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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: HELP
Articles from Miscellaneous cities in Australia
Based on 19 articles published since 2010
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These are the 19 published articles about Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic that originated from Miscellaneous cities in Australia during 2010-2020.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Role of dietary modification in alleviating chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms: a systematic review. 2017

Jones, Kathryn / Probst, Yasmine. ·Smart Food Centre, Faculty of Science Medicine and Health, School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, New South Wales. · Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, New South Wales. ·Aust N Z J Public Health · Pubmed #28616881.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for the role of dietary modifications in alleviating chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms. METHODS: A systematic literature review was guided by PRISMA and conducted using Scopus, CINAHL Plus, Web of Science and PsycINFO scientific databases (1994-2016) to identify relevant studies. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria, the quality of each paper was assessed and data extracted into a standardised tabular format. RESULTS: Positive outcomes were highlighted in some included studies for polyphenol intakes in animal studies, D-ribose supplementation in humans and aspects of symptom alleviation for one of three polynutrient supplement studies. Omega three fatty acid blood levels and supplementation with an omega three fatty acid supplement also displayed positive outcomes in relation to chronic fatigue syndrome symptom alleviation. CONCLUSIONS: Limited dietary modifications were found useful in alleviating chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms, with overall evidence narrow and inconsistent across studies. Implications for public health: Due to the individual and community impairment chronic fatigue syndrome causes the population, it is vital that awareness and further focused research on this topic is undertaken to clarify and consolidate recommendations and ensure accurate, useful distribution of information at a population level.

2 Review Support for the microgenderome invites enquiry into sex differences. 2017

Wallis, Amy / Butt, Henry / Ball, Michelle / Lewis, Donald P / Bruck, Dorothy. ·a Psychology Department , Victoria University , Victoria , Australia. · b Bioscreen (Aust) Pty Ltd , Victoria , Australia. · c CFS Discovery Clinic , Donvale , Victoria , Australia. ·Gut Microbes · Pubmed #27808584.

ABSTRACT: The microgenderome defines the interaction between microbiota, sex hormones and the immune system. Our recent research inferred support for the microgenderome by showing sex differences in microbiota-symptom associations in a clinical sample of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). This addendum expands upon the sex-specific pattern of associations that were observed. Interpretations are hypothesized in relation to genera versus species-level analyses and D-lactate theory. Evidence of sex-differences invites future research to consider sex comparisons in microbial function even when microbial abundance is statistically similar. Pairing assessment of clinical symptoms with microbial culture, DNA sequencing and metabolomics methods will help advance our current understandings of the role of the microbiome in health and disease.

3 Article Rethinking ME/CFS Diagnostic Reference Intervals via Machine Learning, and the Utility of Activin B for Defining Symptom Severity. 2019

Lidbury, Brett A / Kita, Badia / Richardson, Alice M / Lewis, Donald P / Privitera, Edwina / Hayward, Susan / de Kretser, David / Hedger, Mark. ·National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, RSPH, College of Health and Medicine, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. brett.lidbury@anu.edu.au. · Paranta Biosciences Limited, Suite 549, 1 Queens Rd, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia. · National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, RSPH, College of Health and Medicine, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. · CFS Discovery, Donvale Specialist Medical Centre, Donvale, VIC 3111, Australia. · Centre for Reproductive Health, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia. · Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. ·Diagnostics (Basel) · Pubmed #31331036.

ABSTRACT: Biomarker discovery applied to myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), a disabling disease of inconclusive aetiology, has identified several cytokines to potentially fulfil a role as a quantitative blood/serum marker for laboratory diagnosis, with activin B a recent addition. We explored further the potential of serum activin B as a ME/CFS biomarker, alone and in combination with a range of routine test results obtained from pathology laboratories. Previous pilot study results showed that activin B was significantly elevated for the ME/CFS participants compared to healthy (control) participants. All the participants were recruited via CFS Discovery and assessed via the Canadian/International Consensus Criteria. A significant difference for serum activin B was also detected for ME/CFS and control cohorts recruited for this study, but median levels were significantly lower for the ME/CFS cohort. Random Forest (RF) modelling identified five routine pathology blood test markers that collectively predicted ME/CFS at ≥62% when compared via weighted standing time (WST) severity classes. A closer analysis revealed that the inclusion of activin B to the panel of pathology markers improved the prediction of mild to moderate ME/CFS cases. Applying correct WST class prediction from RFA modelling, new reference intervals were calculated for activin B and associated pathology markers, where 24-h urinary creatinine clearance, serum urea and serum activin B showed the best potential as diagnostic markers. While the serum activin B results remained statistically significant for the new participant cohorts, activin B was found to also have utility in enhancing the prediction of symptom severity, as represented by WST class.

4 Article Ankylosing spondylitis, chronic fatigue and depression improved after stromal vascular fraction treatment for osteoarthritis: a case report. 2018

Bright, Bora / Bright, Ralph / Bright, Pelin / Limaye, Amita. ·Macquarie Stem Cells, 21b Bathurst Street, Liverpool, NSW, 2170, Australia. · Macquarie Stem Cells, 21b Bathurst Street, Liverpool, NSW, 2170, Australia. amita@macquariestemcells.com. ·J Med Case Rep · Pubmed #30153860.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a prevalent chronic disease that impacts quality of life and imposes a heavy economic burden. Despite this there is no confirmed treatment that could prevent progressive destruction of osteoarthritic joints. Mesenchymal stem cells with their regenerative and immunosuppressive properties have emerged as a potential therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: This case study describes the impact of autologous adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction treatment on a 27-year-old Australian woman with osteoarthritis and multiple comorbidities of ankylosing spondylitis, chronic pain syndrome, and post-traumatic stress disorder as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Following standardized stromal vascular fraction treatment protocols for osteoarthritis of her hips and knee, the functional status of her hips was measured by Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score at 3 months, 6 months, and 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our patient showed dramatic improvements to her quality of life and symptoms of osteoarthritis were reduced. Interestingly, along with improvements in her knee and hips her other comorbidities such as ankylosing spondylitis, depression, anxiety, and fatigue exhibited marked improvement. She ceased the use of a wheelchair and walking support and, with increased mobility, had gained independence. These findings are suggestive of the therapeutic effects of stromal vascular fraction.

5 Article Effects of a short-term aquatic exercise intervention on symptoms and exercise capacity in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a pilot study. 2018

Broadbent, Suzanne / Coetzee, Sonja / Beavers, Rosalind. ·School of Health and Sports Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, QLD, 4558, Australia. sbroadbe@usc.edu.au. · School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW, 2480, Australia. ·Eur J Appl Physiol · Pubmed #29923110.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This pilot pre-and post-intervention study investigated the effects of a short-term aquatic exercise programme on physiological outcomes, symptoms and exercise capacity in women with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). METHODS: Eleven women (54.8 ± 12.4 year) volunteered for the 5-week program; an initial 20-min aquatic exercise session then two self-paced 20-min sessions per week for 4 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention outcomes were physiological measures, 6 min Walk Test (6MWT), perceived exertion (RPE), hand grip strength, Sit-to-Stand, Sit-Reach test, Apley's shoulder test, FACIT questionnaire, and 24-h post-test tiredness and pain scores (0-10 visual analogue scale). Heart rates, RPE, 24- and 48-h post-session tiredness/pain scores were recorded each session. RESULTS: 6MWT distance increased by 60.8 m (p = 0.006), left hand grip strength by 6 kg (p = 0.038), Sit-Reach test by 4.0 cm (p = 0.017), right shoulder flexibility by 2.9 cm (p = 0.026), FACIT scores by 8.2 (p = 0.041); 24-h post-test tiredness and pain decreased by 1.5 and 1.6, respectively (p = 0.002). There were significant post-intervention increases in exercising heart rates (6MWT 4- and 6-min time points), oxygen saturation at 2-min, and reduced RPE at 4-min. Weekly resting and exercising heart rates increased significantly during the study but RPE decreased; immediately post- and 24-h post-session tiredness decreased significantly. There were no reports of symptom exacerbation. CONCLUSIONS: Five weeks of low-moderate intensity aquatic exercise significantly improved exercise capacity, RPE and fatigue. This exercise mode exercise may potentially be a manageable and safe physical activity for CFS/ME patients.

6 Article Weighting of orthostatic intolerance time measurements with standing difficulty score stratifies ME/CFS symptom severity and analyte detection. 2018

Richardson, Alice M / Lewis, Don P / Kita, Badia / Ludlow, Helen / Groome, Nigel P / Hedger, Mark P / de Kretser, David M / Lidbury, Brett A. ·National Centre for Epidemiology and Public Health, Research School of Population Health, ANU, Acton, ACT, 2601, Australia. alice.richardson@anu.edu.au. · CFS Discovery, Donvale Medical Specialist Centre, Donvale, VIC, 3111, Australia. · Paranta Biosciences Limited, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia. · School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK. · The Hudson Medical Research Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3168, Australia. · Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3168, Australia. · National Centre for Epidemiology and Public Health, Research School of Population Health, ANU, Acton, ACT, 2601, Australia. ·J Transl Med · Pubmed #29650052.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is clinically defined and characterised by persistent disabling tiredness and exertional malaise, leading to functional impairment. METHODS: This study introduces the weighted standing time (WST) as a proxy for ME/CFS severity, and investigates its behaviour in an Australian cohort. WST was calculated from standing time and subjective standing difficulty data, collected via orthostatic intolerance assessments. The distribution of WST for healthy controls and ME/CFS patients was correlated with the clinical criteria, as well as pathology and cytokine markers. Included in the WST cytokine analyses were activins A and B, cytokines causally linked to inflammation, and previously demonstrated to separate ME/CFS from healthy controls. Forty-five ME/CFS patients were recruited from the CFS Discovery Clinic (Victoria) between 2011 and 2013. Seventeen healthy controls were recruited concurrently and identically assessed. RESULTS: WST distribution was significantly different between ME/CFS participants and controls, with six diagnostic criteria, five analytes and one cytokine also significantly different when comparing severity via WST. On direct comparison of ME/CFS to study controls, only serum activin B was significantly elevated, with no significant variation observed for a broad range of serum and urine markers, or other serum cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: The enhanced understanding of standing test behaviour to reflect orthostatic intolerance as a ME/CFS symptom, and the subsequent calculation of WST, will encourage the greater implementation of this simple test as a measure of ME/CFS diagnosis, and symptom severity, to the benefit of improved diagnosis and guidance for potential treatments.

7 Article Chronic fatigue syndrome patients have no reason to accept the PACE trial results: Response to Keith J Petrie and John Weinman. 2017

Agardy, Susanna. ·ME/CFS patient. Member of emerge Australia, patient advocacy group, Australia. ·J Health Psychol · Pubmed #28805512.

ABSTRACT: Petrie and Weinman urge chronic fatigue syndrome patients to move on from their beliefs about their illness and accept the findings of thePACE trial. This is unreasonable in view of the failure of PACE to achieve evidence of recovery through cognitive behaviour therapy and graded exercise therapy in either self-reports or the objective measure of the 6-minute walking test. Contrary to their suggestion, the Institute of Medicine describes chronic fatigue syndrome not as psychological but as a serious, chronic, systemic disease, with post-exertional malaise as its main feature which inhibits exercise. Linking debate about PACE with intimidation of researchers is unjustifiable and damaging to patients.

8 Article Medial prefrontal cortex deficits correlate with unrefreshing sleep in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. 2017

Shan, Zack Y / Kwiatek, Richard / Burnet, Richard / Del Fante, Peter / Staines, Donald R / Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M / Barnden, Leighton R. ·National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. · Division of Medical Subspecialities, Lyell McEwin Hospital, Elizabeth Vale, South Austalia, Australia. · Endocrinology department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Austalia, Australia. · Healthfirst Network, Woodville, South Austalia, Australia. ·NMR Biomed · Pubmed #28661067.

ABSTRACT: Unrefreshing sleep is a hallmark of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS). This study examined brain structure variations associated with sleep quality in patients with CFS. 38 patients with CFS (34.8 ± 10.1 years old) and 14 normal controls (NCs) (34.7 ± 8.4 years old) were recruited. All subjects completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFQ) questionnaires. Brain MRI measures included global and regional grey and white matter volumes, magnetization transfer T

9 Article Sex differences in amino acids lost via sweating could lead to differential susceptibilities to disturbances in nitrogen balance and collagen turnover. 2017

Dunstan, R H / Sparkes, D L / Dascombe, B J / Stevens, C J / Murphy, G R / Macdonald, M M / Gottfries, J / Gottfries, C-G / Roberts, T K. ·University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia. hugh.dunstan@newcastle.edu.au. · University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia. · Latrobe University, Melbourne, VIC, 3086, Australia. · Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, NSW, 2450, Australia. · University of Gothenburg, Box 100, 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden. · Gottfries Clinic, Mölndal, Sweden. ·Amino Acids · Pubmed #28474126.

ABSTRACT: Fluid collected during sweating is enriched with amino acids derived from the skin's natural moisturising factors and has been termed "faux" sweat. Little is known about sex differences in sweat amino acid composition or whether faux sweat amino acid losses affect nitrogen balance. Faux sweat collected by healthy adults (n = 47) after exercise, and at rest by chronic fatigue patients, was analysed for amino acid composition. Healthy females had higher total amino acid concentrations in sweat (10.5 ± 1.2 mM) compared with healthy males (6.9 ± 0.9 mM). Females had higher levels of 13 amino acids in sweat including serine, alanine and glycine. Higher hydroxyproline and proline levels suggested greater collagen turnover in females. Modelling indicated that with conservative levels of exercise, amino acid losses in females via faux sweat were triple than those predicted for urine, whereas in males they were double. It was concluded that females were more susceptible to key amino acid loss during exercise and/or hot conditions. Females reporting chronic fatigue had higher levels of methionine in faux sweat than healthy females. Males reporting chronic fatigue had higher levels of numerous amino acids in faux sweat compared to healthy males. Higher amino acid loss in faux sweat associated with chronic fatigue could contribute to a hypometabolic state. Depending on activity levels, climatic conditions and gender, amino acid losses in sweat and skin leachate could influence daily protein turnover where periods of continuously high turnover could lead to a negative net nitrogen balance.

10 Article Activin B is a novel biomarker for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) diagnosis: a cross sectional study. 2017

Lidbury, Brett A / Kita, Badia / Lewis, Donald P / Hayward, Susan / Ludlow, Helen / Hedger, Mark P / de Kretser, David M. ·Pattern Recognition and Pathology, Department of Genome Sciences, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia. brett.lidbury@anu.edu.au. · The National Centre for Epidemiology and Public Health, The Research School of Population Health, ANU, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia. brett.lidbury@anu.edu.au. · Paranta Biosciences Limited, Caulfield North, VIC, 3161, Australia. · CFS Discovery, Donvale Medical Specialist Centre, Donvale, VIC, 3111, Australia. · The Hudson Medical Research Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3168, Australia. · Centre for Proteins and Peptides, School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK. · Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3168, Australia. ·J Transl Med · Pubmed #28302133.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Investigations of activin family proteins as serum biomarkers for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). CFS/ME is a disease with complex, wide-ranging symptoms, featuring persistent fatigue of 6 months or longer, particularly post exertion. No definitive biomarkers are available. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study of CFS/ME patients fulfilling the 2003 Canadian Consensus Criteria, in parallel with healthy non-fatigued controls, was conducted. Comparisons with a previously defined activin reference population were also performed. For the total study cohort the age range was 18-65 years with a female: male participant ratio of greater than 3:1. All participants were assessed via a primary care community clinic. Blood samples were collected for pathology testing after physical examination and orthostatic intolerance assessment. Cytokines, activin A, activin B and follistatin were also measured in sera from these samples. All data were compared between the CFS/ME and control cohorts, with the activins and follistatin also compared with previously defined reference intervals. RESULTS: Serum activin B levels for CFS/ME participants were significantly elevated when compared to the study controls, as well as the established reference interval. Serum activin A and follistatin were within their normal ranges. All routine and special pathology markers were within the normal laboratory reference intervals for the total study cohort, with no significant differences detected between CFS/ME and control groups. Also, no significant differences were detected for IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, TNF or IFN-gamma. CONCLUSION: Elevated activin B levels together with normal activin A levels identified patients with the diagnostic symptoms of CFS/ME, thus providing a novel serum based test. The activins have multiple physiological roles and capture the diverse array of symptoms experienced by CFS/ME patients.

11 Article Intermittent and graded exercise effects on NK cell degranulation markers LAMP-1/LAMP-2 and CD8 2017

Broadbent, Suzanne / Coutts, Rosanne. ·School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia suzanne.broadbent@scu.edu.au. · School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia. ·Physiol Rep · Pubmed #28275109.

ABSTRACT: There is substantial evidence of immune system dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) but little is understood of exercise training effects on lymphocyte function in this illness. This study investigated whether graded and intermittent exercise improved CD8

12 Article Gene Expression in Response to Exercise in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Pilot Study. 2016

Keech, Andrew / Vollmer-Conna, Ute / Barry, Benjamin K / Lloyd, Andrew R. ·School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales Sydney, NSW, Australia. · School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales Sydney, NSW, Australia. · School of Medical Sciences, University of New South WalesSydney, NSW, Australia; Neuroscience Research AustraliaSydney, NSW, Australia. · Inflammation and Infection Research Centre, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales Sydney, NSW, Australia. ·Front Physiol · Pubmed #27713703.

ABSTRACT: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disorder of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by fatigue, which is exacerbated after minimal exercise. We examined the effect of a single bout of aerobic exercise on leucocyte mRNA expression of genes putatively linked to exaggerated afferent signaling as an under-pinning of the fatigue state. A carefully-characterized sample of patients with CFS (

13 Article Epidemiological characteristics of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis in Australian patients. 2016

Johnston, Samantha C / Staines, Donald R / Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M. ·National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Parklands, QLD, Australia; School of Medical Sciences, Griffith University, Parklands, QLD, Australia. · National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Parklands, QLD, Australia. ·Clin Epidemiol · Pubmed #27279748.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: No epidemiological investigations have previously been conducted in Australia according to the current clinical definitions of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). The aim of this study was to describe sociodemographic and illness characteristics of Australian patients with CFS/ME. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey on the medical history of patients enrolled in an Australian CFS/ME research database between April 2013 and April 2015. Participants were classified according to Fukuda criteria and International Consensus Criteria. RESULTS: A total of 535 patients diagnosed with CFS/ME by a primary care physician were identified. The mean age of all patients was 46.4 years (standard deviation 12.0); the majority were female (78.61%), Caucasian, and highly educated. Of these, 30.28% met Fukuda criteria. A further 31.96% met both Fukuda criteria and International Consensus Criteria. There were 14.58% reporting chronic fatigue but did not meet criteria for CFS/ME and 23.18% were considered noncases due to exclusionary conditions. Within those meeting CFS/ME criteria, the most common events prior to illness included cold or flu, gastrointestinal illness, and periods of undue stress. Of the 60 symptoms surveyed, fatigue, cognitive, and short-term memory symptoms, headaches, muscle and joint pain, unrefreshed sleep, sensory disturbances, muscle weakness, and intolerance to extremes of temperature were the most commonly occurring symptoms (reported by more than two-thirds of patients). Significant differences in symptom occurrence between Fukuda- and International Consensus Criteria-defined cases were also identified. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to summarize sociodemographic and illness characteristics of a cohort of Australian CFS/ME patients. This is vital for identifying potential risk factors and predictors associated with CFS/ME and for guiding decisions regarding health care provision, diagnosis, and management.

14 Article Progressive brain changes in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: A longitudinal MRI study. 2016

Shan, Zack Y / Kwiatek, Richard / Burnet, Richard / Del Fante, Peter / Staines, Donald R / Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M / Barnden, Leighton R. ·National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Southport, Australia. z.shan@griffith.edu.au. · Division of Medical Subspecialities, Lyell McEwin Hospital, Elizabeth Vale, SA, Australia. · Endocrinology department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia. · Healthfirst Network, Woodville, Australia. · National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Southport, Australia. ·J Magn Reson Imaging · Pubmed #27123773.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To examine progressive brain changes associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated progressive brain changes with longitudinal MRI in 15 CFS and 10 normal controls (NCs) scanned twice 6 years apart on the same 1.5 Tesla (T) scanner. MR images yielded gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter (WM) volumes, and T1- and T2-weighted signal intensities (T1w and T2w). Each participant was characterized with Bell disability scores, and somatic and neurological symptom scores. We tested for differences in longitudinal changes between CFS and NC groups, inter group differences between pooled CFS and pooled NC populations, and correlations between MRI and symptom scores using voxel based morphometry. The analysis methodologies were first optimized using simulated atrophy. RESULTS: We found a significant decrease in WM volumes in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) in CFS while in NCs it was unchanged (family wise error adjusted cluster level P value, P CONCLUSION: The results suggested that CFS is associated with IFOF WM deficits which continue to deteriorate at an abnormal rate. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1301-1311.

15 Article Graded versus Intermittent Exercise Effects on Lymphocytes in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 2016

Broadbent, Suzanne / Coutts, Rosanne. ·School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, AUSTRALIA. ·Med Sci Sports Exerc · Pubmed #27116645.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: There is increasing evidence of immune system dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but little is known of the regular exercise effects on immune cell parameters. This pilot study investigated the effects of graded and intermittent exercise on CD4 lymphocyte subset counts and activation compared with usual care. METHODS: Twenty-four CFS patients (50.2 ± 10 yr) were randomized to graded exercise (GE), intermittent exercise (IE), or usual care (UC) groups; 18 sedentary non-CFS participants (50.6 ± 10 yr) were controls (CTL) for blood and immunological comparisons. Outcome measures were pre- and postintervention flow cytometric analyses of circulating lymphocyte subset cell counts; expression of CD3, CD4, CD25, and CD134; full blood counts; and V˙O2peak. RESULTS: Preintervention, CD3 cell counts, and expression of CD4, CD25, CD134, and CD4CD25CD134 were significantly lower in GE, IE, and UC compared with CTL (P < 0.05). Total lymphocyte concentration was significantly lower in GE and IE groups compared with CTL. There were significant postintervention increases in i) expression of CD4 and CD4CD25CD134 for GE and IE, but CD25 and CD134 for IE only; ii) circulating counts of CD3 and CD4 for GE, and CD3, CD4, CD8, CD3CD4CD8, CD3CD16CD56, CD19, and CD45 for IE; iii) neutrophil concentration for GE; and iv) V˙O2peak and elapsed test time for IE and GE, V˙Epeak for IE. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve weeks of GE and IE training significantly improved CD4 lymphocyte activation and aerobic capacity without exacerbating CFS symptoms. IE may be a more effective exercise modality with regard to enhanced CD4 activation in CFS patients.

16 Article Autonomic correlations with MRI are abnormal in the brainstem vasomotor centre in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 2016

Barnden, Leighton R / Kwiatek, Richard / Crouch, Benjamin / Burnet, Richard / Del Fante, Peter. ·Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, SA 5011, Australia; National Centre for NeuroImmunology and Emerging Diseases, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia. Electronic address: l.barnden@griffith.edu.au. · Division of Medical Subspecialities, Lyell McEwin Hospital, Elizabeth, SA 5112, Australia. Electronic address: rkwiatek@bigpond.com. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, SA 5011, Australia. Electronic address: benjamin.crouch@health.sa.gov.au. · Endocrinology Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia. Electronic address: hair77@bigpond.com. · Healthfirst Network, Woodville, SA 5011, Australia. Electronic address: peter.delfante@healthfirst.org.au. ·Neuroimage Clin · Pubmed #27114901.

ABSTRACT: Autonomic changes are often associated with the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but their pathogenetic role is unclear and brain imaging investigations are lacking. The vasomotor centre and, through it, nuclei in the midbrain and hypothalamus play a key role in autonomic nervous system regulation of steady state blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). In this exploratory cross-sectional study, BP and HR, as indicators of autonomic function, were correlated with volumetric and T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo (T1w and T2w) brain MRI in 25 CFS subjects and 25 normal controls (NC). Steady state BP (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) and HR in two postures were extracted from 24 h blood pressure monitoring. We performed (1) MRI versus autonomic score interaction-with-group regressions to detect locations where regression slopes differed in the CFS and NC groups (collectively indicating abnormality in CFS), and (2) MRI regressions in the CFS and NC groups alone to detect additional locations with abnormal correlations in CFS. Significant CFS regressions were repeated controlling for anxiety and depression (A&D). Abnormal regressions were detected in nuclei of the brainstem vasomotor centre, midbrain reticular formation and hypothalamus, but also in limbic nuclei involved in stress responses and in prefrontal white matter. Group comparisons of CFS and NC did not find MRI differences in these locations. We propose therefore that these regulatory nuclei are functioning correctly, but that two-way communication between them is impaired in CFS and this affects signalling to/from peripheral effectors/sensors, culminating in inverted or magnified correlations. This single explanation for the diverse abnormal correlations detected here consolidates the conclusion for a brainstem/midbrain nerve conduction deficit inferred earlier (Barnden et al., 2015). Strong correlations were also detected in isolated NC regressions.

17 Article Support for the Microgenderome: Associations in a Human Clinical Population. 2016

Wallis, Amy / Butt, Henry / Ball, Michelle / Lewis, Donald P / Bruck, Dorothy. ·Psychology Department, Victoria University, Victoria, Australia. · Bioscreen (Aust) Pty Ltd, Victoria, Australia. · CFS Discovery Clinic, Donvale, Victoria, Australia. ·Sci Rep · Pubmed #26757840.

ABSTRACT: The 'microgenderome' provides a paradigm shift that highlights the role of sex differences in the host-microbiota interaction relevant for autoimmune and neuro-immune conditions. Analysis of cross-sectional self-report and faecal microbial data from 274 patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) suggests that commensal gut microorganisms may play both protective and deleterious roles in symptom expression. Results revealed significant sex-specific interactions between Firmicutes (Clostridium, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus) and ME/CFS symptoms (including neurological, immune and mood symptoms), regardless of compositional similarity in microbial levels across the sexes. Extending animal studies, we provide support for the microgenderome in a human clinical population. Applied and mechanistic research needs to consider sex-interactions when examining the composition and function of human microbiota.

18 Article Sleep quality and the treatment of intestinal microbiota imbalance in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A pilot study. 2015

Jackson, Melinda L / Butt, Henry / Ball, Michelle / Lewis, Donald P / Bruck, Dorothy. ·College of Arts, Victoria University, Victoria, Australia. · Bioscreen (Aust) Pty Ltd., Victoria, Australia. · CFS Discovery, Victoria, Australia. ·Sleep Sci · Pubmed #26779319.

ABSTRACT: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a multisystem illness, which may be associated with imbalances in gut microbiota. This study builds on recent evidence that sleep may be influenced by gut microbiota, by assessing whether changes to microbiota in a clinical population known to have both poor sleep and high rates of colonization with gram-positive faecal Streptococcus, can improve sleep. Twenty-one CFS participants completed a 22- day open label trial. Faecal microbiota analysis was performed at baseline and at the end of the trial. Participants were administered erythromycin 400 mg b.d. for 6 days. Actigraphy and questionnaires were used to monitor sleep, symptoms and mood. Changes in patients who showed a clinically significant change in faecal Streptococcus after treatment (responders; defined as post-therapy distribution<6%) were compared to participants who did not respond to treatment. In the seven responders, there was a significant increase in actigraphic total sleep time (p=0.028) from baseline to follow up, compared with non-responders. Improved vigour scores were associated with a lower Streptococcus count (ρ=-0.90, p=0.037). For both the responders and the whole group, poorer mood was associated with higher Lactobacillus. Short term antibiotic treatment appears to be insufficient to effect sustainable changes in the gut ecosystem in most CFS participants. Some improvement in objective sleep parameters and mood were found in participants with reduced levels of gram-positive gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment, which is encouraging. Further study of possible links between gut microorganisms and sleep and mood disturbances is warranted.

19 Article A Brief Historic Overview of Clinical Disorders Associated with Tryptophan: The Relevance to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Fibromyalgia (FM). 2012

Blankfield, Adele. ·Kew, Australia. ·Int J Tryptophan Res · Pubmed #23032646.

ABSTRACT: Last century there was a short burst of interest in the tryptophan related disorders of pellagra and related abnormalities that are usually presented in infancy.1,2 Nutritional physiologists recognized that a severe human dietary deficiency of either tryptophan or the B group vitamins could result in central nervous system (CNS) sequelae such as ataxia, cognitive dysfunction and dysphoria, accompanied by skin hyperpigmentation.3,4 The current paper will focus on the emerging role of tryptophan in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM).