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Coronary Artery Disease: HELP
Articles by Stuart J. Head
Based on 39 articles published since 2010
(Why 39 articles?)
||||

Between 2010 and 2020, S. Head wrote the following 39 articles about Coronary Artery Disease.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2
1 Guideline 2014 ESC/EACTS Guidelines on myocardial revascularization: the Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Developed with the special contribution of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI). 2014

Kolh, Philippe / Windecker, Stephan / Alfonso, Fernando / Collet, Jean-Philippe / Cremer, Jochen / Falk, Volkmar / Filippatos, Gerasimos / Hamm, Christian / Head, Stuart J / Jüni, Peter / Kappetein, A Pieter / Kastrati, Adnan / Knuuti, Juhani / Landmesser, Ulf / Laufer, Günther / Neumann, Franz-Josef / Richter, Dimitrios J / Schauerte, Patrick / Sousa Uva, Miguel / Stefanini, Giulio G / Taggart, David Paul / Torracca, Lucia / Valgimigli, Marco / Wijns, William / Witkowski, Adam / Anonymous7870804 / Zamorano, Jose Luis / Achenbach, Stephan / Baumgartner, Helmut / Bax, Jeroen J / Bueno, Héctor / Dean, Veronica / Deaton, Christi / Erol, Çetin / Fagard, Robert / Ferrari, Roberto / Hasdai, David / Hoes, Arno W / Kirchhof, Paulus / Knuuti, Juhani / Kolh, Philippe / Lancellotti, Patrizio / Linhart, Ales / Nihoyannopoulos, Petros / Piepoli, Massimo F / Ponikowski, Piotr / Sirnes, Per Anton / Tamargo, Juan Luis / Tendera, Michal / Torbicki, Adam / Wijns, William / Windecker, Stephan / Anonymous7880804 / Sousa Uva, Miguel / Achenbach, Stephan / Pepper, John / Anyanwu, Anelechi / Badimon, Lina / Bauersachs, Johann / Baumbach, Andreas / Beygui, Farzin / Bonaros, Nikolaos / De Carlo, Marco / Deaton, Christi / Dobrev, Dobromir / Dunning, Joel / Eeckhout, Eric / Gielen, Stephan / Hasdai, David / Kirchhof, Paulus / Luckraz, Heyman / Mahrholdt, Heiko / Montalescot, Gilles / Paparella, Domenico / Rastan, Ardawan J / Sanmartin, Marcelo / Sergeant, Paul / Silber, Sigmund / Tamargo, Juan / ten Berg, Jurrien / Thiele, Holger / van Geuns, Robert-Jan / Wagner, Hans-Otto / Wassmann, Sven / Wendler, Olaf / Zamorano, Jose Luis / Anonymous7890804 / Anonymous7900804. ·(Belgium) philippe.kolh@chu.ulg.ac.be stephan.windecker@insel.ch. · (Switzerland) philippe.kolh@chu.ulg.ac.be stephan.windecker@insel.ch. · (Spain). · (France). · (Germany). · (Switzerland). · (Greece). · (Netherlands). · (Finland). · (Austria). · (Portugal). · (UK). · (Italy). · (Belgium). · (Poland). · (Turkey). · (Israel). · (Germany/UK). · (Czech Republic). · (Norway). · (USA). · (UK/Germany). ·Eur J Cardiothorac Surg · Pubmed #25173601.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Guideline 2014 ESC/EACTS Guidelines on myocardial revascularization: The Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS)Developed with the special contribution of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI). 2014

Anonymous7760804 / Windecker, Stephan / Kolh, Philippe / Alfonso, Fernando / Collet, Jean-Philippe / Cremer, Jochen / Falk, Volkmar / Filippatos, Gerasimos / Hamm, Christian / Head, Stuart J / Jüni, Peter / Kappetein, A Pieter / Kastrati, Adnan / Knuuti, Juhani / Landmesser, Ulf / Laufer, Günther / Neumann, Franz-Josef / Richter, Dimitrios J / Schauerte, Patrick / Sousa Uva, Miguel / Stefanini, Giulio G / Taggart, David Paul / Torracca, Lucia / Valgimigli, Marco / Wijns, William / Witkowski, Adam. · ·Eur Heart J · Pubmed #25173339.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Doing better in more complex patients: leading the way for QUIP. 2016

Osnabrugge, Ruben L / Kappetein, A Pieter / Head, Stuart J / Kolh, Philippe. ·Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital (CHU, ULg) of Liège, Liège, Belgium philippe.kolh@chu.ulg.ac.be. ·Eur J Cardiothorac Surg · Pubmed #26242898.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Review Mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting for coronary artery disease: a pooled analysis of individual patient data. 2018

Head, Stuart J / Milojevic, Milan / Daemen, Joost / Ahn, Jung-Min / Boersma, Eric / Christiansen, Evald H / Domanski, Michael J / Farkouh, Michael E / Flather, Marcus / Fuster, Valentin / Hlatky, Mark A / Holm, Niels R / Hueb, Whady A / Kamalesh, Masoor / Kim, Young-Hak / Mäkikallio, Timo / Mohr, Friedrich W / Papageorgiou, Grigorios / Park, Seung-Jung / Rodriguez, Alfredo E / Sabik, Joseph F / Stables, Rodney H / Stone, Gregg W / Serruys, Patrick W / Kappetein, Arie Pieter. ·Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address: s.head@erasmusmc.nl. · Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Cardiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. · Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark. · Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Peter Munk Cardiac Centre and the Heart and Stroke Richard Lewar Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. · Norwich Medical School University of East Anglia and Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, UK. · Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. · Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. · Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil. · Richard L Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA. · Department of Cardiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland. · Department of Cardiac Surgery, Herzzentrum Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. · Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands; Department of Biostatistics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. · Cardiac Unit, Otamendi Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina. · Department Surgery, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA. · Institute of Cardiovascular Medicine and Science, Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Liverpool, UK. · Columbia University Medical Center and the Center for Clinical Trials, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, NY, USA. · Imperial College London, London, UK. ·Lancet · Pubmed #29478841.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Numerous randomised trials have compared coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with coronary artery disease. However, no studies have been powered to detect a difference in mortality between the revascularisation strategies. METHODS: We did a systematic review up to July 19, 2017, to identify randomised clinical trials comparing CABG with PCI using stents. Eligible studies included patients with multivessel or left main coronary artery disease who did not present with acute myocardial infarction, did PCI with stents (bare-metal or drug-eluting), and had more than 1 year of follow-up for all-cause mortality. In a collaborative, pooled analysis of individual patient data from the identified trials, we estimated all-cause mortality up to 5 years using Kaplan-Meier analyses and compared PCI with CABG using a random-effects Cox proportional-hazards model stratified by trial. Consistency of treatment effect was explored in subgroup analyses, with subgroups defined according to baseline clinical and anatomical characteristics. FINDINGS: We included 11 randomised trials involving 11 518 patients selected by heart teams who were assigned to PCI (n=5753) or to CABG (n=5765). 976 patients died over a mean follow-up of 3·8 years (SD 1·4). Mean Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score was 26·0 (SD 9·5), with 1798 (22·1%) of 8138 patients having a SYNTAX score of 33 or higher. 5 year all-cause mortality was 11·2% after PCI and 9·2% after CABG (hazard ratio [HR] 1·20, 95% CI 1·06-1·37; p=0·0038). 5 year all-cause mortality was significantly different between the interventions in patients with multivessel disease (11·5% after PCI vs 8·9% after CABG; HR 1·28, 95% CI 1·09-1·49; p=0·0019), including in those with diabetes (15·5% vs 10·0%; 1·48, 1·19-1·84; p=0·0004), but not in those without diabetes (8·7% vs 8·0%; 1·08, 0·86-1·36; p=0·49). SYNTAX score had a significant effect on the difference between the interventions in multivessel disease. 5 year all-cause mortality was similar between the interventions in patients with left main disease (10·7% after PCI vs 10·5% after CABG; 1·07, 0·87-1·33; p=0·52), regardless of diabetes status and SYNTAX score. INTERPRETATION: CABG had a mortality benefit over PCI in patients with multivessel disease, particularly those with diabetes and higher coronary complexity. No benefit for CABG over PCI was seen in patients with left main disease. Longer follow-up is needed to better define mortality differences between the revascularisation strategies. FUNDING: None.

5 Review Current Practice of State-of-the-Art Surgical Coronary Revascularization. 2017

Head, Stuart J / Milojevic, Milan / Taggart, David P / Puskas, John D. ·From Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (S.J.H., M.M.) · Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK (D.P.T.) · and Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Mount Sinai Saint Luke's Hospital, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (J.D.P.). ·Circulation · Pubmed #28972063.

ABSTRACT: Coronary artery bypass grafting remains one of the most commonly performed major surgeries, with well-established symptomatic and prognostic benefits in patients with multivessel and left main coronary artery disease. This review summarizes current indications, contemporary practice, and outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting. Despite an increasingly higher-risk profile of patients, outcomes have significantly improved over time, with significant reductions in operative mortality and perioperative complications. Five- and 10-year survival rates are ≈85% to 95% and 75%, respectively. A number of technical advances could further improve short- and long-term outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting. Developments in off-pump and no-touch procedures; epiaortic scanning; conduit selection, including bilateral internal mammary artery and radial artery use; intraoperative graft assessment; minimally invasive procedures, including robotic-assisted surgery; and hybrid coronary revascularization are discussed.

6 Review A systematic review and critical assessment of 11 discordant meta-analyses on reduced-function CYP2C19 genotype and risk of adverse clinical outcomes in clopidogrel users. 2015

Osnabrugge, Ruben L / Head, Stuart J / Zijlstra, Felix / ten Berg, Jurriën M / Hunink, Myriam G / Kappetein, A Pieter / Janssens, A Cecile J W. ·1] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands [2] Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Cardiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Cardiology, St Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands. · 1] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands [2] Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands [3] Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. · 1] Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands [2] Department of Epidemiology, Emory School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. ·Genet Med · Pubmed #24946154.

ABSTRACT: We systematically investigated how 11 overlapping meta-analyses on the association between CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel could yield contradictory outcomes. The results of the meta-analyses differed because more recent meta-analyses included more primary studies and some had not included conference abstracts. Conclusions differed because between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were handled differently across meta-analyses. All meta-analyses on the clinical end point observed significant heterogeneity and several reported evidence for publication bias, but only one out of eight statistically significant meta-analyses concluded that therefore the association was unproven and one other refrained from quantifying a pooled estimate because of heterogeneity. For the end point stent thrombosis, all meta-analyses reported statistically significant associations with CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles with no statistically significant evidence for heterogeneity, but only three had investigated publication bias and also found evidence for it. One study therefore concluded that there was no evidence for an association, and one other doubted the association because of a high level of heterogeneity. In summary, meta-analyses on the association between CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel differed widely with regard to assessment and interpretation of heterogeneity and publication bias. The substantial heterogeneity and publication bias implies that personalized antiplatelet management based on genotyping is not supported by the currently available evidence.Genet Med advance online publication 19 June 2014.

7 Review Revascularization options: coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention. 2014

Kappetein, A Pieter / van Mieghem, Nicolas M / Head, Stuart J. ·Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Thoraxcenter Erasmus MC, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam 3000 CA, The Netherlands. Electronic address: a.kappetein@erasmusmc.nl. · Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter Erasmus MC, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam 3000 CA, The Netherlands. · Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Thoraxcenter Erasmus MC, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam 3000 CA, The Netherlands. ·Cardiol Clin · Pubmed #25091970.

ABSTRACT: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CAGB) is superior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in reducing mortality in certain patients and improving the composite end points of angina, recurrent myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization procedures. However, CABG is associated with a higher perioperative stroke risk. For patients with less complex disease or left main coronary disease, PCI is an acceptable alternative to CABG. Lesion complexity is an essential consideration for stenting, whereas patient comorbidity is an essential consideration for CABG. All patients with complex multivessel coronary artery disease should be reviewed by a heart team including a cardiac surgeon and interventional cardiologist.

8 Review Widening clinical applications of the SYNTAX Score. 2014

Farooq, Vasim / Head, Stuart J / Kappetein, Arie Pieter / Serruys, Patrick W. ·Department of Interventional Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Thoraxcenter, , Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ·Heart · Pubmed #23878176.

ABSTRACT: The SYNTAX Score (http://www.syntaxscore.com) has established itself as an anatomical based tool for objectively determining the complexity of coronary artery disease and guiding decision-making between coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Since the landmark SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) Trial comparing CABG with PCI in patients with complex coronary artery disease (unprotected left main or de novo three vessel disease), numerous validation studies have confirmed the clinical validity of the SYNTAX Score for identifying higher-risk subjects and aiding decision-making between CABG and PCI in a broad range of patient types. The SYNTAX Score is now advocated in both the European and US revascularisation guidelines for decision-making between CABG and PCI as part of a SYNTAX-pioneered heart team approach. Since establishment of the SYNTAX Score, widening clinical applications of this clinical tool have emerged. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine the widening applications of tools based on the SYNTAX Score: (1) by improving the diagnostic accuracy of the SYNTAX Score by adding a functional assessment of lesions; (2) through amalgamation of the anatomical SYNTAX Score with clinical variables to enhance decision-making between CABG and PCI, culminating in the development and validation of the SYNTAX Score II, in which objective and tailored decisions can be made for the individual patient; (3) through assessment of completeness of revascularisation using the residual and post-CABG SYNTAX Scores for PCI and CABG patients, respectively. Finally, the future direction of the SYNTAX Score is covered through discussion of the ongoing development of a non-invasive, functional SYNTAX Score and review of current and planned clinical trials.

9 Review Coronary artery bypass grafting: Part 2--optimizing outcomes and future prospects. 2013

Head, Stuart J / Börgermann, Jochen / Osnabrugge, Ruben L J / Kieser, Teresa M / Falk, Volkmar / Taggart, David P / Puskas, John D / Gummert, Jan F / Kappetein, Arie Pieter. ·Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Centre, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA  Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ·Eur Heart J · Pubmed #24086086.

ABSTRACT: Since first introduced in the mid-1960s, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has become the standard of care for patients with coronary artery disease. Surprisingly, the fundamental surgical technique itself did not change much over time. Nevertheless, outcomes after CABG have dramatically improved over the first 50 years. Randomized trials comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to CABG have shown converging outcomes for select patient populations, providing more evidence for wider use of PCI. It is increasingly important to focus on the optimization of the short- and long-term outcomes of CABG and to reduce the level of invasiveness of this procedure. This review provides an overview on how new techniques and widespread consideration of evolving strategies have the potential to optimize outcomes after CABG. Such developments include off-pump CABG, clampless/anaortic CABG, minimally invasive CABG with or without extending to hybrid procedures, arterial revascularization, endoscopic vein harvesting, intraprocedural epiaortic scanning, graft flow assessment, and improved secondary prevention measures. In addition, this review represents a framework for future studies by summarizing the areas that need more rigorous clinical (randomized) evaluation.

10 Review Multivessel coronary artery disease: quantifying how recent trials should influence clinical practice. 2013

Osnabrugge, Ruben L J / Head, Stuart J / Bogers, Ad J J C / Kappetein, A Pieter. ·Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ·Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther · Pubmed #23895033.

ABSTRACT: The majority (70%) of coronary revascularizations concern patients with multivessel disease (MVD). Treatment options include medical therapy, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). CABG surgery has been shown to improve survival compared with medical therapy. PCI relieves angina compared with medical therapy and is equivalent to CABG in low complex MVD. Other benefits are currently being evaluated in ongoing trials. In complex MVD, CABG results in lower rates of long-term mortality, myocardial infarction and repeat revascularization compared with PCI. These results are more pronounced in diabetics and in patients with lesions that are anatomically more complex. The application of the results of clinical trials may be limited due to restrictive eligibility criteria. Comparative effectiveness studies are, therefore, needed to complement the results of trials, but also have inherent limitations. Inappropriateness criteria provide an important tool to measure how evidence from trials, large registries and guidelines is integrated in clinical practice. Checklists and decision aids may also lead to better application of the latest evidence and lower rates of inappropriate use. Decision-making is centered around heart team discussions and risk scores. Economic considerations will increasingly be included in decision-making, since the economic impact of ischemic heart disease is high and the growth of healthcare expenditure is unsustainable. In this context, CABG is associated with higher upfront costs, but is economically attractive at long-term follow-up.

11 Review The rationale for Heart Team decision-making for patients with stable, complex coronary artery disease. 2013

Head, Stuart J / Kaul, Sanjay / Mack, Michael J / Serruys, Patrick W / Taggart, David P / Holmes, David R / Leon, Martin B / Marco, Jean / Bogers, Ad J J C / Kappetein, A Pieter. ·Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ·Eur Heart J · Pubmed #23425523.

ABSTRACT: Stable complex coronary artery disease can be treated with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or medical therapy. Multidisciplinary decision-making has gained more emphasis over the recent years to select the most optimal treatment strategy for individual patients with stable complex coronary artery disease. However, the so-called 'Heart Team' concept has not been widely implemented. Yet, decision-making has shown to remain suboptimal; there is large variability in PCI-to-CABG ratios, which may predominantly be the consequence of physician-related factors that have raised concerns regarding overuse, underuse, and inappropriate selection of revascularization. In this review, we summarize these and additional data to support the statement that a multidisciplinary Heart Team consisting of at least a clinical/non-invasive cardiologist, interventional cardiologist, and cardiac surgeon, can together better analyse and interpret the available diagnostic evidence, put into context the clinical condition of the patient as well as consider individual preference and local expertise, and through shared decision-making with the patient can arrive at a most optimal joint treatment strategy recommendation for patients with stable complex coronary artery disease. In addition, other aspects of Heart Team decision-making are discussed: the organization and logistics, involvement of physicians, patients, and assisting personnel, the need for validation, and its limitations.

12 Review Towards excellence in revascularization for left main coronary artery disease. 2012

Osnabrugge, Ruben L J / Head, Stuart J / Bogers, Ad J J C / Kappetein, A Pieter. ·Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ·Curr Opin Cardiol · Pubmed #22941121.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to review the current revascularization strategies in patients presenting with unprotected left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). RECENT FINDINGS: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the current standard of treatment for patients with LMCAD. The development and refinement of techniques increased the number of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in LMCAD patients. SUMMARY: Although several observational studies show comparable results of CABG and/or PCI in patients with LMCAD, there is currently no convincing randomized evidence that either one of the two is associated with better long-term survival. Recent meta-analyses of four small randomized trials revealed a similar rate of 1-year major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, higher rates of target vessel revascularization and lower stroke rates for PCI. Pooling randomized patients studies stratified by lesion complexity strengthened the hypothesis that CABG is better in more complex LMCAD patients. However, the randomized comparisons are affected by methodological limitations and lack power to be conclusive. The ongoing Evaluation of XIENCE V Everolimus Eluting Stent System Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization (EXCEL) trial is expected to provide a better answer on the optimal treatment strategy for LMCAD patients. In the meantime, risk models need to be improved and the most appropriate revascularization strategy for the individual LMCAD patient should be chosen using a multidisciplinary heart team that considers not only risk models but also other clinical and economic facets.

13 Review Drug-eluting stent implantation for coronary artery disease: current stents and a comparison with bypass surgery. 2012

Head, Stuart J / Bogers, Ad J J C / Kappetein, A Pieter. ·Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. s.head@erasmusmc.nl ·Curr Opin Pharmacol · Pubmed #22285216.

ABSTRACT: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with bare-metal stents (BMS) has been performed increasingly ever since its introduction in the late 1970s. BMS have been replaced by drug-eluting stents (DES), and many interventional cardiologists consider this as a breakthrough therapy that might compete with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) as the standard treatment for coronary artery disease. Several DES are currently used and elute different agents. This review described what these agents are and provides an overview regarding the outcomes and associated adverse events. More importantly, this review compares outcomes of PCI with DES to CABG for patients with left anterior descending coronary artery involvement, left main involvement, or multivessel disease.

14 Clinical Trial Hierarchical testing of composite endpoints: applying the win ratio to percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting in the SYNTAX trial. 2017

Milojevic, Milan / Head, Stuart J / Andrinopoulou, Eleni-Rosalina / Serruys, Patrick W / Mohr, Friedrich W / Tijssen, Jan G / Kappetein, A Pieter. ·Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ·EuroIntervention · Pubmed #28134125.

ABSTRACT: AIMS: The goal of the study was to compare long-term outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), accounting for the clinical impact of individual components in the composite endpoints and prioritising these using the win ratio (Rw). METHODS AND RESULTS: The win ratio was compared with conventional methods of analyses (hazard ratio [HR] and relative risk) in the SYNTAX trial (n=1,800). For the composite of death/stroke/myocardial infarction (MI), the win ratio favoured CABG and was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.10-1.77) for matched analysis, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.11-1.53) for unmatched analysis, while the conventional HR was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.11-1.53). The largest number of winners in favour of CABG over PCI were based on MI (n=39 vs. n=19, respectively). Death was significantly reduced with CABG in matched (Rw=1.39, 95% CI: 1.04-1.86) and unmatched win ratio analyses (Rw=1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.42) as compared with non-significant conventional analysis (HR 1.19, 95% CI: 0.92-1.56). In subgroups, matched win ratio analyses had a larger treatment effect in favour of CABG compared with conventional analyses, especially in patients with three-vessel disease and intermediate SYNTAX scores, while unmatched win ratios had a smaller point estimate, but with narrower confidence intervals than matched analyses findings. CONCLUSIONS: This re-analysis of the SYNTAX trial using the win ratio shows that the most important benefit of CABG treatment is the reduction of hard clinical endpoints such as mortality and MI. Future trials using this approach can expect to maintain similar statistical power with smaller sample sizes, and thereby reduce the cost of a trial.

15 Clinical Trial The impact of a second arterial graft on 5-year outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting in the Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery Trial and Registry. 2015

Parasca, Catalina A / Head, Stuart J / Mohr, Friedrich W / Mack, Michael J / Morice, Marie-Claude / Holmes, David R / Feldman, Ted E / Colombo, Antonio / Dawkins, Keith D / Serruys, Patrick W / Kappetein, Arie Pieter / Anonymous5470832. ·Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Cardiac Surgery, Herzzentrum Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. · The Heart Hospital, Baylor Health Care Systems, Plano, Tex. · Department of Cardiology, Institut Cardiovasculaire Paris Sud, Massy, France. · Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. · Department of Cardiology, North Shore University Health System, Evanston, Ill. · Department of Cardiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Boston Scientific Corporation, Natick, Mass. · Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: a.kappetein@erasmusmc.nl. ·J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg · Pubmed #26055439.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Despite various evidence supporting the advantages of multiple arterial grafting, inconsistencies in use of the procedure have resulted in high variability in the acceptance and practice of arterial grafting. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an arterial versus venous second grafts on outcomes at 5-year follow-up in the coronary artery bypass grafting population from the Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial. METHODS: Patients (n = 1419) with an arterial graft to the left anterior descending artery and ≥1 other graft were included and divided according to the second graft's type: 2nd-graft-arterial group (n = 456) and 2nd-graft-venous group (n = 963). Five-year outcomes were compared between subgroups. Event rates were estimated with Kaplan-Meier analyses. Propensity-score matching was used, to control for selection bias due to nonrandom group assignment in a 1:1 manner, resulting in 432 pairs with balanced baseline characteristics. RESULTS: In unmatched groups, the 2nd-graft-arterial group had significantly lower rates of death (8.9% vs 13.1%; P = .02), and composite safety endpoint of death/stroke/myocardial infarction (13.3% vs 18.7%; P = .02), compared with the 2nd-graft-venous group. The rate of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events was similar between groups (22.9% vs 25.5%; P = .30), because it includes the rate of repeat revascularization (12.6% in the 2nd-graft-arterial group vs 9.6% in the 2nd-graft-venous group; P = .10). After propensity-score matching, no statistically significant differences were found between groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals comparable 5-year outcomes with arterial and venous conduits as second grafts after an arterial graft anastomosed to the left anterior descending artery. This study demonstrates the multi-institutional variation in patient selection and operator technique with regard to arterial revascularization, although extended follow-up beyond 5 years is required to estimate its impact on long-term outcomes. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: NCT00114972.

16 Article Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with three-vessel or left main coronary artery disease: 10-year follow-up of the multicentre randomised controlled SYNTAX trial. 2019

Thuijs, Daniel J F M / Kappetein, A Pieter / Serruys, Patrick W / Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm / Morice, Marie-Claude / Mack, Michael J / Holmes, David R / Curzen, Nick / Davierwala, Piroze / Noack, Thilo / Milojevic, Milan / Dawkins, Keith D / da Costa, Bruno R / Jüni, Peter / Head, Stuart J / Anonymous4281003. ·Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address: d.thuijs@erasmusmc.nl. · Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands; Medtronic, Maastricht, Netherlands. · Department of Cardiology, Imperial College London, London, UK. · University Department of Cardiac Surgery, Heart Centre Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. · Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Institute Paris-Sud, Hopital Privé Jacques Cartier, Ramsay Générale de Santé, Massy, France. · Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Baylor University Medical Centre, Dallas, TX, USA. · Department of Cardiovascular Diseases and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. · University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust and School of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. · Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands. · Shockwave Medical Inc, Santa Clara, CA, USA. · Applied Health Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Institute of Primary Health Care, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. · Applied Health Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. · Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA. ·Lancet · Pubmed #31488373.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial was a non-inferiority trial that compared percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with de-novo three-vessel and left main coronary artery disease, and reported results up to 5 years. We now report 10-year all-cause death results. METHODS: The SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) study is an investigator-driven extension of follow-up of a multicentre, randomised controlled trial done in 85 hospitals across 18 North American and European countries. Patients with de-novo three-vessel and left main coronary artery disease were randomly assigned (1:1) to the PCI group or CABG group. Patients with a history of PCI or CABG, acute myocardial infarction, or an indication for concomitant cardiac surgery were excluded. The primary endpoint of the SYNTAXES study was 10-year all-cause death, which was assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Prespecified subgroup analyses were performed according to the presence or absence of left main coronary artery disease and diabetes, and according to coronary complexity defined by core laboratory SYNTAX score tertiles. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03417050. FINDINGS: From March, 2005, to April, 2007, 1800 patients were randomly assigned to the PCI (n=903) or CABG (n=897) group. Vital status information at 10 years was complete for 841 (93%) patients in the PCI group and 848 (95%) patients in the CABG group. At 10 years, 244 (27%) patients had died after PCI and 211 (24%) after CABG (hazard ratio 1·17 [95% CI 0·97-1·41], p=0·092). Among patients with three-vessel disease, 151 (28%) of 546 had died after PCI versus 113 (21%) of 549 after CABG (hazard ratio 1·41 [95% CI 1·10-1·80]), and among patients with left main coronary artery disease, 93 (26%) of 357 had died after PCI versus 98 (28%) of 348 after CABG (0·90 [0·68-1·20], p INTERPRETATION: At 10 years, no significant difference existed in all-cause death between PCI using first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents and CABG. However, CABG provided a significant survival benefit in patients with three-vessel disease, but not in patients with left main coronary artery disease. FUNDING: German Foundation of Heart Research (SYNTAXES study, 5-10-year follow-up) and Boston Scientific Corporation (SYNTAX study, 0-5-year follow-up).

17 Article Life-long clinical outcome after the first myocardial revascularization procedures: 40-year follow-up after coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary intervention in Rotterdam. 2019

Milojevic, Milan / Thuijs, Daniel J F M / Head, Stuart J / Domingues, Carina T / Bekker, Margreet W A / Zijlstra, Felix / Daemen, Joost / de Jaegere, Peter P T / Kappetein, A Pieter / van Domburg, Ron T / Bogers, Ad J J C. ·Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. ·Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg · Pubmed #30753554.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to evaluate the outcomes of the first patients treated by venous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) with balloon angioplasty at a single centre who have reached up to 40 years of life-long follow-up. METHODS: We analysed the outcomes of the first consecutive patients who underwent (venous) CABG (n = 1041) from 1971 to 1980 and PCI (n = 856) with balloon angioplasty between 1980 and 1985. Follow-up was successfully achieved in 98% of patients (median 39 years, range 36-46) who underwent CABG and in 97% (median 33 years, range 32-36) of patients who had PCI. RESULTS: The median age was 53 years in the CABG cohort and 57 years in the PCI cohort. A total of 82% of patients in the CABG group and 37% of those in the PCI group had multivessel coronary artery disease. The cumulative survival rates at 10, 20, 30 and 40 years were 77%, 39%, 14% and 4% after CABG, respectively, and at 10, 20, 30 and 35 years after PCI were 78%, 47%, 21% and 12%, respectively. The estimated life expectancy after CABG was 18 and 17 years after the PCI procedures. Repeat revascularization was performed in 36% and 57% of the patients in the CABG and PCI cohorts, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This unique life-long follow-up analysis demonstrates that both CABG and PCI were excellent treatment options immediately after their introduction as the standard of care. These procedures were lifesaving, thereby indirectly enabling patients to be treated with newly developed methods and medical therapies during the follow-up years.

18 Article Outcomes following surgical revascularization with single versus bilateral internal thoracic arterial grafts in patients with left main coronary artery disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: insights from the EXCEL trial†. 2019

Thuijs, Daniel J F M / Head, Stuart J / Stone, Gregg W / Puskas, John D / Taggart, David P / Serruys, Patrick W / Dressler, Ovidiu / Crowley, Aaron / Brown, W Morris / Horkay, Ferenc / Boonstra, Piet W / Bogáts, Gabor / Noiseux, Nicolas / Sabik, Joseph F / Kappetein, A Pieter. ·Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Mount Sinai Saint Luke's, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. · Department of Cardiology, Imperial College London, London, UK. · Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Piedmont Heart Institute, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Department of Cardiology, National Institute of Cardiology, Budapest, Hungary. · Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medical Center Leeuwarden, Leeuwarden, Netherlands. · Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary. · Department of Surgery, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada. · Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH, USA. ·Eur J Cardiothorac Surg · Pubmed #30165487.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Observational data suggest that the use of a single internal thoracic artery (SITA) may result in inferior outcomes compared with bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) use for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-a finding not yet supported by randomized trial outcomes. However, the optimal number of internal thoracic artery grafts in patients with left main coronary artery disease has not been investigated. METHODS: The EXCEL trial randomized 1905 patients with left main coronary artery disease to percutaneous coronary intervention with everolimus-eluting stents versus CABG. Among the 905 patients undergoing CABG, 688 (76.0%) received SITA and 217 (24.0%) received BITA. Differences in clinical event rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Multivariable Cox regression was used to adjust for differences in baseline covariates. RESULTS: Compared to SITA, patients treated with BITA were younger (66.1 ± 9.5 vs 64.5 ± 9.3 years, P = 0.020), were less likely female (24.3% vs 14.3%, P = 0.002) and diabetic (28.8% vs 15.2%, P < 0.001), and had a lower prevalence of peripheral vessel disease (10.2% vs 5.5%, P = 0.040). The unadjusted 3-year composite primary endpoint of death, stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) occurred in 15.6% of SITA vs 11.6% of BITA patients (P = 0.17). The SITA group tended to have a higher 3-year rate of all-cause death compared with the BITA group (6.7% vs 3.3%; P = 0.070). Stroke, MI and ischaemia-driven revascularization outcomes were not significantly different between groups. After adjusting for baseline differences, neither the composite of death, stroke or MI [hazard ratio (HR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-1.78; P = 0.62] nor mortality (HR 1.36, 95% CI 0.60-3.12; P = 0.46) was significantly higher with SITA. The rehospitalization rate after 3 years was higher in the SITA group (35.8% vs 26.0%, P = 0.008), a difference which was no longer present after multivariable adjustment (HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.93-1.74; P = 0.13). Sternal wound dehiscence within 30 days did not occur more often in the BITA group compared to the SITA group (1.8% vs 2.2%, P > 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: In the EXCEL trial, there were no clinical differences at 3 years between SITA or BITA revascularization in patients with left main coronary artery disease.

19 Article Heart Team decision making and long-term outcomes for 1000 consecutive cases of coronary artery disease. 2019

Domingues, Carina T / Milojevic, Milan / Thuijs, Daniel J F M / van Mieghem, Nicolas M / Daemen, Joost / van Domburg, Ron T / Kappetein, A Pieter / Head, Stuart J. ·Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Netherlands. ·Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg · Pubmed #30101313.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The Heart Team has been recommended as standard care for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, little is known about the real benefits, potential treatment delays and late outcomes of this approach. Our goal was to determine the safety and feasibility of multidisciplinary Heart Team decision making for patients with CAD. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 1000 consecutive cases discussed by the Heart Team between November 2010 and January 2012. We assessed (i) time intervals between different care steps involving the Heart Team; (ii) the distribution of patients according to the complexity of their CAD; and (iii) the 5-year survival as estimated from Kaplan-Meier curves. RESULTS: Of 1000 case discussions, 40 were repeat cases, resulting in 960 unique cases. The mean age was 65 years, 73% were men, and 29% had diabetes. Native vessel disease was present in 86.4%, of which 69% had simple 1-vessel disease (1VD) or 2-vessel disease (2VD), and 31% had complex left main (LM) or 3-vessel disease (3VD). The time interval between referral by a community hospital and final treatment was less than 6 weeks for 90% of cases. Treatment decisions were delayed in 35% of cases due to a need for additional diagnostic information. For simple 1- or 2VD with or without proximal left anterior descending artery involvement, treatment was medical therapy in 6% and 12%, respectively; percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in 88% and 85%, respectively; and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 6% and 3%, respectively. For 3VD disease, treatment was equally split between CABG and PCI (46% for both). PCI was preferred for isolated LM or LM with 1VD (81% vs CABG 16%), whereas CABG was preferred in LM with 2- or 3VD (71% vs PCI 19%). The 5-year mortality rate was 16% for 1- or 2VD, 17% for 3VD, 3% for isolated LM or with 1VD and 27% for LM with 2- or 3VD. CONCLUSIONS: In this single-centre analysis, the Heart Team approach was feasible, with decision making and treatment by the Heart Team following within a short time after referral. However, the timing of treatment could be further optimized if adequate information and imaging were available at the time of the Heart Team meeting. The final treatment recommendation by the Heart Team was largely in accordance with clinical guidelines.

20 Article Stroke Rates Following Surgical Versus Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization. 2018

Head, Stuart J / Milojevic, Milan / Daemen, Joost / Ahn, Jung-Min / Boersma, Eric / Christiansen, Evald H / Domanski, Michael J / Farkouh, Michael E / Flather, Marcus / Fuster, Valentin / Hlatky, Mark A / Holm, Niels R / Hueb, Whady A / Kamalesh, Masoor / Kim, Young-Hak / Mäkikallio, Timo / Mohr, Friedrich W / Papageorgiou, Grigorios / Park, Seung-Jung / Rodriguez, Alfredo E / Sabik, Joseph F / Stables, Rodney H / Stone, Gregg W / Serruys, Patrick W / Kappetein, A Pieter. ·Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address: s.head@erasmusmc.nl. · Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. · Department of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical College, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. · Department of Cardiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. · Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark. · Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; Division of Cardiology, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre and Department of Medicine, Heart and Stroke Richard Lewar Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwich Medical School University of East Anglia and Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, United Kingdom. · Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. · Department of Health Research and Policy, and Department of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. · Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil. · Department of Cardiology, Richard L. Roudebush Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Indianapolis, Indiana. · Department of Cardiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland. · Department of Cardiac Surgery, Herzzentrum Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. · Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. · Cardiac Unit, Otamendi Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina. · Department of Surgery, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio. · Institute of Cardiovascular Medicine and Science, Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Liverpool, United Kingdom. · Department of Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center and Clinical Trials Center, the Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, New York. · Department of Cardiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. ·J Am Coll Cardiol · Pubmed #30025574.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are used for coronary revascularization in patients with multivessel and left main coronary artery disease. Stroke is among the most feared complications of revascularization. Due to its infrequency, studies with large numbers of patients are required to detect differences in stroke rates between CABG and PCI. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare rates of stroke after CABG and PCI and the impact of procedural stroke on long-term mortality. METHODS: We performed a collaborative individual patient-data pooled analysis of 11 randomized clinical trials comparing CABG with PCI using stents; ERACI II (Argentine Randomized Study: Coronary Angioplasty With Stenting Versus Coronary Bypass Surgery in Patients With Multiple Vessel Disease) (n = 450), ARTS (Arterial Revascularization Therapy Study) (n = 1,205), MASS II (Medicine, Angioplasty, or Surgery Study) (n = 408), SoS (Stent or Surgery) trial (n = 988), SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) trial (n = 1,800), PRECOMBAT (Bypass Surgery Versus Angioplasty Using Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in Patients With Left Main Coronary Artery Disease) trial (n = 600), FREEDOM (Comparison of Two Treatments for Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease in Individuals With Diabetes) trial (n = 1,900), VA CARDS (Coronary Artery Revascularization in Diabetes) (n = 198), BEST (Bypass Surgery Versus Everolimus-Eluting Stent Implantation for Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease) (n = 880), NOBLE (Percutaneous Coronary Angioplasty Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Treatment of Unprotected Left Main Stenosis) trial (n = 1,184), and EXCEL (Evaluation of Xience Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trial (n = 1,905). The 30-day and 5-year stroke rates were compared between CABG and PCI using a random effects Cox proportional hazards model, stratified by trial. The impact of stroke on 5-year mortality was explored. RESULTS: The analysis included 11,518 patients randomly assigned to PCI (n = 5,753) or CABG (n = 5,765) with a mean follow-up of 3.8 ± 1.4 years during which a total of 293 strokes occurred. At 30 days, the rate of stroke was 0.4% after PCI and 1.1% after CABG (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20 to 0.53; p < 0.001). At 5-year follow-up, stroke remained significantly lower after PCI than after CABG (2.6% vs. 3.2%; HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.97; p = 0.027). Rates of stroke between 31 days and 5 years were comparable: 2.2% after PCI versus 2.1% after CABG (HR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.38; p = 0.72). No significant interactions between treatment and baseline clinical or angiographic variables for the 5-year rate of stroke were present, except for diabetic patients (PCI: 2.6% vs. CABG: 4.9%) and nondiabetic patients (PCI: 2.6% vs. CABG: 2.4%) (p for interaction = 0.004). Patients who experienced a stroke within 30 days of the procedure had significantly higher 5-year mortality versus those without a stroke, both after PCI (45.7% vs. 11.1%, p < 0.001) and CABG (41.5% vs. 8.9%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This individual patient-data pooled analysis demonstrates that 5-year stroke rates are significantly lower after PCI compared with CABG, driven by a reduced risk of stroke in the 30-day post-procedural period but a similar risk of stroke between 31 days and 5 years. The greater risk of stroke after CABG compared with PCI was confined to patients with multivessel disease and diabetes. Five-year mortality was markedly higher for patients experiencing a stroke within 30 days after revascularization.

21 Article The impact of chronic kidney disease on outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with complex coronary artery disease: five-year follow-up of the SYNTAX trial. 2018

Milojevic, Milan / Head, Stuart J / Mack, Michael J / Mohr, Friedrich W / Morice, Marie-Claude / Dawkins, Keith D / Holmes, David R / Serruys, Patrick W / Kappetein, A Pieter. ·Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ·EuroIntervention · Pubmed #29155387.

ABSTRACT: AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate short-term and five-year follow-up results from patients randomised to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with paclitaxel-eluting stents in the SYNTAX trial, focusing on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Baseline glomerular filtration rate estimates (eGFR) were available in 1,638 patients (PCI=852 and CABG=786). The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) threshold was used to define staging of CKD. At five years, death was significantly higher in patients with CKD compared to patients with normal kidney function after PCI (26.7% vs. 10.8%, p<0.001) and CABG (21.2% vs. 10.6%, p=0.005). Comparing PCI with CABG, there was a significant interaction according to kidney function for death (pint=0.017) but not the composite endpoint of death/stroke/MI (pint=0.070) or MACCE (pint=0.15). In patients with CKD, the rate of MACCE was significantly higher after PCI compared with CABG (42.1% vs. 31.5%, p=0.019), driven by repeat revascularisation (21.9% vs. 8.9%, p=0.004) and all-cause death (26.7% vs. 21.2%, p=0.14). In patients with CKD who also had diabetes, PCI versus CABG was significantly worse in terms of death/stroke/MI (47.9% vs. 24.4%, p=0.005) and all-cause death (40.9% vs. 17.7%, p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: During a five-year follow-up, adverse event rates were comparable between PCI and CABG patients with moderate CKD but significantly higher compared to the patients with impaired or normal kidney function. The negative impact of CKD on long-term outcome following PCI appears to be stronger when compared to CABG, especially in the CKD patients with diabetes and extensive coronary disease.

22 Article Influence of practice patterns on outcome among countries enrolled in the SYNTAX trial: 5-year results between percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting. 2017

Milojevic, Milan / Head, Stuart J / Mack, Michael J / Mohr, Friedrich W / Morice, Marie-Claude / Dawkins, Keith D / Holmes, David R / Serruys, Patrick W / Kappetein, Arie Pieter. ·Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart Hospital Baylor Plano, Baylor Healthcare System, Plano, TX, USA. · Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Herzzentrum Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. · Department of Cardiology, Institut Hospitalier Jacques Cartier, Massy, France. · Boston Scientific Corporation, Natick, MA, USA. · Division of Cardiovascular Disease and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. · Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. ·Eur J Cardiothorac Surg · Pubmed #28520861.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To examine differences among participating countries in baseline characteristics, clinical practice, medication strategies and outcomes of patients randomized to coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary intervention in the SYNTAX trial. METHODS: In SYNTAX, centres in 18 different countries enrolled 1800 patients, of which 8 countries enrolled ≥80 patients, what was projected to be a large enough sample size to be included in the analysis. Baseline characteristics, practice patterns and clinical outcomes were compared between the USA (n = 245), the UK (n = 267), Italy (n = 197), France (n = 208), Germany (n = 179), Netherlands (n = 148), Belgium (n = 91) and Hungary (n = 83). The remaining patients from other participating countries were pooled together (n = 382). RESULTS: Five-year results demonstrated significantly different outcomes between countries. After adjustment, percutaneous coronary intervention patients in France had lower rates of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.98], while the incidence of repeat revascularization was higher in Hungary (HR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.14-3.42). Coronary artery bypass grafting showed the lowest rate of repeat revascularization in the UK (HR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.85). There were numerous differences in the risk profile of patients between participating countries, as well as marked differences in surgical practice across countries in the use of blood cardioplegia (range 3.1-89.0%; P < 0.001), bilateral internal mammary artery usage (range 7.8-68.2%; P < 0.001) and off-pump procedures (range 3.9-44.4%; P < 0.001). Variation was also found for percutaneous coronary intervention in the number of implanted stents (range 4.0 ± 2.3 to 6.1 ± 2.6; P < 0.001) as well as for the entire stents length (range 69.0 ± 45.1 to 124.1 ± 60.9; P < 0.001). Remarkable differences were observed in the prescription of post-coronary artery bypass grafting medication in terms of acetylsalicylic acid (range 79.6-95.0%; P = 0.004), thienopyridine (6.8-31.1%; P < 0.001) and statins (41.3-89.1%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patient characteristics and clinical patterns are significantly different between countries, resulting in significantly different 5-year outcomes. This article presents specific data that can further improve outcomes in each country. Clinical Trials Registry: NCT00114972.

23 Article Incidence, Characteristics, Predictors, and Outcomes of Repeat Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: The SYNTAX Trial at 5 Years. 2016

Parasca, Catalina A / Head, Stuart J / Milojevic, Milan / Mack, Michael J / Serruys, Patrick W / Morice, Marie-Claude / Mohr, Friedrich W / Feldman, Ted E / Colombo, Antonio / Dawkins, Keith D / Holmes, David R / Kappetein, Pieter A / Anonymous2840891. ·Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. · Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address: s.head@erasmusmc.nl. · The Heart Hospital, Baylor Health Care Systems, Plano, Texas. · Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. · Department of Cardiology, Institut Cardiovasculaire Paris Sud, Hopital Privé Jacques Cartier, Générale de Santé, Massy, France. · Department of Cardiac Surgery, Herzzentrum Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. · Department of Cardiology, North Shore University Health System, Evanston, Illinois. · Department of Cardiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Boston Scientific Corporation, Natick, Massachusetts. · Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. ·JACC Cardiovasc Interv · Pubmed #28007201.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The study sought to determine the incidence, predictors, characteristics, and outcomes of repeat revascularization during 5-year follow-up of the SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery) trial. BACKGROUND: Limited in-depth long-term data on repeat revascularization are available from randomized trials comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: Incidence and timing of repeat revascularization and its relation to the long-term composite safety endpoint of death, stroke, and myocardial infarction were analyzed in the SYNTAX trial (n = 1,800) using Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: At 5 years, repeat revascularization occurred more often after initial PCI than after initial CABG (25.9% vs. 13.7%, respectively; p < 0.001), and more often consisted of multiple repeat revascularizations (9.0% vs. 2.8%, respectively; p = 0.022). Significantly more repeat PCI procedures were performed on de novo lesions in patients after initial PCI than initial CABG (33.3% vs. 13.4%, respectively; p < 0.001). At 5-year follow-up, patients who underwent repeat revascularization versus patients not undergoing repeat revascularization had significantly higher rates of the composite safety endpoint of death, stroke, and myocardial infarction after initial PCI (33.8% vs. 16.6%, respectively; p < 0.001), and a trend was found after initial CABG (22.4% vs. 15.8%, respectively; p = 0.07). After multivariate adjustment, repeat revascularization was an independent predictor of the composite safety endpoint after both initial PCI (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6 to 3.0; p < 0.001) and initial CABG (HR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2 to 2.9; p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Repeat revascularization rates are significantly higher after initial PCI than after initial CABG for complex coronary disease. Repeat revascularization is an independent predictor of death, stroke, and myocardial infarction for myocardial revascularization.

24 Article Comparison of logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II in predicting operative mortality of 1125 total arterial operations. 2016

Kieser, Teresa M / Rose, M Sarah / Head, Stuart J. ·Department of Cardiac Sciences, Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada t.kieserprieur@ucalgary.ca. · Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Canada. · Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands. ·Eur J Cardiothorac Surg · Pubmed #27005979.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare effectiveness of the 1999 logistic EuroSCORE (LES) and of the 2012 EuroSCORE II (ESII) in a real-world patient population of 1125 patients undergoing total arterial grafting (TAG) coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. METHODS: The performance of the two risk scores was compared using (i) discrimination (accuracy of discriminating non-survivors from survivors), (ii) calibration (assessment of agreement between the predicted/observed outcomes) and (iii) agreement between the two scores. By averaging medians of LES and ESII and then sub-division into 10 equal groups, actual operative mortality rate was compared with the median LES and ESII within each risk group, the difference plotted against the average risk score (as in a Bland and Altman plot), and using the traditional risk groupings for EuroSCORE of low (0-2.99), medium (3-5.99) and high risk (6.0 and above), the reclassification rate of ESII was compared with that of LES. RESULTS: In 1125 consecutive total arterial CABG patients, demographics included: mean age 64.6 years, 79% males, 35% diabetic patients, 57% urgent/emergent patients, 37% off-pump and 77% bilateral mammary grafting. Overall operative mortality was 3.2% (36 patients). Comparison of the LES and ESII showed (i) good discrimination for both LES and ESII (area under the curve for LES was 0.85 and for ESII was 0.87); (ii) neither score was well calibrated: LES tended to overestimate and ESII underestimated risk. In general, the ESII provided a better estimate of risk in lower risk patients and LES was better for the highest risk group. (iii) In terms of agreement, in the lower four risk groups the risk was overestimated by both scores, in five of the higher six risk groups ESII underestimated risk and LES overestimated risk, and in the highest risk group LES was very close (17.2 cf. 17.7) compared with ESII (5.6 cf. 17.7). In addition, ESII downgraded risk in 96.8% of survivors and in 97.2% of non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: In 1125 consecutive TAG CABG patients, neither LES nor ESII performed well enough to be used as a consistent risk stratification tool; LES overestimated risk but was highly accurate for the highest of 10 risk groups and ESII consistently underestimated risk in all patients.

25 Article Role of percutaneous coronary intervention in the treatment of left main coronary artery disease. 2014

Kappetein, Arie Pieter / Head, Stuart J / Osnabrugge, Ruben L J / van Mieghem, Nicolas M. ·Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.. Electronic address: kappetein@erasmusmc.nl. · Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ·Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg · Pubmed #25527012.

ABSTRACT: Revascularization with coronary artery bypass graft surgery is the choice of therapy in patients with left main (LM) coronary artery stenosis. During the last decade, the introduction of drug-eluting stents, together with antiplatelet and antithrombotic treatments, has improved the outcome of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) by reducing the number of repeat revascularizations and the risk of stent thrombosis. Many institutions inside and outside the United States have adopted stent treatment of unprotected LM coronary artery disease as a more routine strategy. However, coronary bypass surgery has improved as well by using more arterial grafts, better perioperative care, and optimizing medical treatment postoperatively. The advances in stent technique may reduce the gap between coronary surgery and PCIs further, but the results of the Evaluation of Xience Prime versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization study, randomizing patients with LM coronary artery disease between coronary bypass grafting and PCIs, will be needed to test whether PCIs is noninferior to coronary bypass surgery.

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