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Coronary Artery Disease: HELP
Articles by Glenn A. Hirsch
Based on 5 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, Glenn A. Hirsch wrote the following 5 articles about Coronary Artery Disease.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Article Identification of a plasma metabolomic signature of thrombotic myocardial infarction that is distinct from non-thrombotic myocardial infarction and stable coronary artery disease. 2017

DeFilippis, Andrew P / Trainor, Patrick J / Hill, Bradford G / Amraotkar, Alok R / Rai, Shesh N / Hirsch, Glenn A / Rouchka, Eric C / Bhatnagar, Aruni. ·Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America. · Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. · Department of Medicine, Division of Bioinformatics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America. · Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America. · Department of Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #28414761.

ABSTRACT: AIMS: Current non-invasive diagnostics for acute myocardial infarction (MI) identify myocardial necrosis rather than the primary cause and therapeutic target-plaque disruption and resultant thrombosis. The aim of this study was to identify changes specific to plaque disruption and pathological thrombosis that are distinct from acute myocardial necrosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We quantified 1,032 plasma metabolites by mass spectrometry in 11 thrombotic MI, 12 non-thrombotic MI, and 15 stable coronary artery disease (CAD) subjects at two acute phase (time of catheterization [T0], six hours [T6]) and one quiescent (>3 months follow-up) time points. A statistical classifier was constructed utilizing baseline (T0) abundances of a parsimonious set of 17 qualifying metabolites. Qualifying metabolites were those that demonstrated a significant change between the quiescent phase and the acute phase and that were distinct from any change seen in non-thrombotic MI or stable CAD subjects. Classifier performance as estimated by 10-fold cross-validation was suggestive of high sensitivity and specificity for differentiating thrombotic from non-thrombotic MI and stable CAD subjects at presentation. Nineteen metabolites demonstrated an intra-subject change from time of acute thrombotic MI presentation to the quiescent state that was distinct from any change measured in both the non-thrombotic MI and stable CAD subjects undergoing cardiac catheterization over the same time course (false discovery rate <5%). CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a candidate metabolic signature that differentiates acute thrombotic MI from quiescent state after MI, from acute non-thrombotic MI, and from stable CAD. Further validation of these metabolites is warranted given their potential as diagnostic biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for the prevention or treatment of acute MI.

2 Article Non-invasive detection of coronary endothelial response to sequential handgrip exercise in coronary artery disease patients and healthy adults. 2013

Hays, Allison G / Stuber, Matthias / Hirsch, Glenn A / Yu, Jing / Schär, Michael / Weiss, Robert G / Gerstenblith, Gary / Kelle, Sebastian. ·Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #23536782.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Our objective is to test the hypothesis that coronary endothelial function (CorEndoFx) does not change with repeated isometric handgrip (IHG) stress in CAD patients or healthy subjects. BACKGROUND: Coronary responses to endothelial-dependent stressors are important measures of vascular risk that can change in response to environmental stimuli or pharmacologic interventions. The evaluation of the effect of an acute intervention on endothelial response is only valid if the measurement does not change significantly in the short term under normal conditions. Using 3.0 Tesla (T) MRI, we non-invasively compared two coronary artery endothelial function measurements separated by a ten minute interval in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Twenty healthy adult subjects and 12 CAD patients were studied on a commercial 3.0 T whole-body MR imaging system. Coronary cross-sectional area (CSA), peak diastolic coronary flow velocity (PDFV) and blood-flow were quantified before and during continuous IHG stress, an endothelial-dependent stressor. The IHG exercise with imaging was repeated after a 10 minute recovery period. RESULTS: In healthy adults, coronary artery CSA changes and blood-flow increases did not differ between the first and second stresses (mean % change ±SEM, first vs. second stress CSA: 14.8%±3.3% vs. 17.8%±3.6%, p = 0.24; PDFV: 27.5%±4.9% vs. 24.2%±4.5%, p = 0.54; blood-flow: 44.3%±8.3 vs. 44.8%±8.1, p = 0.84). The coronary vasoreactive responses in the CAD patients also did not differ between the first and second stresses (mean % change ±SEM, first stress vs. second stress: CSA: -6.4%±2.0% vs. -5.0%±2.4%, p = 0.22; PDFV: -4.0%±4.6% vs. -4.2%±5.3%, p = 0.83; blood-flow: -9.7%±5.1% vs. -8.7%±6.3%, p = 0.38). CONCLUSION: MRI measures of CorEndoFx are unchanged during repeated isometric handgrip exercise tests in CAD patients and healthy adults. These findings demonstrate the repeatability of noninvasive 3T MRI assessment of CorEndoFx and support its use in future studies designed to determine the effects of acute interventions on coronary vasoreactivity.

3 Article Regional coronary endothelial function is closely related to local early coronary atherosclerosis in patients with mild coronary artery disease: pilot study. 2012

Hays, Allison G / Kelle, Sebastian / Hirsch, Glenn A / Soleimanifard, Sahar / Yu, Jing / Agarwal, Harsh K / Gerstenblith, Gary / Schär, Michael / Stuber, Matthias / Weiss, Robert G. ·Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. ·Circ Cardiovasc Imaging · Pubmed #22492483.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Coronary endothelial function is abnormal in patients with established coronary artery disease and was recently shown by MRI to relate to the severity of luminal stenosis. Recent advances in MRI now allow the noninvasive assessment of both anatomic and functional (endothelial function) changes that previously required invasive studies. We tested the hypothesis that abnormal coronary endothelial function is related to measures of early atherosclerosis such as increased coronary wall thickness. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventeen arteries in 14 healthy adults and 17 arteries in 14 patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease were studied. To measure endothelial function, coronary MRI was performed before and during isometric handgrip exercise, an endothelial-dependent stressor, and changes in coronary cross-sectional area and flow were measured. Black blood imaging was performed to quantify coronary wall thickness and indices of arterial remodeling. The mean stress-induced change in cross-sectional area was significantly higher in healthy adults (13.5%±12.8%, mean±SD, n=17) than in those with mildly diseased arteries (-2.2%±6.8%, P<0.0001, n=17). Mean coronary wall thickness was lower in healthy subjects (0.9±0.2 mm) than in patients with coronary artery disease (1.4±0.3 mm, P<0.0001). In contrast to healthy subjects, stress-induced changes in cross-sectional area, a measure of coronary endothelial function, correlated inversely with coronary wall thickness in patients with coronary artery disease (r=-0.73, P=0.0008). CONCLUSIONS: There is an inverse relationship between coronary endothelial function and local coronary wall thickness in patients with coronary artery disease but not in healthy adults. These findings demonstrate that local endothelial-dependent functional changes are related to the extent of early anatomic atherosclerosis in mildly diseased arteries. This combined MRI approach enables the anatomic and functional investigation of early coronary disease.

4 Article Coronary artery distensibility assessed by 3.0 Tesla coronary magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with and without coronary artery disease. 2011

Kelle, Sebastian / Hays, Allison G / Hirsch, Glenn A / Gerstenblith, Gary / Miller, Julie M / Steinberg, Angela M / Schär, Michael / Texter, John H / Wellnhofer, Ernst / Weiss, Robert G / Stuber, Matthias. ·Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, German Heart Institute, Berlin, Germany. ·Am J Cardiol · Pubmed #21624552.

ABSTRACT: Coronary vessel distensibility is reduced with atherosclerosis and normal aging, but direct measurements have historically required invasive measurements at cardiac catheterization. Therefore, we sought to assess coronary artery distensibility noninvasively using 3.0 Telsa coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to test the hypothesis that this noninvasive technique can detect differences in coronary distensibility between healthy subjects and those with coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 38 healthy, adult subjects (23 men, mean age 31 ± 10 years) and 21 patients with CAD, diagnosed using x-ray angiography (11 men, mean age 57 ± 6 years) were studied using a commercial whole-body MRI system. In each subject, the proximal segment of a coronary artery was imaged for the cross-sectional area measurements using cine spiral MRI. The distensibility (mm Hg(-1) × 10(3)) was determined as (end-systolic lumen area - end-diastolic lumen area)/(pulse pressure × end-diastolic lumen area). The pulse pressure was calculated as the difference between the systolic and diastolic brachial blood pressure. A total of 34 healthy subjects and 19 patients had adequate image quality for coronary area measurements. Coronary artery distensibility was significantly greater in the healthy subjects than in those with CAD (mean ± SD 2.4 ± 1.7 mm Hg(-1) × 10(3) vs 1.1 ± 1.1 mm Hg(-1) × 10(3), respectively, p = 0.007; median 2.2 vs 0.9 mm Hg(-1) × 10(3)). In a subgroup of 10 patients with CAD, we found a significant correlation between the coronary artery distensibility measurements assessed using MRI and x-ray coronary angiography (R = 0.65, p = 0.003). In a group of 10 healthy subjects, the repeated distensibility measurements demonstrated a significant correlation (R = 0.80, p = 0.006). In conclusion, 3.0-Tesla MRI, a reproducible noninvasive method to assess human coronary artery vessel wall distensibility, is able to detect significant differences in distensibility between healthy subjects and those with CAD.

5 Article Noninvasive visualization of coronary artery endothelial function in healthy subjects and in patients with coronary artery disease. 2010

Hays, Allison G / Hirsch, Glenn A / Kelle, Sebastian / Gerstenblith, Gary / Weiss, Robert G / Stuber, Matthias. ·Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. ·J Am Coll Cardiol · Pubmed #21050976.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The goal was to test 2 hypotheses: first, that coronary endothelial function can be measured noninvasively and abnormal function detected using clinical 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); and second, that the extent of local coronary artery disease (CAD), in a given patient, is related to the degree of local abnormal coronary endothelial function. BACKGROUND: Abnormal endothelial function mediates the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and predicts cardiovascular events. However, direct measures of coronary endothelial function have required invasive assessment. METHODS: The MRI was performed in 20 healthy adults and 17 patients with CAD. Cross-sectional coronary area and blood flow were quantified before and during isometric handgrip exercise, an endothelial-dependent stressor. In 10 severe, single-vessel CAD patients, paired endothelial function was measured in the artery with severe stenosis and the contralateral artery with minimal disease. RESULTS: In healthy adults, coronary arteries dilated and flow increased with stress. In CAD patients, coronary artery area and blood flow decreased with stress (both p ≤ 0.02). In the paired study, coronary artery area and blood flow failed to increase during exercise in the mildly diseased vessel, but both area (p = 0.01) and blood flow (p = 0.02) decreased significantly in the severely diseased, contralateral artery. CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial-dependent coronary artery dilation and increased blood flow in healthy subjects, and their absence in CAD patients, can now be directly visualized and quantified noninvasively. Local coronary endothelial function differs between severely and mildly diseased arteries in a given CAD patient. This novel, safe method may offer new insights regarding the importance of local coronary endothelial function and improved risk stratification in patients at risk for and with known CAD.