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Cat Diseases HELP
Based on 7,577 articles published since 2009
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These are the 7577 published articles about Cat Diseases that originated from Worldwide during 2009-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases (ISCAID) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of bacterial urinary tract infections in dogs and cats. 2019

Weese, J Scott / Blondeau, Joseph / Boothe, Dawn / Guardabassi, Luca G / Gumley, Nigel / Papich, Mark / Jessen, Lisbeth Rem / Lappin, Michael / Rankin, Shelley / Westropp, Jodi L / Sykes, Jane. ·Dept of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G2W1, Canada. Electronic address: jsweese@uoguelph.ca. · Clinical Microbiology, Royal University Hospital and the Saskatchewan Health Authority, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; Departments of Microbiology and Immunology, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Ophthalmology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada. · Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, Auburn University, 36849, USA. · Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Stigbøjlen 4, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark; Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Herts, AL9 7TA, United Kingdom. · Cedarview Animal Hospital, 4100 Strandherd Dr, #106, Ottawa, ON K2J 0V2, Canada. · Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine,4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA. · Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Dyrlaegevej 16, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. · Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, 300 West Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. · School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3800 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. · School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, 2108 Tupper Hall, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ·Vet J · Pubmed #30971357.

ABSTRACT: Urinary tract disease is a common clinical presentation in dogs and cats, and a common reason for antimicrobial prescription. This document is a revision and expansion on the 2011 Antimicrobial Use Guidelines for Treatment of Urinary Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats, providing recommendations for diagnosis and management of sporadic bacterial cystitis, recurrent bacterial cystitis, pyelonephritis, bacterial prostatitis, and subclinical bacteriuria. Issues pertaining to urinary catheters, medical dissolution of uroliths and prophylaxis for urological procedures are also addressed.

2 Guideline 2019 AAHA Dental Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. 2019

Bellows, Jan / Berg, Mary L / Dennis, Sonnya / Harvey, Ralph / Lobprise, Heidi B / Snyder, Christopher J / Stone, Amy E S / Van de Wetering, Andrea G. ·From All Pets Dental, Weston, Florida (J.B.) · Beyond the Crown Veterinary Education, Lawrence, Kansas (M.L.B.) · Stratham-Newfields Veterinary Hospital, Newfields, New Hampshire (S.D.) · Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee (R.H.) · Main Street Veterinary Dental Hospital, Flower Mount, Texas (H.B.L.) · Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (C.J.S.) · Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (A.E.S.S.) · and Advanced Pet Dentistry, LLC, Corvallis, Oregon (A.G.VdW.). ·J Am Anim Hosp Assoc · Pubmed #30776257.

ABSTRACT: The 2019 AAHA Dental Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats outline a comprehensive approach to support companion animal practices in improving the oral health and often, the quality of life of their canine and feline patients. The guidelines are an update of the 2013 AAHA Dental Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. A photographically illustrated, 12-step protocol describes the essential steps in an oral health assessment, dental cleaning, and periodontal therapy. Recommendations are given for general anesthesia, pain management, facilities, and equipment necessary for safe and effective delivery of care. To promote the wellbeing of dogs and cats through decreasing the adverse effects and pain of periodontal disease, these guidelines emphasize the critical role of client education and effective, preventive oral healthcare.

3 Guideline Clinical application of the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (ACVECC) Consensus on the Rational Use of Antithrombotics in Veterinary Critical Care (CURATIVE) guidelines to small animal cases. 2019

Sharp, Claire R / Goggs, Robert / Blais, Marie-Claude / Brainard, Benjamin M / Chan, Daniel L / deLaforcade, Armelle M / Rozanski, Elizabeth. ·School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Australia. · Department of Clinical Sciences, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, NY. · Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada. · Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, University of Georgia, Athens, GA. · Department Clinical Science and Services, The Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, UK. · Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA. ·J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) · Pubmed #30729652.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the application of the Consensus on the Rational Use of Antithrombotics in Veterinary Critical Care (CURATIVE) guidelines to the management of dogs and cats at risk of developing thrombosis using a case-based approach. ETIOLOGY: Dogs and cats become at risk of developing thrombosis from a wide range of conditions. These conditions often involve a specific insult followed by an inflammatory response and when combined with other contributing factors (eg, hypercoagulability, vascular endothelial injury, hemodynamic changes) create favorable conditions for thrombosis. DIAGNOSIS: Development of thrombosis in small animals remains challenging to demonstrate. Compatible clinical signs, the presence of known risk factors, and supporting diagnostic tests may be highly suggestive of the development of thrombosis. THERAPY: Therapeutic recommendations in accordance with the CURATIVE guidelines for dogs and cats are described in specific case vignettes presented. Discussion is centered on antithrombotic drug choices and dosing protocols, as outlined in Domains 2 and 3 of the CURATIVE guidelines. Where appropriate, guidelines related to therapeutic monitoring (Domain 4) and discontinuation of antithrombotics (Domain 5) were included. PROGNOSIS: In small animals at risk of developing thrombosis, overall prognosis may be improved by following consensus-based recommendations on the use of antithrombotics as outlined in the CURATIVE guidelines. Whether such interventions have any impact on outcome requires further investigation.

4 Guideline Consensus on the Rational Use of Antithrombotics in Veterinary Critical Care (CURATIVE): Domain 5-Discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy in small animals. 2019

Brainard, Benjamin M / Buriko, Yekaterina / Good, Jennifer / Ralph, Alan G / Rozanski, Elizabeth A. ·Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA. · Department of Clinical Studies, Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. · MedVet New Orleans, New Orleans, LA. · Department of Clinical Sciences, Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, MA. ·J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) · Pubmed #30654425.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To systematically evaluate the evidence supporting the timing and mechanisms of permanent or temporary discontinuation of antiplatelet or anticoagulant medications in small animals DESIGN: Standardized, systematic evaluation of the literature, categorization of relevant articles according to level of evidence and quality (poor, fair, or good), and development of consensus on conclusions via a Delphi-style survey for application of the concepts to clinical practice. SETTINGS: Academic and referral veterinary medical centers. RESULTS: Databases searched included Medline via PubMed and CAB abstracts. Two specific courses of inquiry were pursued, one focused on appropriate approaches to use for small animal patients receiving antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs and requiring temporary discontinuation of this therapy for the purposes of invasive procedures (eg, surgery), and the other aimed at decision-making for the complete discontinuation of anticoagulant medications. In addition, the most appropriate methodology for discontinuation of heparins was addressed. CONCLUSIONS: To better define specific patient groups, a risk stratification characterization was developed. It is recommended to continue anticoagulant therapy through invasive procedures in patients at high risk for thrombosis that are receiving anticoagulant therapy, while consideration for discontinuation in patients with low to moderate risk of thrombosis is reasonable. In patients with thrombosis in whom the underlying cause for thrombosis has resolved, indefinite treatment with anticoagulant medication is not recommended. If the underlying cause is unknown or untreatable, anticoagulant medication should be continued indefinitely. Unfractionated heparin therapy should be slowly tapered rather than discontinued abruptly.

5 Guideline Consensus on the Rational Use of Antithrombotics in Veterinary Critical Care (CURATIVE): Domain 1-Defining populations at risk. 2019

deLaforcade, Armelle / Bacek, Lenore / Blais, Marie-Claude / Goggs, Robert / Lynch, Alex / Rozanski, Elizabeth. ·Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, MA. · Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL. · Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Montreal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada. · Department of Clinical Sciences, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, NY. · Department of Clinical Sciences, NC State College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC. ·J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) · Pubmed #30654424.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Thrombosis is a well-recognized phenomenon in dogs and cats with a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Despite growing awareness of thrombosis and increased use of antithrombotic therapy, there is little information in the veterinary literature to guide the use of anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications. The goal of Domain 1 was to explore the association between disease and thrombosis in a number of conditions identified as potential risk factors in the current veterinary literature, to provide the basis for prescribing recommendations. DESIGN: A population exposure comparison outcome format was used to represent patient, exposure, comparison, and outcome. Population Exposure Comparison Outcome questions were distributed to worksheet authors who performed comprehensive searches, summarized the evidence, and created guideline recommendations that were reviewed by domain chairs. Revised guidelines then underwent the Delphi survey process to reach consensus on the final guidelines. Diseases evaluated included immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, protein-losing nephropathy, pancreatitis, glucocorticoid therapy, hyperadrenocorticism, neoplasia, sepsis, cerebrovascular disease, and cardiac disease. SETTINGS: Academic and referral veterinary medical centers. RESULTS: Of the diseases evaluated, a high risk for thrombosis was defined as dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia or protein-losing nephropathy, cats with cardiomyopathy and associated risk factors, or dogs/cats with >1 disease or risk factor for thrombosis. Low or moderate risk for thrombosis was defined as dogs or cats with a single risk factor or disease, or dogs or cats with known risk factor conditions that are likely to resolve in days to weeks following treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Documented disease associations with thrombosis provide the basis for recommendations on prescribing provided in subsequent domains. Numerous knowledge gaps were identified that represent opportunities for future study.

6 Guideline American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (ACVECC) Consensus on the Rational Use of Antithrombotics in Veterinary Critical Care (CURATIVE) guidelines: Small animal. 2019

Goggs, Robert / Blais, Marie-Claude / Brainard, Benjamin M / Chan, Daniel L / deLaforcade, Armelle M / Rozanski, Elizabeth / Sharp, Claire R. ·Department of Clinical Sciences, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, NY. · Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada. · Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, University of Georgia, Athens, GA. · Department Clinical Science and Services, The Royal Veterinary College, London, United Kingdom. · Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA. · School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, Australia. ·J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) · Pubmed #30654421.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To systematically review available evidence and establish guidelines related to the risk of developing thrombosis and the management of small animals with antithrombotics. DESIGN: Standardized, systematic evaluation of the literature (identified by searching Medline via PubMed and CAB abstracts) was carried out in 5 domains (Defining populations at risk; Defining rational therapeutic use; Defining evidence-based protocols; Refining and monitoring antithrombotic therapies; and Discontinuing antithrombotic therapies). Evidence evaluation was carried out using Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome generated within each domain questions to address specific aims. This was followed by categorization of relevant articles according to level of evidence and quality (Good, Fair, or Poor). Synthesis of these data led to the development of a series of statements. Consensus on the final guidelines was achieved via Delphi-style surveys. Draft recommendations were presented at 2 international veterinary conferences and made available for community assessment, review, and comment prior to final revisions and publication. SETTINGS: Academic and referral veterinary medical centers. RESULTS: Over 500 studies were reviewed in detail. Worksheets from all 5 domains generated 59 statements with 83 guideline recommendations that were refined during 3 rounds of Delphi surveys. A high degree of consensus was reached across all guideline recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, systematic evidence evaluations yielded more than 80 recommendations for the treatment of small animals with or at risk of developing thrombosis. Numerous significant knowledge gaps were highlighted by the evidence reviews undertaken, indicating the need for substantial additional research in this field.

7 Guideline Consensus on the Rational Use of Antithrombotics in Veterinary Critical Care (CURATIVE): Domain 4-Refining and monitoring antithrombotic therapies. 2019

Sharp, Claire R / deLaforcade, Armelle M / Koenigshof, Amy M / Lynch, Alex M / Thomason, John M. ·School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, Australia. · Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, MA. · College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. · Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. · Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS. ·J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) · Pubmed #30654420.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence for therapeutic monitoring of antithrombotic drugs in small animals, develop guidelines regarding antithrombotic monitoring, and identify knowledge gaps in the field. DESIGN: First, a standardized, systematic literature review was conducted to address predefined PICO (Population/Patient, Intervention, Control, Outcome) questions, with categorization of relevant articles according to level of evidence and quality. Preliminary guidelines were developed by PICO worksheet authors and the domain chair. Thereafter, a Delphi-style survey was used to develop consensus on guidelines regarding therapeutic monitoring of antithrombotics in dogs and cats. SETTING: Academic and referral veterinary medical centers. RESULTS: PICO questions regarding the utility of therapeutic monitoring were developed for 6 different antithrombotic drugs or drug classes, including aspirin, clopidogrel, warfarin, unfractionated heparin, the low molecular weight heparins, and rivaroxaban, The majority of the literature pertaining to therapeutic monitoring of antithrombotic drugs was either performed in experimental animal models of disease or involved studies of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in healthy laboratory animals. There was a paucity of high level of evidence studies directly addressing the PICO questions, which limited the strength of recommendations that could be provided. The final guidelines recommend that therapeutic monitoring should be performed when using warfarin or unfractionated heparin in dogs and cats at risk of thrombosis. There is insufficient evidence to make strong recommendations for therapeutic monitoring of aspirin or low molecular weight heparin in dogs and cats at this time. CONCLUSIONS: As in other CURATIVE domains, significant knowledge gaps were highlighted, indicating the need for substantial additional research in this field. Ongoing investigation of the role of therapeutic monitoring of antithrombotic therapies will undoubtedly facilitate improved outcomes for dogs and cats at risk of thrombosis.

8 Guideline Consensus on the Rational Use of Antithrombotics in Veterinary Critical Care (CURATIVE): Domain 3-Defining antithrombotic protocols. 2019

Blais, Marie-Claude / Bianco, Domenico / Goggs, Robert / Lynch, Alex M / Palmer, Lee / Ralph, Alan / Sharp, Claire R. ·Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada. · Internal Medicine Department, Metropolitan Animal Specialty Hospital, Los Angeles, CA. · Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. · Department of Clinical Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. · Lieutenant Colonel, US Army Reserve, Veterinary Corps, Chair K9 Tactical Emergency Casualty Care Working Group, New Orleans, LA. · MedVet New Orleans, New Orleans, LA. · School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Australia. ·J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) · Pubmed #30654416.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To systematically examine the evidence for use of a specific protocol (dose, frequency, route) of selected antithrombotic drugs, in comparisons to no therapy or to other antithrombotic therapies, to reduce the risk of complications or improve outcomes in dogs and cats at risk for thrombosis. DESIGN: Standardized, systematic evaluation of the literature, categorization of relevant articles according to level of evidence (LOE) and quality (Good, Fair, or Poor), and development of consensus on conclusions via a Delphi-style survey for application of the concepts to clinical practice. SETTINGS: Academic and referral veterinary medical centers. RESULTS: Databases searched included Medline via PubMed and CAB abstracts. Eight different antithrombotic drugs were investigated using a standardized Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) question format both for dogs and cats, including aspirin, clopidogrel, warfarin, unfractionated heparin (UFH), dalteparin, enoxaparin, fondaparinux, and rivaroxaban, generating a total of 16 worksheets. Most studies identified were experimental controlled laboratory studies in companion animals (LOE 3) with only four randomized controlled clinical trials in companion animals (LOE 1). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, evidence-based recommendations concerning specific protocols could not be formulated for most antithrombotic drugs evaluated, either because of the wide range of dosage reported (eg, aspirin in dogs) or the lack of evidence in the current literature. However, clopidogrel administration in dogs and cats at risk of arterial thrombosis, notably in cats at risk of cardiogenic thromboembolism, is supported by the literature, and specific protocols were recommended. Comparably, aspirin should not be used as a sole antithrombotic in cats with cardiomyopathy. Using the available safety profile information contained in the literature, the panel reached consensus on suggested dosage schemes for most antithrombotics. Significant knowledge gaps were highlighted, which will hopefully drive novel research.

9 Guideline Consensus on the Rational Use of Antithrombotics in Veterinary Critical Care (CURATIVE): Domain 2-Defining rational therapeutic usage. 2019

Goggs, Robert / Bacek, Lenore / Bianco, Domenico / Koenigshof, Amy / Li, Ronald H L. ·Department of Clinical Sciences, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, NY. · Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL. · Metropolitan Animal Specialty Hospital, Los Angeles, CA. · Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. · Department of Veterinary Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA. ·J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) · Pubmed #30654415.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To systematically review available evidence to determine when small animals at risk of thrombosis should be treated with antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, which antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents are most effective, and when multimodal therapy is indicated. DESIGN: Standardized, systematic evaluation of the literature, categorization of relevant articles according to level of evidence (LOE) and quality (Good, Fair, or Poor), and development of consensus on conclusions via a Delphi-style survey for application of the concepts to clinical practice. Draft recommendations were presented at 2 international veterinary conferences and made available for community assessment, review, and comment prior to final revisions and publication. SETTINGS: Academic and referral veterinary medical centers. RESULTS: Databases searched included Medline via PubMed and CAB abstracts. Twelve Population Intervention Comparison Outcome questions were devised and generated corresponding worksheets investigating indications for use of antithrombotic drugs in small animals. Seventy-eight studies were reviewed in detail. Most studies assessed were experimentally controlled laboratory studies in companion animals (56 LOE 3) with smaller numbers of LOE 2 (1), LOE 4 (5), LOE 5 (6), and LOE 6 (4) studies assessed. Only 5 randomized controlled clinical trials were identified (LOE 1, Good-Fair). The 12 worksheets generated 21 guidelines with 17 guideline statements that were refined during 3 rounds of Delphi surveys. A high degree of consensus was reached across all guideline recommendations during the Delphi process. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, systematic evidence evaluations generated 2 strong recommendations, 19 weak recommendations (formulated as suggestions), 9 situations where the evidence was insufficient to make strong recommendations, and 8 situations where no relevant evidence was retrieved to aid guideline generation. Numerous significant knowledge gaps were highlighted by the evidence reviews undertaken, indicating the need for substantial additional research in this field.

10 Guideline ACVIM consensus statement: Support for rational administration of gastrointestinal protectants to dogs and cats. 2018

Marks, Stanley L / Kook, Peter H / Papich, Mark G / Tolbert, M K / Willard, Michael D. ·Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, California. · Vetsuisse Faculty, Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, North Carolina. · Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas. ·J Vet Intern Med · Pubmed #30378711.

ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal barrier is continuously exposed to noxious toxins, reactive oxygen species, microbes, and drugs, leading to the development of inflammatory, erosive, and ultimately ulcerative lesions. This report offers a consensus opinion on the rational administration of GI protectants to dogs and cats, with an emphasis on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine type-2 receptor antagonists (H

11 Guideline STANDARDS OF CARE Anaesthesia guidelines for dogs and cats. 2018

Warne, L N / Bauquier, S H / Pengelly, J / Neck, D / Swinney, G. ·Lecturer in Veterinary Anaesthesia, College of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia. · Board of Directors - Regional Officer, American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia; Senior Lecturer in Veterinary Anaesthesia, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria, Australia. · Vice President, Veterinary Nurses Council of Australia; Chair, National Industry Advisory Group for Veterinary Nurses; Training Consultant, Animal Industries Resource Centre; Veterinary Nurse, East Port Veterinary Hospital, Port Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia. · Deputy Board Member, Veterinary Surgeons' Board of Western Australia; Cottesloe Vet, Cottesloe, Western Australia, Australia. · Medical Affairs Veterinarian and Internal Medicine Consultant Australia and New Zealand, IDEXX Laboratories Pty Ltd, Rydalmere, New South Wales, Australia. ·Aust Vet J · Pubmed #30370594.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

12 Guideline ACVIM consensus statement: Guidelines for the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats. 2018

Acierno, Mark J / Brown, Scott / Coleman, Amanda E / Jepson, Rosanne E / Papich, Mark / Stepien, Rebecca L / Syme, Harriet M. ·Department of Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Midwestern University, 5715 W. Utopia Rd, Glendale Arizona 85308. · College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. · Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, London, United Kingdom. · College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina. · Department of Medical Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin. ·J Vet Intern Med · Pubmed #30353952.

ABSTRACT: An update to the 2007 American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) consensus statement on the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats was presented at the 2017 ACVIM Forum in National Harbor, MD. The updated consensus statement is presented here. The consensus statement aims to provide guidance on appropriate diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in dogs and cats.

13 Guideline 2018 AAHA Diabetes Management Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. 2018

Behrend, Ellen / Holford, Amy / Lathan, Patty / Rucinsky, Renee / Schulman, Rhonda. ·From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama (E.B.) · Department of Small Animal Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee (A.H.) · Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi (P.L.) · Mid Atlantic Cat Hospital, Queenstown, Maryland (R.R.) · and Animal Specialty Group, Los Angeles, California (R.S.). ·J Am Anim Hosp Assoc · Pubmed #29314873.

ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease encountered in canine and feline medicine. The 2018 AAHA Diabetes Management Guidelines for Dogs and Cats revise and update earlier guidelines published in 2010. The 2018 guidelines retain much of the information in the earlier guidelines that continues to be applicable in clinical practice, along with new information that represents current expert opinion on controlling DM. An essential aspect of successful DM management is to ensure that the owner of a diabetic dog or cat is capable of administering insulin, recognizing the clinical signs of inadequately managed DM, and monitoring blood glucose levels at home, although this is ideal but not mandatory; all topics that are reviewed in the guidelines. Insulin therapy is the mainstay of treatment for clinical DM. The guidelines provide recommendations for using each insulin formulation currently available for use in dogs and cats, the choice of which is generally based on efficacy and duration of effect in the respective species. Also discussed are non-insulin therapeutic medications and dietary management. These treatment modalities, along with insulin therapy, give the practitioner an assortment of options for decreasing the clinical signs of DM while avoiding hypoglycemia, the two conditions that represent the definition of a controlled diabetic. The guidelines review identifying and monitoring patients at risk for developing DM, which are important for avoiding unnecessary insulin therapy in patients with transient hyperglycemia or mildly elevated blood glucose.

14 Guideline Recommendations for approaches to meticillin-resistant staphylococcal infections of small animals: diagnosis, therapeutic considerations and preventative measures.: Clinical Consensus Guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology. 2017

Morris, Daniel O / Loeffler, Anette / Davis, Meghan F / Guardabassi, Luca / Weese, J Scott. ·Department of Clinical Studies - Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3900 Delancey St, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. · Department of Clinical Sciences and Services, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK. · Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA. · Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ross University, Basseterre, St Kitts and Nevis, West Indies. · Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, N1G 2W1. ·Vet Dermatol · Pubmed #28516494.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Multiple drug resistance (MDR) in staphylococci, including resistance to the semi-synthetic penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as meticillin, is a problem of global proportions that presents serious challenges to the successful treatment of staphylococcal infections of companion animals. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this document is to provide harmonized recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of meticillin-resistant staphylococcal infections in dogs and cats. METHODS: The authors served as a Guideline Panel (GP) and reviewed the literature available prior to September 2016. The GP prepared a detailed literature review and made recommendations on selected topics. The World Association of Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD) provided guidance and oversight for this process. A draft of the document was presented at the 8th World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology (May 2016) and was then made available via the World Wide Web to the member organizations of the WAVD for a period of three months. Comments were solicited and posted to the GP electronically. Responses were incorporated by the GP into the final document. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to guidelines for the diagnosis, laboratory reporting, judicious therapy (including restriction of use policies for certain antimicrobial drugs), personal hygiene, and environmental cleaning and disinfection may help to mitigate the progressive development and dissemination of MDR staphylococci.

15 Guideline Diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats.: Clinical Consensus Guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology. 2017

Moriello, Karen A / Coyner, Kimberly / Paterson, Susan / Mignon, Bernard. ·Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2015 Linden Drive West, Madison, WI, 53706, USA. · Dermatology Clinic for Animals, 8300 Quinault Drive NE Suite A, Lacey, WA, 98516, USA. · Department of Veterinary Dermatology, Rutland House Referral Hospital, Abbotsfield Road, St Helens, WA9 4HU, UK. · Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Veterinary Mycology, FARAH (Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals & Health), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Quartier Vallée 2, Avenue de Cureghem 10, B43A, 4000, Liège, Belgium. ·Vet Dermatol · Pubmed #28516493.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal skin disease of cats and dogs. The most common pathogens of small animals belong to the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. It is an important skin disease because it is contagious, infectious and can be transmitted to people. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this document is to review the existing literature and provide consensus recommendations for veterinary clinicians and lay people on the diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis in cats and dogs. METHODS: The authors served as a Guideline Panel (GP) and reviewed the literature available prior to September 2016. The GP prepared a detailed literature review and made recommendations on selected topics. The World Association of Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD) provided guidance and oversight for this process. A draft of the document was presented at the 8th World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology (May 2016) and was then made available via the World Wide Web to the member organizations of the WAVD for a period of three months. Comments were solicited and posted to the GP electronically. Responses were incorporated by the GP into the final document. CONCLUSIONS: No one diagnostic test was identified as the gold standard. Successful treatment requires concurrent use of systemic oral antifungals and topical disinfection of the hair coat. Wood's lamp and direct examinations have good positive and negative predictability, systemic antifungal drugs have a wide margin of safety and physical cleaning is most important for decontamination of the exposed environments. Finally, serious complications of animal-human transmission are exceedingly rare.

16 Guideline ISFM Consensus Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension in Cats. 2017

Taylor, Samantha S / Sparkes, Andrew H / Briscoe, Katherine / Carter, Jenny / Sala, Salva Cervantes / Jepson, Rosanne E / Reynolds, Brice S / Scansen, Brian A. ·1 International Cat Care/ISFM, Tisbury, Wiltshire SP3 6LD, UK. · 2 Animal Referral Hospital, 250 Parramatta Road, Homebush, Sydney, NSW 2140, Australia. · 3 PO Box 128209, Remuera, Auckland 1541, New Zealand. · 4 Clínica Felina Barcelona, C/Marqués de Campo Sagrado 12, Barcelona, Spain. · 5 Clinical Sciences and Services, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK. · 6 Université de Toulouse, ENVT, Toulouse, France. · 7 Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Campus Delivery 1678, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #28245741.

ABSTRACT: Practical relevance: Feline hypertension is a common disease in older cats that is frequently diagnosed in association with other diseases such as chronic kidney disease and hyperthyroidism (so-called secondary hypertension), although some cases of apparent primary hypertension are also reported. The clinical consequences of hypertension can be severe, related to 'target organ damage' (eye, heart and vasculature, brain and kidneys), and early diagnosis followed by appropriate therapeutic management should help reduce the morbidity associated with this condition. Clinical challenges: Despite being a common disease, routine blood pressure (BP) monitoring is generally performed infrequently, probably leading to underdiagnosis of feline hypertension in clinical practice. There is a need to: (i) ensure BP is measured as accurately as possible with a reproducible technique; (ii) identify and monitor patients at risk of developing hypertension; (iii) establish appropriate criteria for therapeutic intervention; and (iv) establish appropriate therapeutic targets. Based on current data, amlodipine besylate is the treatment of choice to manage feline hypertension and is effective in the majority of cats, but the dose needed to successfully manage hypertension varies between individuals. Some cats require long-term adjuvant therapy and, occasionally, additional therapy is necessary for emergency management of hypertensive crises. Evidence base: These Guidelines from the International Society of Feline Medicine (ISFM) are based on a comprehensive review of the currently available literature, and are aimed at providing practical recommendations to address the challenges of feline hypertension for veterinarians. There are many areas where more data is required which, in the future, will serve to confirm or modify some of the recommendations in these Guidelines.

17 Guideline Antimicrobial use Guidelines for Treatment of Respiratory Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats: Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. 2017

Lappin, M R / Blondeau, J / Boothe, D / Breitschwerdt, E B / Guardabassi, L / Lloyd, D H / Papich, M G / Rankin, S C / Sykes, J E / Turnidge, J / Weese, J S. ·Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, Denmark. · University of Saskatoon, Saskatoon, SK, Denmark. · Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Denmark. · North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, Denmark. · University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Royal Veterinary College, London, UK. · University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, Australia. · University of California, Davis, CA, Australia. · The Women's and Children Hospital, Adelaide, SA,, Australia. · Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph, ON, Australia. ·J Vet Intern Med · Pubmed #28185306.

ABSTRACT: Respiratory tract disease can be associated with primary or secondary bacterial infections in dogs and cats and is a common reason for use and potential misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases convened a Working Group of clinical microbiologists, pharmacologists, and internists to share experiences, examine scientific data, review clinical trials, and develop these guidelines to assist veterinarians in making antimicrobial treatment choices for use in the management of bacterial respiratory diseases in dogs and cats.

18 Guideline 2016 AAFP Guidelines for the Management of Feline Hyperthyroidism. 2016

Carney, Hazel C / Ward, Cynthia R / Bailey, Steven J / Bruyette, David / Dennis, Sonnya / Ferguson, Duncan / Hinc, Amy / Rucinsky, A Renee. ·WestVet Emergency and Specialty Center, 5019 North Sawyer Avenue, Garden City, ID 83617, USA Email: hcarney@westvet.net. · University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2200 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605,USA Email: crward@uga.edu. · Exclusively Cats Veterinary Hospital, 6650 Highland Road, Ste 116, Waterford, MI 48327, USA. · VCA West Los Angeles Animal Hospital, 1900 South Sepulveda Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA. · Stratham-Newfields Veterinary Hospital, 8 Main Street, Newfields, NH 03856, USA. · College of Veterinary Medicine - University of Illinois, Department of Comparative Biosciences, 3840 Veterinary Medicine Basic Sciences Bldg, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802, USA. · Cosmic Cat Veterinary Clinic, 220 East Main Street, Branford, CT 06405, USA. · Mid Atlantic Cat Hospital, 201 Grange Hall Road, Queenstown, MD 21658, USA. ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #27143042.

ABSTRACT: CLINICAL CONTEXT: Since 1979 and 1980 when the first reports of clinical feline hyperthyroidism (FHT) appeared in the literature, our understanding of the disease has evolved tremendously. Initially, FHT was a disease that only referral clinicians treated. Now it is a disease that primary clinicians routinely manage. Inclusion of the measurement of total thyroxine concentration in senior wellness panels, as well as in diagnostic work-ups for sick cats, now enables diagnosis of the condition long before the cat becomes the classic scrawny, unkempt, agitated patient with a bulge in its neck. However, earlier recognition of the problem has given rise to several related questions: how to recognize the health significance of the early presentations of the disease; how early to treat the disease; whether to treat FHT when comorbid conditions are present; and how to manage comorbid conditions such as chronic kidney disease and cardiac disease with treatment of FHT. The 2016 AAFP Guidelines for the Management of Feline Hyperthyroidism (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines) will shed light on these questions for the general practitioner and suggest when referral may benefit the cat. SCOPE: The Guidelines explain FHT as a primary disease process with compounding factors, and provide a concise explanation of what we know to be true about the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease.The Guidelines also:Distill the current research literature into simple recommendations for testing sequences that will avoid misdiagnosis and separate an FHT diagnosis into six clinical categories with associated management strategies.Emphasize the importance of treating all hyperthyroid cats, regardless of comorbidities, and outline the currently available treatments for the disease.Explain how to monitor the treated cat to help avoid exacerbating comorbid diseases.Dispel some of the myths surrounding certain aspects of FHT and replace them with an evidence-based narrative that veterinarians and their practice teams can apply to feline patients and communicate to their owners. EVIDENCE BASE: To help ensure better case outcomes, the Guidelines reflect currently available, evidenced-based knowledge. If research is lacking, or if a consensus does not exist, the expert panel of authors has made recommendations based on their extensive, cumulative clinical experience.

19 Guideline WSAVA Guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. 2016

Day, M J / Horzinek, M C / Schultz, R D / Squires, R A / Anonymous3220855. ·University of Bristol, United Kingdom. · (Formerly) University of Utrecht, the Netherlands. · University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin, USA. · James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. ·J Small Anim Pract · Pubmed #26780857.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

20 Guideline WSAVA Guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. 2016

Day, M J / Horzinek, M C / Schultz, R D / Squires, R A / Anonymous3200855. ·University of Bristol, United Kingdom. · (Formerly) University of Utrecht, the Netherlands. · University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin, USA. · James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. ·J Small Anim Pract · Pubmed #26780853.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

21 Guideline Cytauxzoonosis in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Lloret, Albert / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Frymus, Tadeusz / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Hartmann, Katrin / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Lutz, Hans / Marsilio, Fulvio / Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1511093. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101317.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: Cytauxzoon species are apicomplexan haemoparasites, which may cause severe disease in domestic cats, as well as lions and tigers. For many years, cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats was only reported in North and South America, but in recent years the infection has also been seen in Europe (Spain, France and Italy). INFECTION: Cytauxzoon felis is the main species; it occurs as numerous different strains or genotypes and is transmitted via ticks. Therefore, the disease shows a seasonal incidence from spring to early autumn and affects primarily cats with outdoor access in areas where tick vectors are prevalent. Domestic cats may experience subclinical infection and may also act as reservoirs. CLINICAL SIGNS: Cytauxzoonosis caused by C felis in the USA is an acute or peracute severe febrile disease with non-specific signs. Haemolytic anaemia occurs frequently; in some cats neurological signs may occur in late stages. The Cytauxzoon species identified in Europe differ from C felis that causes disease in the USA and are probably less virulent. The majority of infected cats have been healthy; in some cases anaemia was found, but disease as it occurs in the USA has not been reported to date. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is usually obtained by Cytauxzoon detection in blood smears and/or fine-needle aspirates from the liver, spleen and lymph nodes. PCR assays are able to detect low levels of parasitaemia and may be used for confirmation. TREATMENT: Currently a combination of the antiprotozoal drugs atovaquone and azithromycin is the treatment of choice. Concurrent supportive and critical care treatment is extremely important to improve the prognosis. Cats that survive the infection may become chronic carriers for life. PREVENTION: Cats with outdoor access in endemic areas should receive effective tick treatment.

22 Guideline Lungworm disease in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Hartmann, Katrin / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Frymus, Tadeusz / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Lloret, Albert / Lutz, Hans / Marsilio, Fulvio / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1501093. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101316.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid Capillaria aerophila has a low host specificity and is not uncommon in cats. Additionally the lung flukes Paragonimus species are reported in many species outside of Europe, including cats. CLINICAL SIGNS: Lungworm infections may be asymptomatic, or cause mild to severe respiratory signs, dependent on the worm species and burden; mixed infections are observed. Kittens can be vertically infected and may develop a more severe disease. Affected cats show a productive cough, mucopurulent nasal discharge, tachypnoea, dyspnoea and, in severe cases, respiratory failure and death. MANAGEMENT: Early diagnosis and treatment greatly improves the prognosis. First-stage larvae can be easily detected in fresh faecal samples; the Baermann migration method is the enrichment technique of choice, but takes 24 h. Lungworm larvae can be found in tracheal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but with less sensitivity than in faeces. Molecular methods have been developed that exhibit high specificity and sensitivity, and allow diagnosis in the prepatent phase. Treatment options include fenbendazole paste, milbemycin oxime/praziquantel and various spot-on formulations. Severe cases should receive prompt medical care in an intensive care unit. PREVENTION: Avoiding predation is at present the only preventive measure for pulmonary worms with indirect life cycles. ZOONOTIC RISK: C aerophila has zoonotic potential, causing severe pulmonary disease in humans. Some Paragonimus species are also of zoonotic concern.

23 Guideline Streptococcal infections in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Frymus, Tadeusz / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Hartmann, Katrin / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Lloret, Albert / Lutz, Hans / Marsilio, Fulvio / Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1491093. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101315.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: Streptococcus canis is most prevalent in cats, but recently S equi subsp zooepidemicus has been recognised as an emerging feline pathogen. S CANIS INFECTION: S canis is considered part of the commensal mucosal microflora of the oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, genital organs and perianal region in cats. The prevalence of infection is higher in cats housed in groups; and, for example, there may be a high rate of vaginal carriage in young queens in breeding catteries. A wide spectrum of clinical disease is seen, encompassing neonatal septicaemia, upper respiratory tract disease, abscesses, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, polyarthritis, urogenital infections, septicaemia, sinusitis and meningitis. S EQUI SUBSP ZOOEPIDEMICUS INFECTION: S equi subsp zooepidemicus is found in a wide range of species including cats. It was traditionally assumed that this bacterium played no role in disease of cats, but it is now considered a cause of respiratory disease with bronchopneumonia and pneumonia, as well as meningoencephalitis, often with a fatal course. Close confinement of cats, such as in shelters, appears to be a major risk factor. As horses are common carriers of this bacterium, contact with horses is a potential source of infection. Additionally, the possibility of indirect transmission needs to be considered. DIAGNOSIS: Streptococci can be detected by conventional culture techniques from swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or organ samples. Also real-time PCR can be used, and is more sensitive than culture. TREATMENT: In suspected cases, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics should be initiated as soon as possible and, if appropriate, adapted to the results of culture and sensitivity tests.

24 Guideline West Nile virus infection in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Egberink, Herman / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Frymus, Tadeusz / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Hartmann, Katrin / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Marsilio, Fulvio / Lloret, Albert / Lutz, Hans / Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1481093. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101314.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus with a broad host range that infects mainly birds and mosquitos, but also mammals (including humans), reptiles, amphibians and ticks. It is maintained in a bird-mosquito-bird transmission cycle. The most important vectors are bird-feeding mosquitos of the Culex genus; maintenance and amplification mainly involve passerine birds. WNV can cause disease in humans, horses and several species of birds following infection of the central nervous system. INFECTION IN CATS: Cats can also be infected through mosquito bites, and by eating infected small mammals and probably also birds. Although seroprevalence in cats can be high in endemic areas, clinical disease and mortality are rarely reported. If a cat is suspected of clinical signs due to an acute WNV infection, symptomatic treatment is indicated.

25 Guideline Borna disease virus infection in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. 2015

Lutz, Hans / Addie, Diane D / Boucraut-Baralon, Corine / Egberink, Herman / Frymus, Tadeusz / Gruffydd-Jones, Tim / Hartmann, Katrin / Horzinek, Marian C / Hosie, Margaret J / Lloret, Albert / Marsilio, Fulvio / Pennisi, Maria Grazia / Radford, Alan D / Thiry, Etienne / Truyen, Uwe / Möstl, Karin / Anonymous1471093. · ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #26101313.

ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW: Borna disease virus (BDV) has a broad host range, affecting primarily horses and sheep, but also cattle, ostriches, cats and dogs. In cats, BDV may cause a non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis ('staggering disease'). INFECTION: The mode of transmission is not completely elucidated. Direct and indirect virus transmission is postulated, but BDV is not readily transmitted between cats. Vectors such as ticks may play a role and shrews have been identified as a potential reservoir host. Access to forested areas has been reported to be an important risk factor for staggering disease. DISEASE SIGNS: It is postulated that BDV may infect nerve endings in the oropharynx and spread via olfactory nerve cells to the central nervous system. A strong T-cell response may contribute to the development of clinical disease. Affected cats develop gait disturbances, ataxia, pain in the lower back and behavioural changes. DIAGNOSIS: For diagnostic purposes, detection of viral RNA by reverse transcription PCR in samples collected from cats with clinical signs of Borna disease can be considered diagnostic. Serology is of little value; cats without signs of Borna disease may be seropositive and yet not every cat with BDV infection has detectable levels of antibodies. HUMAN INFECTION: A hypothesis that BDV infection may be involved in the development of selected neurological disorders in man could not be confirmed. A research group within the German Robert Koch Institute studied the potential health threat of BDV to humans and concluded that BDV was not involved in the aetiology of human psychiatric diseases.

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