC 28056, USA mark.epstein@totalbondvets.com. · Cat Care Clinic and Feline-Friendly Consultations, 322 Junction Road, Madison, WI 53717, USA Email: care4cats@gmail.com. · Colorado State University School of Veterinary Medicine, 300 West Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. · Pet Crossing Animal Hospital and Dental Clinic, 10861 Bloomington Ferry Road, Bloomington, MN 55438, USA. · Arbor Pointe Veterinary Hospital/Animal Pain Center, 42043 Ford Road, Canton, MI 48187, USA. · Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. · Morrisville Cat Hospital, 100 Keybridge Drive, Suite A, Morrisville, NC 27560, USA. ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #25701863.

ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: The robust advances in pain management for companion animals underlie the decision of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) and American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) to expand on the information provided in the 2007 AAHA/AAFP Pain Management Guidelines. The 2015 Guidelines summarize and offer a discriminating review of much of this new knowledge. RELEVANCE: Pain management is central to veterinary practice, alleviating pain, improving patient outcomes, and enhancing both quality of life and the veterinarian-client-patient relationship. These Guidelines support veterinarians in incorporating pain management into practice, improving patient care. APPROACHES: The management of pain requires a continuum of care that includes anticipation, early intervention, and evaluation of response on an individual patient basis. A team-oriented approach, including the owner, is essential for maximizing the recognition, prevention and treatment of pain in animals. EVIDENCE BASE: The Guidelines include both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic modalities to manage pain; they are evidence-based insofar as possible and otherwise represent a consensus of expert opinion. Behavioral changes are currently the principal indicator of pain and its course of improvement or progression, and the basis for recently validated pain scores. Post-surgical pain is eminently predictable but a strong body of evidence exists supporting strategies to mitigate adaptive as well as maladaptive forms. Chronic pain is dominated by degenerative joint disease (DJD), which is one of the most significant and under-diagnosed diseases of cats and dogs. DJD is ubiquitous, found in pets of all ages, and inevitably progresses over time; evidence-based strategies for management are established in dogs, and emerging in cats.

21 Guideline ISFM consensus guidelines on the practical management of diabetes mellitus in cats. 2015

Sparkes, Andrew H / Cannon, Martha / Church, David / Fleeman, Linda / Harvey, Andrea / Hoenig, Margarethe / Peterson, Mark E / Reusch, Claudia E / Taylor, Samantha / Rosenberg, Dan / Anonymous4840821. ·International Cat Care/ISFM, Tisbury, Wiltshire SP3 6LD, UK andy@icatcare.org. · Oxford Cat Clinic, Oxford OX2 9JU, UK. · Professor, Small Animal Medicine and Surgery Group, The Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK. · Animal Diabetes Australia, Rowville Veterinary Clinic, Rowville, VIC 3178, Australia. · Small Animal Specialist Hospital, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia. · Professor, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA. · Animal Endocrine Clinic, 21 West 100th Street, New York, NY 10025, USA. · Professor & Director, Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. · International Cat Care/ISFM, Tisbury, Wiltshire SP3 6LD, UK. · Micen Vet Centre, 58 Rue Auguste Perret, Parc Technologique, Europarc, 9400 Créteil, France. ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #25701862.

ABSTRACT: PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats that appears to be increasing in prevalence. The prognosis for affected cats can be good when the disease is well managed, but clinical management presents challenges, both for the veterinary team and for the owner. These ISFM Guidelines have been developed by an independent, international expert panel of clinicians and academics to provide practical advice on the management of routine (uncomplicated) diabetic cats. CLINICAL CHALLENGES: Although the diagnosis of diabetes is usually straightforward, optimal management can be challenging. Clinical goals should be to limit or eliminate clinical signs of the disease using a treatment regimen suitable for the owner, and to avoid insulin-induced hypoglycaemia or other complications. Optimising bodyweight, feeding an appropriate diet and using a longer acting insulin preparation (eg, protamine zinc insulin, insulin glargine or insulin detemir) are all factors that are likely to result in improved glycaemic control in the majority of cats. There is also some evidence that improved glycaemic control and reversal of glucose toxicity may promote the chances of diabetic remission. Owner considerations and owner involvement are an important aspect of management. Provided adequate support is given, and owners are able to take an active role in monitoring blood glucose concentrations in the home environment, glycaemic control may be improved. Monitoring of other parameters is also vitally important in assessing the response to insulin. Insulin adjustments should always be made cautiously and not too frequently--unless hypoglycaemia is encountered. EVIDENCE BASE: The Panel has produced these Guidelines after careful review of the existing literature and of the quality of the published studies. They represent a consensus view on practical management of cats with DM based on available clinical data and experience. However, in many areas, substantial data are lacking and there is a need for better studies in the future to help inform and refine recommendations for the clinical management of this common disease.

22 Guideline Recommendations on vaccination for Asian small animal practitioners: a report of the WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines Group. 2015

Day, M J / Karkare, U / Schultz, R D / Squires, R / Tsujimoto, H / Anonymous5150808. ·School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Langford, BS40 5DU. ·J Small Anim Pract · Pubmed #25291304.

ABSTRACT: In 2012 and 2013, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) undertook fact-finding visits to several Asian countries, with a view to developing advice for small companion animal practitioners in Asia related to the administration of vaccines to dogs and cats. The VGG met with numerous first opinion practitioners, small animal association leaders, academic veterinarians, government regulators and industry representatives and gathered further information from a survey of almost 700 veterinarians in India, China, Japan and Thailand. Although there were substantial differences in the nature and magnitude of the challenges faced by veterinarians in each country, and also differences in the resources available to meet those challenges, overall, the VGG identified insufficient undergraduate and postgraduate training in small companion animal microbiology, immunology and vaccinology. In most of the countries, there has been little academic research into small animal infectious diseases. This, coupled with insufficient laboratory diagnostic support, has limited the growth of knowledge concerning the prevalence and circulating strains of key infectious agents in most of the countries visited. Asian practitioners continue to recognise clinical infections that are now considered uncommon or rare in western countries. In particular, canine rabies virus infection poses a continuing threat to animal and human health in this region. Both nationally manufactured and international dog and cat vaccines are variably available in the Asian countries, but the product ranges are small and dominated by multi-component vaccines with a licensed duration of immunity (DOI) of only 1 year, or no description of DOI. Asian practitioners are largely unaware of current global trends in small animal vaccinology or of the WSAVA vaccination guidelines. Consequently, most practitioners continue to deliver annual revaccination with both core and non-core vaccines to adult animals, with little understanding that "herd immunity" is more important than frequent revaccination of individual animals within the population. In this paper, the VGG presents the findings of this project and makes key recommendations for the Asian countries. The VGG recommends that (1) Asian veterinary schools review and increase as needed the amount of instruction in small animal vaccinology within their undergraduate curriculum and increase the availability of pertinent postgraduate education for practitioners; (2) national small animal veterinary associations, industry veterinarians and academic experts work together to improve the scientific evidence base concerning small animal infectious diseases and vaccination in their countries; (3) national small animal veterinary associations take leadership in providing advice to practitioners based on improved local knowledge and global vaccination guidelines; (4) licensing authorities use this enhanced evidence base to inform and support the registration of improved vaccine product ranges for use in their countries, ideally with DOI for core vaccines similar or equal to those of equivalent products available in western countries (i.e. 3 or 4 years). The VGG also endorses the efforts made by Asian governments, non-governmental organisations and veterinary practitioners in working towards the goal of global elimination of canine rabies virus infection. In this paper, the VGG offers both a current pragmatic and future aspirational approach to small animal vaccination in Asia. As part of this project, the VGG delivered continuing education to over 800 Asian practitioners at seven events in four countries. Accompanying this document is a list of 80 frequently asked questions (with answers) that arose during these discussions. The VGG believes that this information will be of particular value to Asian veterinarians as they move towards implementing global trends in small companion animal vaccinology.

23 Guideline Guidelines for recognition, assessment and treatment of pain: WSAVA Global Pain Council members and co-authors of this document:. 2014

Mathews, Karol / Kronen, Peter W / Lascelles, Duncan / Nolan, Andrea / Robertson, Sheilah / Steagall, Paulo Vm / Wright, Bonnie / Yamashita, Kazuto. · ·J Small Anim Pract · Pubmed #24841489.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

24 Guideline World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) second edition: guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of parasiticides for the treatment, prevention and control of flea and tick infestations on dogs and cats. 2013

Marchiondo, A A / Holdsworth, P A / Fourie, L J / Rugg, D / Hellmann, K / Snyder, D E / Dryden, M W / Anonymous2790760. ·Zoetis Inc., (formerly Pfizer Animal Health), 333 Portage Road, Kalamazoo, MI 49007, USA. alan.marchiondo@zoetis.com ·Vet Parasitol · Pubmed #23741753.

ABSTRACT: These second edition guidelines, updated from the 2007 version (Marchiondo et al., 2007), are intended to assist the planning and conduct of laboratory and clinical studies to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides applied to dogs or cats for the purpose of treating, preventing and controlling flea and tick infestations. Major revisions to this second edition include guidelines on the assessment of systemic flea and tick products, an update of the geographical distribution of the common fleas and ticks species on dogs and cats, determination of flea and tick efficacy based on geometric versus arithmetic means with respect to geographic regulatory agencies, modification of tick categorization in the assessment of efficacy, expanded guidelines on repellency and anti-feeding effects, enhanced practical field study guidance, and considerations on the ranges of flea and ticks for infestations in laboratory studies. The term ectoparasiticide includes insecticidal and acaricidal compounds, as well as insect growth regulators. The range of biological activities from animal treatment that are considered include: repellency and anti-feeding effects, knockdown, speed of kill, immediate and persistent lethal effects, and interference with egg fertility and subsequent development of off-host life cycle stages. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping, interpretation of results and animal welfare. These guidelines are also intended to assist regulatory authorities involved in the approval and registration of new topical or systemic ectoparasiticides, and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of harmonized procedures.

25 Guideline 2013 AAHA/AAFP fluid therapy guidelines for dogs and cats. 2013

Davis, Harold / Jensen, Tracey / Johnson, Anthony / Knowles, Pamela / Meyer, Robert / Rucinsky, Renee / Shafford, Heidi / Anonymous3800757 / Anonymous3810757. ·University of California Davis, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Davis, CA, USA. ·J Am Anim Hosp Assoc · Pubmed #23645543.

ABSTRACT: Fluid therapy is important for many medical conditions in veterinary patients. The assessment of patient history, chief complaint, physical exam findings, and indicated additional testing will determine the need for fluid therapy. Fluid selection is dictated by the patient's needs, including volume, rate, fluid composition required, and location the fluid is needed (e.g., interstitial versus intravascular). Therapy must be individualized, tailored to each patient, and constantly re-evaluated and reformulated according to changes in status. Needs may vary according to the existence of either acute or chronic conditions, patient pathology (e.g., acid-base, oncotic, electrolyte abnormalities), and comorbid conditions. All patients should be assessed for three types of fluid disturbances: changes in volume, changes in content, and/or changes in distribution. The goals of these guidelines are to assist the clinician in prioritizing goals, selecting appropriate fluids and rates of administration, and assessing patient response to therapy. These guidelines provide recommendations for fluid administration for anesthetized patients and patients with fluid disturbances.

Next