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Coronary Artery Disease: HELP
Articles by Renu Virmani
Based on 98 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, R. Virmani wrote the following 98 articles about Coronary Artery Disease.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4
1 Guideline Tissue characterisation using intravascular radiofrequency data analysis: recommendations for acquisition, analysis, interpretation and reporting. 2009

García-García, Héctor M / Mintz, Gary S / Lerman, Amir / Vince, D Geoffrey / Margolis, M Paulina / van Es, Gerrit-Anne / Morel, Marie-Angèle M / Nair, Anuja / Virmani, Renu / Burke, Allen P / Stone, Gregg W / Serruys, Patrick W. ·Thoraxcenter, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ·EuroIntervention · Pubmed #20449928.

ABSTRACT: This document suggests standards for the acquisition, measurement, and reporting of radiofrequency data analysis (virtual histology - VH) intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) studies. Readers should view this document as the authors' best attempt in an area of rapidly evolving investigation, an area where rigorous evidence is not yet available or widely accepted. Nevertheless, this document is based on known pathologic data as well as previously reported imaging data; where practical, this data is summarised in the current document, a document which will also include recommendations for future evolution of the technology.

2 Editorial The Mystery of Spotty Calcification: Can We Solve It by Optical Coherence Tomography? 2016

Yahagi, Kazuyuki / Joner, Michael / Virmani, Renu. ·From CVPath Institute Inc, Gaithersburg, MD. · From CVPath Institute Inc, Gaithersburg, MD. rvirmani@cvpath.org. ·Circ Cardiovasc Imaging · Pubmed #26743464.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Embolic Myocardial Infarction as a Consequence of Atrial Fibrillation: A Prevailing Disease of the Future. 2015

Kolodgie, Frank D / Virmani, Renu / Finn, Aloke V / Romero, Maria E. ·From CVPath Institute Inc, Gaithersburg, MD (F.D.K., R.V., M.E.R.) · and Department of Medicine, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, GA (A.V.F.). ·Circulation · Pubmed #26216083.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Should CMR Become the New Darling of Noninvasive Imaging for the Monitoring of Progression and Regression of Coronary Heart Disease? 2015

Yahagi, Kazuyuki / Joner, Michael / Virmani, Renu. ·CVPath Institute, Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland. · CVPath Institute, Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland. Electronic address: rvirmani@cvpath.org. ·J Am Coll Cardiol · Pubmed #26184619.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Does neointimal characterization following DES implantation predict long-term outcomes? 2014

Sakakura, Kenichi / Joner, Michael / Virmani, Renu. ·CVPath Institute, Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland. · CVPath Institute, Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland. Electronic address: rvirmani@cvpath.org. ·JACC Cardiovasc Imaging · Pubmed #25124010.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Glagov's phenomenon: has our understanding of vascular remodeling changed? 2014

Joner, Michael / Virmani, Renu. ·CVPath Institute Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA. ·Coron Artery Dis · Pubmed #24492456.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial Are our tools for the identification of TCFA ready and do we know them? 2011

Virmani, Renu. · ·JACC Cardiovasc Imaging · Pubmed #21679901.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Editorial New morphological insights on coronary plaque rupture: bridging the gap from anatomy to clinical presentation? 2011

Alfonso, Fernando / Virmani, Renu. · ·JACC Cardiovasc Interv · Pubmed #21251633.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Editorial Future directions in stenting. 2010

Finn, Aloke V / Vorpahl, Marc / Ladich, Elena / Virmani, Renu. · ·Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther · Pubmed #20014929.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Editorial Temporal course of neointimal formation after drug-eluting stent placement: is our understanding of restenosis changing? 2009

Finn, Aloke V / Nakazawa, Gaku / Kolodgie, Frank D / Virmani, Renu. · ·JACC Cardiovasc Interv · Pubmed #19463440.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

11 Editorial One step forward and two steps back with drug-eluting-stents: from preventing restenosis to causing late thrombosis and nouveau atherosclerosis. 2009

Nakazawa, Gaku / Vorpahl, Marc / Finn, Aloke V / Narula, Jagat / Virmani, Renu. · ·JACC Cardiovasc Imaging · Pubmed #19442951.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

12 Editorial Does underlying plaque morphology play a role in vessel healing after drug-eluting stent implantation? 2008

Finn, Aloke V / Nakazawa, Gaku / Ladich, Elena / Kolodgie, Frank D / Virmani, Renu. · ·JACC Cardiovasc Imaging · Pubmed #19356471.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

13 Review Algorithmic Approach for Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Stent Implantation During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. 2018

Shlofmitz, Evan / Shlofmitz, Richard A / Galougahi, Keyvan Karimi / Rahim, Hussein M / Virmani, Renu / Hill, Jonathan M / Matsumura, Mitsuaki / Mintz, Gary S / Maehara, Akiko / Landmesser, Ulf / Stone, Gregg W / Ali, Ziad A. ·Center for Interventional Vascular Therapy, Division of Cardiology, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center, 161 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA; Department of Cardiology, St. Francis Hospital, 100 Port Washington Boulevard, Suite 105, Roslyn, NY 11576, USA; Clinical Trials Center, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, 1700 Broadway 9th Floor, New York, NY 10019, USA. · Department of Cardiology, St. Francis Hospital, 100 Port Washington Boulevard, Suite 105, Roslyn, NY 11576, USA. · Center for Interventional Vascular Therapy, Division of Cardiology, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center, 161 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA. · CVPath Institute, 19 Firstfield Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA. · London Bridge Hospital, 2nd Floor, St Olaf House, London SE1 2PR, UK; Department of Cardiology, King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, SE5 9RS, UK. · Clinical Trials Center, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, 1700 Broadway 9th Floor, New York, NY 10019, USA. · Center for Interventional Vascular Therapy, Division of Cardiology, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center, 161 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA; Clinical Trials Center, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, 1700 Broadway 9th Floor, New York, NY 10019, USA. · Department of Cardiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, Berlin 12200, Germany. · Center for Interventional Vascular Therapy, Division of Cardiology, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center, 161 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA; Department of Cardiology, St. Francis Hospital, 100 Port Washington Boulevard, Suite 105, Roslyn, NY 11576, USA; Clinical Trials Center, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, 1700 Broadway 9th Floor, New York, NY 10019, USA. Electronic address: zaa2112@columbia.edu. ·Interv Cardiol Clin · Pubmed #29983145.

ABSTRACT: Intravascular imaging plays a key role in optimizing outcomes for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) utilizes a user-friendly interface and provides high-resolution images. OCT can be used as part of daily practice in all stages of a coronary intervention: baseline lesion assessment, stent selection, and stent optimization. Incorporating a standardized, algorithmic approach when using OCT allows for precision PCI.

14 Review Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds: implication of very late scaffold thrombosis. 2017

Mori, Hiroyoshi / Virmani, Renu / Finn, Aloke V. ·aCVPath Institute, Gaithersburg bUniversity of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. ·Coron Artery Dis · Pubmed #28692483.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

15 Review Bioresorbable Scaffold: The Emerging Reality and Future Directions. 2017

Sotomi, Yohei / Onuma, Yoshinobu / Collet, Carlos / Tenekecioglu, Erhan / Virmani, Renu / Kleiman, Neal S / Serruys, Patrick W. ·From the Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands (Y.S., C.C.) · ThoraxCenter, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Y.O., E.T.) · Cardialysis, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Y.O.) · CVPath, Institute Inc, Gaithersburg, MD (R.V.) · Department of Cardiology (NSK), Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center, Texas (N.S.K.) · and NHLI, Imperial College London, United Kingdom (P.W.S.). ·Circ Res · Pubmed #28408454.

ABSTRACT: In the era of drug-eluting stents, large-scale randomized trials and all-comer registries have shown excellent clinical results. However, even the latest-generation drug-eluting stent has not managed to address all the limitations of permanent metallic coronary stents, such as the risks of target lesion revascularization, neoatherosclerosis, preclusion of late lumen enlargement, and the lack of reactive vasomotion. Furthermore, the risk of very late stent, although substantially reduced with newer-generation drug-eluting stent, still remains. These problems were anticipated to be solved with the advent of fully biodegradable devices. Fully bioresorbable coronary scaffolds have been designed to function transiently to prevent acute recoil, but have retained the capability to inhibit neointimal proliferation by eluting immunosuppressive drugs. Nevertheless, long-term follow-up data of the leading bioresorbable scaffold (Absorb) are becoming available and have raised a concern about the relatively higher incidence of scaffold thrombosis. To reduce the rate of clinical events, improvements in the device, as well as implantation procedure, are being evaluated. This review will focus on the current CE-mark approved bioresorbable scaffolds, their basic characteristics, and clinical results. In addition, we summarize the current limitations of bioresorbable scaffold and their possible solutions.

16 Review Pathology of Human Coronary and Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis and Vascular Calcification in Diabetes Mellitus. 2017

Yahagi, Kazuyuki / Kolodgie, Frank D / Lutter, Christoph / Mori, Hiroyoshi / Romero, Maria E / Finn, Aloke V / Virmani, Renu. ·From the CVPath Institute, Inc, Gaithersburg, MD (K.Y., F.D.K., C.L., H.M., M.E.R., A.V.F., R.V.) · and University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore (A.V.F.). ·Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol · Pubmed #27908890.

ABSTRACT: The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus. Moreover, there is a higher incidence of healed plaque ruptures and positive remodeling in hearts from subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus, suggesting a more active atherogenic process. Lesion calcification in the coronary, carotid, and other arterial beds is also more extensive. Although the role of coronary artery calcification in identifying cardiovascular disease and predicting its outcome is undeniable, our understanding of how key hormonal and physiological alterations associated with diabetes mellitus such as insulin resistance and hyperglycemia influence the process of vascular calcification continues to grow. Important drivers of atherosclerotic calcification in diabetes mellitus include oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, alterations in mineral metabolism, increased inflammatory cytokine production, and release of osteoprogenitor cells from the marrow into the circulation. Our review will focus on the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus- and type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated vascular disease with particular focus on coronary and carotid atherosclerotic calcification.

17 Review Acute coronary syndromes without coronary plaque rupture. 2016

Kanwar, Siddak S / Stone, Gregg W / Singh, Mandeep / Virmani, Renu / Olin, Jeffrey / Akasaka, Takashi / Narula, Jagat. ·Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1190 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10029, USA. · Columbia University Medical Center and the Cardiovascular Research Foundation, 161 Washington Avenue, New York, New York 10032, USA. · Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. · CVPath Institute, 19 Firstfield Road, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878, USA. · Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama, Wakayama Prefecture 641-8509, Japan. ·Nat Rev Cardiol · Pubmed #26911330.

ABSTRACT: The latest advances in plaque imaging have provided clinicians with opportunities to treat acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and provide individualized treatment recommendations based not only on clinical manifestations, angiographic characteristics, and biomarker data, but also on the findings of plaque morphology. Although a substantial proportion of ACS events originate from plaques with an intact fibrous cap (IFC), clinicians predominantly equate ACS with plaque rupture arising from thin-cap fibroatheromas. In this Review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of plaque morphology in ACS with IFC, reviewing contemporary data from intravascular imaging. We also explore whether use of such imaging might provide a roadmap for more effective management of patients with ACS.

18 Review Pathophysiology of native coronary, vein graft, and in-stent atherosclerosis. 2016

Yahagi, Kazuyuki / Kolodgie, Frank D / Otsuka, Fumiyuki / Finn, Aloke V / Davis, Harry R / Joner, Michael / Virmani, Renu. ·CVPath Institute, Inc., 19 Firstfield Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA. · Department of Medicine, Emory University Hospital, 550 Peachtree Street, Nebraska, Atlanta, GA 30308, USA. ·Nat Rev Cardiol · Pubmed #26503410.

ABSTRACT: Plaque rupture, usually of a precursor lesion known as a 'vulnerable plaque' or 'thin-cap fibroatheroma', is the leading cause of thrombosis. Less-frequent aetiologies of coronary thrombosis are erosion, observed with greatest incidence in women aged <50 years, and eruptive calcified nodules, which are occasionally identified in older individuals. Various treatments for patients with coronary artery disease, such as CABG surgery and interventional therapies, have led to accelerated atherosclerosis. These processes occur within months to years, compared with the decades that it generally takes for native disease to develop. Morphological identifiers of accelerated atherosclerosis include macrophage-derived foam cells, intraplaque haemorrhage, and thin fibrous cap. Foam-cell infiltration can be observed within 1 year of a saphenous vein graft implantation, with subsequent necrotic core formation and rupture ensuing after 7 years in over one-third of patients. Neoatherosclerosis occurs early and with greater prevalence in drug-eluting stents than in bare-metal stents and, although rare, complications of late stent thrombosis from rupture are associated with high mortality. Comparison of lesion progression in native atherosclerotic disease, atherosclerosis in saphenous vein grafts, and in-stent neoatherosclerosis provides insight into the pathogenesis of atheroma formation in natural and iatrogenic settings.

19 Review Neoatherosclerosis From a Pathologist's Point of View. 2015

Romero, Maria E / Yahagi, Kazuyuki / Kolodgie, Frank D / Virmani, Renu. ·From the CVPath Institute, Gaithersburg, MD. · From the CVPath Institute, Gaithersburg, MD. rvirmani@cvpath.org. ·Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol · Pubmed #26399921.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

20 Review Neoatherosclerosis: overview of histopathologic findings and implications for intravascular imaging assessment. 2015

Otsuka, Fumiyuki / Byrne, Robert A / Yahagi, Kazuyuki / Mori, Hiroyoshi / Ladich, Elena / Fowler, David R / Kutys, Robert / Xhepa, Erion / Kastrati, Adnan / Virmani, Renu / Joner, Michael. ·CVPath Institute, Inc., 19 Firstfield Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA. · Deutsches Herzzentrum München, Technische Universitat München, Munich, Germany. · Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Baltimore, MD, USA. · CVPath Institute, Inc., 19 Firstfield Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA mjoner@cvpath.org michaeljoner@me.com. ·Eur Heart J · Pubmed #25994755.

ABSTRACT: Despite the reduction in late thrombotic events with newer-generation drug-eluting stents (DES), late stent failure remains a concern following stent placement. In-stent neoatherosclerosis has emerged as an important contributing factor to late vascular complications including very late stent thrombosis and late in-stent restenosis. Histologically, neoatherosclerosis is characterized by accumulation of lipid-laden foamy macrophages within the neointima with or without necrotic core formation and/or calcification. The development of neoatherosclerosis may occur in months to years following stent placement, whereas atherosclerosis in native coronary arteries develops over decades. Pathologic and clinical imaging studies have demonstrated that neoatherosclerosis occurs more frequently and at an earlier time point in DES when compared with bare metal stents, and increases with time in both types of implant. Early development of neoatherosclerosis has been identified not only in first-generation DES but also in second-generation DES. The mechanisms underlying the rapid development of neoatherosclerosis remain unknown; however, either absence or abnormal endothelial functional integrity following stent implantation may contribute to this process. In-stent plaque rupture likely accounts for most thrombotic events associated with neoatherosclerosis, while it may also be a substrate of in-stent restenosis as thrombosis may occur either symptomatically or asymptomatically. Intravascular optical coherence tomography is capable of detecting neoatherosclerosis; however, the shortcomings of this modality must be recognized. Future studies should assess the impact of iterations in stent technology and risk factor modification on disease progression. Similarly, refinements in imaging techniques are also warranted that will permit more reliable detection of neoatherosclerosis.

21 Review Impact of local flow haemodynamics on atherosclerosis in coronary artery bifurcations. 2015

Antoniadis, Antonios P / Giannopoulos, Andreas A / Wentzel, Jolanda J / Joner, Michael / Giannoglou, George D / Virmani, Renu / Chatzizisis, Yiannis S. ·Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ·EuroIntervention · Pubmed #25983161.

ABSTRACT: Coronary artery bifurcations are susceptible to atherosclerosis as a result of the unique local flow patterns and the subsequent endothelial shear stress (ESS) environment that are conducive to the development of plaques. Along the lateral walls of the main vessel and side branches, a distinct flow pattern is observed with local low and oscillatory ESS, while high ESS develops at the flow divider (carina). Histopathologic studies have shown that the distribution of plaque at bifurcation regions is related to the local ESS patterns. The local ESS profile also influences the outcome of percutaneous coronary interventions in bifurcation lesions. A variety of invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities have enabled 3D reconstruction of coronary bifurcations and thereby detailed local ESS assessment by computational fluid dynamics. Highly effective strategies for treatment and ultimately prevention of atherosclerosis in coronary bifurcations are anticipated with the use of advanced imaging and computational fluid dynamic techniques.

22 Review Pathological aspects of bioresorbable stent implantation. 2015

Sanchez, Oscar D / Yahagi, Kazuyuki / Byrne, Robert A / Mori, Hiroyoshi / Zarpak, Roya / Wittchow, Eric / Foin, Nicolas / Virmani, Renu / Joner, Michael. ·CVPath Institute, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USA. ·EuroIntervention · Pubmed #25983157.

ABSTRACT: The treatment of obstructive coronary artery disease has been revolutionised by the advent of drug-eluting stent therapy. However, concerns remain about complications late after stent implantation including late stent thrombosis, hypersensitivity reactions and neoatherosclerosis. In this respect, the introduction of fully bioresorbable stents (BRS)--which resorb over time and leave the arterial wall free of any metal constraints--represents a potentially important disruptive technology. However, although the concept is intuitively attractive, a thorough understanding of the histopathological changes seen after BRS implantation and an appreciation of comparative changes versus existing metal stent technologies are vital to guide BRS clinical usage. In this respect, translational investigation of polymer chemistry, biomedical engineering, as well as in vitro and in vivo testing in animal models is an important undertaking. This article will review the pathological aspects of BRS implantation with a focus on acute and chronic vascular reactions derived from preclinical animal studies, including insights from in vivo imaging. Finally, potential future directions of this novel therapeutic approach will be discussed.

23 Review Patient selection for elective revascularization to reduce myocardial infarction and mortality: new lessons from randomized trials, coronary physiology, and statistics. 2015

Gould, K Lance / Johnson, Nils P / Kaul, Sanjay / Kirkeeide, Richard L / Mintz, Gary S / Rentrop, K Peter / Sdringola, Stefano / Virmani, Renu / Narula, Jagat. ·From the Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Weatherhead PET Center for Preventing and Reversing Atherosclerosis, University of Texas Medical School at Houston and Memorial Hermann Hospital (K.L.G., N.P.J., R.L.K., S.S.) · Division of Cardiology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (S.K.) · Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, NY (G.S.M.) · Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease, New York Presbyterian Hospital, The University Hospital of Columbia and Cornell, New York (K.P.R.) · Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, NY Langone Medical Center, New York (K.P.R.) · Gramercy Cardiac Diagnostic Services, New York, NY (K.P.R.) · CVPath Institute Inc, Gaithersburg, MD (R.V.) · and Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (J.N.). ·Circ Cardiovasc Imaging · Pubmed #25977304.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

24 Review Sex differences in coronary artery disease: pathological observations. 2015

Yahagi, Kazuyuki / Davis, Harry R / Arbustini, Eloisa / Virmani, Renu. ·CVPath Institute, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. · Center for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases, IRCCS Foundation Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. · CVPath Institute, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. Electronic address: rvirmani@cvpath.org. ·Atherosclerosis · Pubmed #25634157.

ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the most frequent cause of death in both men and women. Many studies on CVD have included mostly men, and the knowledge about coronary artery disease (CAD) in women has largely been extrapolated from studies primarily focused on men. The influence of various risk factors is different between men and women; untoward effects of smoking of CAD are greater in women than men. Furthermore, the effect of the menopause is important in women, with higher incidence of plaque erosion in young women versus greater incidence of plaque rupture in older women. This review focuses on differences in plaque morphology in men and women presenting with sudden coronary death and acute myocardial infarction.

25 Review Optical coherence tomography surveillance following drug-eluting stent implantation. 2015

Koppara, T / Virmani, R / Joner, M. ·CVPath Institute Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USA - mjoner@cvpath.org. ·Minerva Cardioangiol · Pubmed #25566936.

ABSTRACT: Drug-eluting stents are currently used in the majority of percutaneous coronary interventions. Preclinical investigations and human autopsy studies have shown that the high efficacy of drug-eluting stents (DES) in preventing restenosis is achieved at the expense of a delay in healing. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) represents a novel intracoronary imaging tool to evaluate vascular healing response after stent implantation. Owing to its outstanding resolution in the catheter near-field, quantitative morphometric measures were complemented by more qualitative description of neointimal tissue characterization. Clinical imaging studies employing these methodologies gained valuable insights into vascular healing responses after DES implantation and are reported in this review. However, an important limitation of OCT imaging analysis, despite its high resolution, remains the inability to assess the precise cellular composition and functional capability of the neointimal tissue, especially of the endothelium. Future long-term clinical studies are warranted to determine the clinical relevance of surrogate parameters derived from preliminary OCT surveillance studies.

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