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Chronic Bronchitis HELP
Based on 516 articles published since 2008

These are the 516 published articles about Bronchitis, Chronic that originated from Worldwide during 2008-2019.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline Introducing the COPD Foundation Guide for Diagnosis and Management of COPD, recommendations of the COPD Foundation. 2013

Rennard, Stephen / Thomashow, Byron / Crapo, James / Yawn, Barbara / McIvor, Andrew / Cerreta, Scott / Walsh, John / Mannino, David. ·Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198-5910, USA. srennard@unmc.edu ·COPD · Pubmed #23713598.

ABSTRACT: The increasing number of treatment options for managing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) promises to improve the outcomes for COPD patients. However, determining which treatments are appropriate for individual patients has become increasingly complex. The COPD Foundation Guide for Diagnosis and Management of COPD was developed to be a practical, easy to use tool for clinicians. The Guide includes specific recommendations for diagnostic studies and treatments based on specific diagnostic criteria. This manuscript describes the rationale for the development of the Guide, the process used, the rationale for the specific recommendations and the plans for further development. The current recommendations of the COPD Foundation have been summarized in the form of Pocket Cards, which may be obtained from the Foundation at no charge (1-866-316-COPD (2673), www.copdfoundation.org).

2 Guideline [Systemic antibiotherapy for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections. Community acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of obstructive chronic bronchitis]. 2011

Chidiac, C / Anonymous490680 / Anonymous500680. ·Service des maladies infectieuses, hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, 103, rue dela Croix-Rousse, 69317 Lyon cedex 4, France. christian.chidiac@chu-lyon.fr ·Med Mal Infect · Pubmed #21106313.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial A Slippery Cause of a Slimy Problem: Mucin Induction by an Esterified Lipid. 2017

Randell, Scott H / Zeldin, Darryl C. ·1 Department of Cell Biology and Physiology. · 2 Marsico Lung Institute University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, North Carolina and. · 3 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Institutes of Health Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. ·Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol · Pubmed #29192828.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Chronic Bronchitis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Magnifying Why Smoking Cessation Still Matters Most. 2016

Rosenberg, Sharon R / Kalhan, Ravi. ·Asthma and COPD Program, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. ·Ann Am Thorac Soc · Pubmed #27388396.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Chronic bronchitis: so much more than just a smoker's cough. 2014

Vestbo, Jørgen. ·Respiratory Research Group, Manchester Academic Sciences Centre University Hospital South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust Manchester, UK Department of Respiratory Medicine, Gentofte Hospital Hellerup, Denmark Jorgen.vestbo@manchester.ac.uk, URL: http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink. ·Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · Pubmed #24902547.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Cough and sputum production in COPD patients: clinical phenotype or markers of disease activity? 2013

Burgel, P-R. ·Department of Respiratory Medicine, Cochin Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France; Paris Descartes University, Paris, France. pierre-regis.burgel@cch.aphp.fr. ·Int J Clin Pract · Pubmed #24246202.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial Phenotype/endotype-driven therapy in COPD: potential economic implications. 2013

Antoniu, Sabina A. · ·Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res · Pubmed #23977968.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Editorial Preterm birth and airway inflammation in childhood. 2012

Baker, Christopher D / Accurso, Frank J. · ·J Pediatr · Pubmed #22981953.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Editorial New solutions in service design and delivery are necessary to combat disease burden. 2012

George, Gerard. · ·Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · Pubmed #22871323.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Editorial Chronic cough and sputum production: a clinical COPD phenotype? 2012

Burgel, Pierre-Régis. · ·Eur Respir J · Pubmed #22753831.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

11 Editorial Treatment of COPD: no longer nihilism, but there is still an urgent need for new therapies. 2012

Matera, M Gabriella / Cazzola, Mario. · ·Curr Opin Pharmacol · Pubmed #22497842.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

12 Editorial Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotyping: a possible role for 8-isoprostane measurement in exhaled breath condensate? 2008

Montuschi, Paolo. · ·Respiration · Pubmed #18332620.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

13 Editorial The Qinghai-Tibet railway. 2008

West, John B. · ·High Alt Med Biol · Pubmed #18331212.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

14 Review Impact of erdosteine on chronic bronchitis and COPD: A meta-analysis. 2018

Cazzola, Mario / Calzetta, Luigino / Page, Clive / Rogliani, Paola / Matera, Maria Gabriella. ·Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, Chair of Respiratory Medicine, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Rome, Italy. Electronic address: mario.cazzola@uniroma2.it. · Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, Chair of Respiratory Medicine, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Rome, Italy. · Sackler Institute of Pulmonary Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King's College London, London, UK. · Department of Experimental Medicine, Unit of Pharmacology, University of Campania 'Luigi Vanvitelli', Naples, Italy. ·Pulm Pharmacol Ther · Pubmed #29233650.

ABSTRACT: A previous meta-analysis suggested that the treatment with erdosteine was associated with significant amelioration of the cumulative global efficacy index and symptoms in comparison to placebo or other mucolytics. However, this conclusion was criticized because the meta-analysis, as it had been done, made it impossible to preclude the potential operation of selection biases within and across trials, and identify any realised benefits of an individual patient data approach. Taking into consideration these criticisms and also the publication of two further recent articles focused on the prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations with erdosteine, we have carried out a quantitative synthesis via meta-analysis of the currently available data on the use of this drug. Our findings included data from ten studies involving 1278 patients and show that erdosteine is able to improve the clinical score of patients with chronic bronchitis and COPD, and also reduces the overall risk of chronic bronchitis/COPD exacerbations, and reduces the risk of experiencing at least one exacerbation. Furthermore, our data suggest that erdosteine can lengthen the time to the first COPD exacerbation, reduce the duration of a COPD exacerbation and the risk of hospitalization from COPD. The documented effect of erdosteine in reducing the occurence and/or influencing COPD exacerbations is important because it indicates that erdosteine can be added to the list of drugs that can be recommended for treating COPD.

15 Review Lung function trajectories and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: current understanding and knowledge gaps. 2018

Krishnan, Jamuna K / Martinez, Fernando J. ·Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA. ·Curr Opin Pulm Med · Pubmed #29206658.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OR REVIEW: Population-based studies have shown a significant heterogeneity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), regarding both the attainment of maximal lung function and the subsequent decline over time. This review will highlight recent advances in the understanding of lung function trajectory in COPD, focusing on factors that influence peak adult lung function, markers of accelerated lung function decline and pharmacologic interventions in early phases of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data have shown that individuals with lower lung function early in life will go on to develop lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in adulthood. Smoking can amplify the effect of specific childhood exposures on maximal adult lung function. Clinical symptoms such as chronic mucous hypersecretion and the biomarker club cell secretory protein have been associated with lung function decline over time. New computed tomography imaging markers also show promise as a way to detect early small airway disease, but need to be examined more longitudinally. In addition to these advances, a slower decline in FEV1 has been demonstrated in two randomized clinical trials studying tiotropium and inhaled fluticasone. SUMMARY: A better understanding of lung function development and eventual decline in those at risk for progression to COPD will aide in a precision medicine approach, in which markers for those at risk of low maximal lung function and accelerated decline are identified. Targeted therapy can then be used early to modify disease activity and outcomes.

16 Review Chronic Cough: Evaluation and Management. 2017

Michaudet, Charlie / Malaty, John. ·University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA. ·Am Fam Physician · Pubmed #29094873.

ABSTRACT: Although chronic cough in adults (cough lasting longer than eight weeks) can be caused by many etiologies, four conditions account for most cases: upper airway cough syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease/laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, asthma, and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. Patients should be evaluated clinically (with spirometry, if indicated), and empiric treatment should be initiated. Other potential causes include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, environmental triggers, tobacco use, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Chest radiography can rule out concerning infectious, inflammatory, and malignant thoracic conditions. Patients with refractory chronic cough may warrant referral to a pulmonologist or otolaryngologist in addition to a trial of gabapentin, pregabalin, and/or speech therapy. In children, cough is considered chronic if present for more than four weeks. In children six to 14 years of age, it is most commonly caused by asthma, protracted bacterial bronchitis, and upper airway cough syndrome. Evaluation should focus initially on these etiologies, with targeted treatment and monitoring for resolution.

17 Review [Criteria for treating MRSA in sputum]. 2017

Lorenz, J / Unnewehr, M / Schaaf, B / Gatermann, S. ·Klinik für Pneumologie, Infektiologie, Internistische Intensivmedizin und Schlafmedizin, Klinikum Lüdenscheid, Paulmannshöher Straße 14, 58515, Lüdenscheid, Deutschland. joachim.lorenz@klinikum-luedenscheid.de. · Klinikum Dortmund, Klinik für Pneumologie, Infektiologie und internistische Intensivmedizin, Klinikzentrum Nord, Dortmund, Deutschland. · Abteilung für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Institut für Hygiene und Mikrobiologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Deutschland. ·Internist (Berl) · Pubmed #28929236.

ABSTRACT: Methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are of particular significance for the management of patients with airway infections, since the disease course is often complicated and treatment rendered difficult by multiple resistance. Their prevalence is now slowly declining, but still alarmingly high. Hospital-acquired infections are predominant, but hospital-associated and community-acquired infections do occur, as do rare infections with livestock-acquired strains. Non-nosocomial strains are characterized by different pathogenic factors and a different spectrum of antibacterial resistance; they often have a threatening disease course. Anti-infectives with activity against MRSA are unusual and have particular toxicity profiles. On the other hand, MRSA colonization is eliminated spontaneously in healthy people and acute bronchitis is treatable by common oral antibiotics. However, chronic airway infection in bronchiectasis and other forms of structural airway damage requires a complex systemic and local treatment approach for pathogen elimination.

18 Review Haemophilus influenzae oral vaccination for preventing acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2017

Teo, Edward / Lockhart, Kathleen / Purchuri, Sai Navya / Pushparajah, Jennifer / Cripps, Allan W / van Driel, Mieke L. ·Emergency Department, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Hospital Road, Concord, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 2137. ·Cochrane Database Syst Rev · Pubmed #28626902.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people. However, they can cause opportunistic infection. An oral NTHi vaccine has been developed to protect against recurrent infective acute exacerbations in chronic bronchitis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of an oral, whole-cell NTHi vaccine in protecting against recurrent episodes of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD in adults. To assess the effectiveness of NTHi vaccine in reducing NTHi colonising the respiratory tract during recurrent episodes of acute exacerbations of COPD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2017, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1946 to January 2017), Embase (1974 to January 2017), CINAHL (1981 to January 2017), LILACS (1985 to January 2017), and Web of Science (1955 to January 2017). We also searched trials registries and contacted authors of trials requesting unpublished data. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of an oral monobacterial NTHi vaccine in adults with recurrent acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or COPD when there was overt matching of the vaccine and placebo groups on clinical grounds. The selection criteria considered populations aged less than 65 years and those older than 65 years. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data from original records and publications for incidence and severity of bronchitis episodes and carriage rate of NTHi measured in the upper respiratory tract, as well as data relevant to other primary and secondary outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: We identified six placebo-controlled randomised controlled trials with a total of 557 participants. These trials investigated the efficacy of enteric-coated, killed preparations of H influenzae in populations prone to recurrent acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or COPD. The vaccine preparation and immunisation regimen in all trials consisted of at least three courses of formalin-killed H influenzae in enteric-coated tablets taken at intervals (e.g. days 0, 28, and 56). Each course generally consisted of two tablets taken after breakfast over three consecutive days. In all cases the placebo groups took enteric-coated tablets containing glucose. Risk of bias was moderate across the studies, namely due to the lack of information provided about methods and inadequate presentation of results.Meta-analysis of the oral NTHi vaccine showed a small, non-statistically significant reduction in the incidence of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or COPD (risk ratio (RR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 1.10; P = 0.16). There was no significant difference in mortality rate between the vaccine and placebo groups (odds ratio (OR) 1.62, 95% CI 0.63 to 4.12; P = 0.31).We were unable to meta-analyse the carriage levels of NTHi in participants as each trial reported this result using different units and tools of measurement. Four trials showed no significant difference in carriage levels, while two trials showed a significant decrease in carriage levels in the vaccinated group compared with the placebo group.Four trials assessed severity of exacerbations measured by requirement for antibiotics. Three of these trials were comparable and when meta-analysed showed a statistically significant 80% increase in antibiotic courses per person in the placebo group (RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.44; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to hospital admission rates (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.13 to 7.04; P = 0.97). Adverse events were reported in five trials but were not necessarily related to the vaccine; a point estimate is suggestive that they occurred more frequently in the vaccine group, however this result was not statistically significant (RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.70 to 2.92; P = 0.87). Quality of life was not meta-analysed but was reported in two trials, with results at six months showing an improvement in quality of life in the vaccinated group (scoring at least two points better than placebo). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Analyses demonstrate that NTHi oral vaccination of people with recurrent exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or COPD does not yield a significant reduction in the number and severity of exacerbations. Evidence was mixed, and the individual trials that showed a significant benefit of the vaccine are too small to advocate widespread oral vaccination of people with COPD.

19 Review [Follicular bronchiolitis: report of 3 cases and literature review]. 2017

Dai, J / Cai, H R / Li, Y / Meng, F Q / Wu, J Q. ·Department of Geriatrics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China. ·Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi · Pubmed #28592030.


20 Review Phenotyping Before Starting Treatment in COPD? 2017

Siafakas, Nikolaos / Corlateanu, Alexandru / Fouka, Evangelia. ·a Medical School , Unvieristy of Crete , Heraklion , Crete , Greece. · b Department of Respiratory Medicine , State University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Nicolae Testemitanu" , Chisinau , Moldova , Republic of Moldova. · c Pulmonary Department of Aristotle University G. Papanikolaou Hospital , Thessaloniki , Greece. ·COPD · Pubmed #28388265.

ABSTRACT: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous and complex disease with great morbidity and mortality. Despite the new developments in the managements of COPD, it was recognized that not all patients benefit from the available medications. Therefore, efforts to identify subgroups or phenotypes had been made in order to predict who will respond to a class of drugs for COPD. This review will discuss phenotypes, endotypes, and subgroups such as the frequent exacerbator, the one with systemic inflammation, the fast decliner, ACOS, and the one with co-morbidities and their impact on therapy. It became apparent, that the "inflammatory" phenotypes: frequent exacerbator, chronic bronchitic, and those with a number of co-morbidities need inhaled corticosteroids; in contrast, the emphysematous type with dyspnea and lung hyperinflation, the fast decliner, need dual bronchodilation (deflators). However, larger, well designed studies clustering COPD patients are needed, in order to identify the important subgroups and thus, to lead to personalize management in COPD.

21 Review Psychological therapies for the treatment of anxiety disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2017

Usmani, Zafar A / Carson, Kristin V / Heslop, Karen / Esterman, Adrian J / De Soyza, Anthony / Smith, Brian J. ·Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 4A, Main Building, 28 Woodville Road, Woodville South, Adelaide, Australia, SA 5011. · School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. · Chest Clinic, Newcastle upon Tyne NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, RVI Hospital, Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, UK, NE1 4LP. · Division of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. · Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK. ·Cochrane Database Syst Rev · Pubmed #28322440.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (commonly referred to as chronic bronchitis and emphysema) is a chronic lung condition characterised by the inflammation of airways and irreversible destruction of pulmonary tissue leading to progressively worsening dyspnoea. It is a leading international cause of disability and death in adults. Evidence suggests that there is an increased prevalence of anxiety disorders in people with COPD. The severity of anxiety has been shown to correlate with the severity of COPD, however anxiety can occur with all stages of COPD severity. Coexisting anxiety and COPD contribute to poor health outcomes in terms of exercise tolerance, quality of life and COPD exacerbations. The evidence for treatment of anxiety disorders in this population is limited, with a paucity of evidence to support the efficacy of medication-only treatments. It is therefore important to evaluate psychological therapies for the alleviation of these symptoms in people with COPD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychological therapies for the treatment of anxiety disorders in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the specialised registers of two Cochrane Review Groups: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders (CCMD) and Cochrane Airways (CAG) (to 14 August 2015). The specialised registers include reports of relevant randomised controlled trials from The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. We carried out complementary searches on PsycINFO and CENTRAL to ensure no studies had been missed. We applied no date or language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials and cross-over trials of psychological therapies for people (aged over 40 years) with COPD and coexisting anxiety disorders (as confirmed by recognised diagnostic criteria or a validated measurement scale), where this was compared with either no intervention or education only. We included studies in which the psychological therapy was delivered in combination with another intervention (co-intervention) only if there was a comparison group that received the co-intervention alone. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened citations to identify studies for inclusion and extracted data into a pilot-tested standardised template. We resolved any conflicts that arose through discussion. We contacted authors of included studies to obtain missing or raw data. We performed meta-analyses using the fixed-effect model and, if we found substantial heterogeneity, we reanalysed the data using the random-effects model. MAIN RESULTS: We identified three prospective RCTs for inclusion in this review (319 participants available to assess the primary outcome of anxiety). The studies included people from the outpatient setting, with the majority of participants being male. All three studies assessed psychological therapy (cognitive behavioural therapy) plus co-intervention versus co-intervention alone. We assessed the quality of evidence contributing to all outcomes as low due to small sample sizes and substantial heterogeneity in the analyses. Two of the three studies had prespecified protocols available for comparison between prespecified methodology and outcomes reported within the final publications.We observed some evidence of improvement in anxiety over 3 to 12 months, as measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (range from 0 to 63 points), with psychological therapies performing better than the co-intervention comparator arm (mean difference (MD) -4.41 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) -8.28 to -0.53; P = 0.03). There was however, substantial heterogeneity between the studies (I AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found only low-quality evidence for the efficacy of psychological therapies among people with COPD with anxiety. Based on the small number of included studies identified and the low quality of the evidence, it is difficult to draw any meaningful and reliable conclusions. No adverse events or harms of psychotherapy intervention were reported.A limitation of this review is that all three included studies recruited participants with both anxiety and depression, not just anxiety, which may confound the results. We downgraded the quality of evidence in the 'Summary of findings' table primarily due to the small sample size of included trials. Larger RCTs evaluating psychological interventions with a minimum 12-month follow-up period are needed to assess long-term efficacy.

22 Review Early investigational antibiotics for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. 2017

Falagas, Matthew E / Georgiou, Maria. ·a Alfa Institute of Biomedical Sciences (AIBS) , Athens , Greece. · b Department of Internal Medicine - Infectious Diseases , Iaso General Hospital, Iaso Group , Athens , Greece. · c Department of Medicine , Tufts University School of Medicine , Boston , MA , USA. ·Expert Opin Investig Drugs · Pubmed #28092467.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Acute exacerbations in patients with chronic bronchitis are a leading cause of hospitalizations and death. Bacteria contribute significantly to such exacerbations. The aim of this review was to explore the potential role of investigational antibiotics in the treatment of these episodes. Areas covered: The available literature in PubMed database, in websites related to investigational drugs and in websites of the producing companies has been searched. The in vitro activity against pathogens involved in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and the pharmacokinetic profile of antibiotics currently under development were taken into consideration for inclusion in the review. Expert opinion: Several novel antimicrobial agents have completed preclinical and Phase I studies and were well-tolerated. Further investigation is mandatory in order to evaluate their future in treatment of chronic bronchitis exacerbations and discover potential advantages compared to already approved antimicrobials.

23 Review Multilevel, Dynamic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Heterogeneity. A Challenge for Personalized Medicine. 2016

Faner, Rosa / Agustí, Álvar. ·1 Centro de Investigacíon Biomédica en Red, Respiratory Diseases (CIBERES), Madrid, Spain. · 2 Fundació Clinic per a la Recerca Biomèdica, Barcelona, Spain. · 3 Institut Respiratori, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain. · 4 Institut d'Investigació Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; and. · 5 Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. ·Ann Am Thorac Soc · Pubmed #28005422.

ABSTRACT: This article summarizes how the multilevel (clinical, functional, structural, and biological) and dynamic (i.e., subjected to changes with time) heterogeneity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease challenges a personalized approach for these patients. In particular, the following issues are discussed: (1) the conceptual differences between personalized and precision medicine, (2) how to frame the complexity and heterogeneity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by considering the precise meaning of the terms personalized medicine and precision medicine, and (3) how to translate all these novel concepts into clinical practice and move the field forward.

24 Review Damaging Effects of Cannabis Use on the Lungs. 2016

Yayan, Josef / Rasche, Kurt. ·Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Sleep Medicine, HELIOS Clinic Wuppertal, Witten/Herdecke University, Heusner 40, 42283, Wuppertal, Germany. josef.yayan@hotmail.com. · Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Sleep Medicine, HELIOS Clinic Wuppertal, Witten/Herdecke University, Heusner 40, 42283, Wuppertal, Germany. ·Adv Exp Med Biol · Pubmed #27573646.

ABSTRACT: Cannabis is the most widely smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in its plant form, marijuana, but it can also be mixed with tobacco. The specific effects of smoking cannabis are difficult to assess accurately and to distinguish from the effects of tobacco; however its use may produce severe consequences. Cannabis smoke affects the lungs similarly to tobacco smoke, causing symptoms such as increased cough, sputum, and hyperinflation. It can also cause serious lung diseases with increasing years of use. Cannabis can weaken the immune system, leading to pneumonia. Smoking cannabis has been further linked with symptoms of chronic bronchitis. Heavy use of cannabis on its own can cause airway obstruction. Based on immuno-histopathological and epidemiological evidence, smoking cannabis poses a potential risk for developing lung cancer. At present, however, the association between smoking cannabis and the development of lung cancer is not decisive.

25 Review COPD: obstructed lungs. 2016

Casey, Georgina. · ·Nurs N Z · Pubmed #27514228.

ABSTRACT: CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE pulmonary diseases (COPD) affect 14 per cent of the population over 40 years of age. With an ageing population, the number of those requiring care for COPD is expected to increase, having a significant effect on health-care resources. COPD is projected to become the third leading cause of death globally by 2020. This disease has a major impact on economic and social well-being, and on quality of life. It is regarded as largely preventable but, once developed, is a progressive and complex condition characterised by frequent exacerbations and co-morbidities. Smoking is the primary cause of COPD but up to 30 per cent of those with COPD have never smoked. It is increasingly recognised COPD may have its origins prenatally and in early childhood. Treating exacerbations, improving exercise capacity, and delaying progression of disease are key management strategies. No curative or disease modifying therapies are available. Nurses are essential in providing comprehensive care to patients in both acute care and for long-term management. They also have a vital role to play in preserving healthy lung function in the early years of life to reduce the risk of COPD in older age.