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Coronary Artery Disease: HELP
Articles from Europe
Based on 13,707 articles published since 2008
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These are the 13707 published articles about Coronary Artery Disease that originated from Europe during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
376 Editorial IVUS detects more coronary calcifications than MSCT; matter of both resolution and cross-sectional assessment? 2011

van der Wall, E E / de Graaf, F R / van Velzen, J E / Jukema, J W / Bax, J J / Schuijf, J D. ·Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden, The Netherlands. e.e.van_der_wall@lumc.nl ·Int J Cardiovasc Imaging · Pubmed #20623370.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

377 Editorial Endothelium as a predictor of adverse outcomes. 2010

Della Rocca, Domenico G / Pepine, Carl J. ·University of Rome "Tor Vergata," Italy. ·Clin Cardiol · Pubmed #21184555.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

378 Editorial [Chlamydia pneumoniae - causal pathogen or fortuitous witness of atherosclerosis progression?]. 2009

Tracz, Wiesława. ·Klinika Chorób Serca i Naczyń, Instytut kardiologii, Uniwersytet jagielloński Collegium Medicum, Krakowski Szpital Speccjalistyczny im. Jana Pawla II. ·Kardiol Pol · Pubmed #19938364.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

379 Editorial Myocardial perfusion quantitation with PET: time to do our homework. 2009

Fricke, Eva. ·Institute of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-Westphalia, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany. Fricke.Eva@t-online.de ·Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging · Pubmed #19526235.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

380 Review The role of perivascular adipose tissue in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The importance of diagnosis for assessing the risk stratification of cardiovascular diseases. 2019

Uchasova, E G / Gruzdeva, O V / Dyleva, Yu A / Belik, E V. ·Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Disease, Kemerovo, Russia. · Kemerovo State Medical Academy of Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, Kemerovo, Russia. ·Ter Arkh · Pubmed #31094487.

ABSTRACT: Obesity is closely associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, including dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Adipose tissue (AT) is identified as a complex endocrine organ, with a wide range of regulatory functions at the cellular, tissue and systemic levels. Various terms, including paracardiac, epicardial and pericardial, are used to describe the fatty deposits surrounding the heart. Among all the fat depots, perivascular AT (PVAT) is of great biological significance for the cardiovascular system due to its anatomical proximity to the vessels. Recent studies have shown the presence of a complex, bidirectional paracrine and vasocardial signaling system between the vascular wall and PVAT. In the review, we will discuss the biological role of PVAT in both the physiological state and cardiovascular pathology, emphasizing its dual proatherogenic and antiatherogenic role. Let us consider PVAT as a target for various therapeutic agents in cardiovascular diseases. We will also analyze data on the role of non-invasive techniques as a diagnostic tool for assessing coronary artery inflammation.

381 Review Percutaneous or surgical revascularization for left main stem disease: NOBLE ideas, but do they EXCEL? 2019

Kassimis, George / Raina, Tushar / Kontogiannis, Nestoras / Krasopoulos, George / Gunn, Julian. ·a Department of Cardiology , Cheltenham General Hospital, Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust , Cheltenham , UK. · b Second Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital , Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki , Thessaloniki , Greece. · c Oxford Heart Centre , Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust , Oxford , UK. · d Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease , University of Sheffield , Sheffield , UK. ·Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther · Pubmed #31088173.

ABSTRACT:

382 Review [Therapeutic Strategies in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease: The Role of Coronary Revascularization]. 2019

Heiniger, Pascal S / Holy, Erik W / Maier, Willibald / Nietlispach, Fabian / Ruschitzka, Frank / Stähli, Barbara E. ·1 Klinik für Kardiologie, Universitäres Herzzentrum, Universitätsspital Zürich. ·Praxis (Bern 1994) · Pubmed #31039710.

ABSTRACT: Therapeutic Strategies in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease: The Role of Coronary Revascularization

383 Review Multimodality imaging in ischaemic heart failure. 2019

Bax, Jeroen J / Di Carli, Marcelo / Narula, Jagat / Delgado, Victoria. ·Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. Electronic address: j.j.bax@lumc.nl. · Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, NY, USA. · Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. ·Lancet · Pubmed #30860031.

ABSTRACT: In heart failure, extensive evaluation with modern non-invasive imaging modalities is needed to assess causes, pathophysiology, and haemodynamics, to determine prognosis and consider therapeutic options. This systematic evaluation includes a stepwise assessment of left ventricular size and function, the presence and severity of coronary artery disease, mitral regurgitation, pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular dilation and dysfunction, and tricuspid regurgitation. Based on this imaging-derived information, the need for specific therapies besides optimised medical therapy can be determined. The need for revascularisation, implantation of an implantable cardiac defibrillator, and mitral or tricuspid valve repair or replacement, can be (partially) guided by non-invasive imaging. Importantly, randomised controlled trials on the use of non-inasive imaging to guide therapy are scarce in this field and most non-pharmacological therapies are based on expert-consensus, but whenever trials are available, they will be addressed in this paper.

384 Review Therapeutic Challenges in Patients With Noncardioembolic Acute Ischemic Stroke in Need of Double Antiplatelet Therapy for Coronary Artery Disease. 2019

Darabont, Roxana Oana / Stoicescu, Claudiu / Tiu, Cristina. ·Discipline of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, University Emergency Hospital Bucharest, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila,” Bucharest, Romania. · Discipline of Neurology, University Emergency Hospital Bucharest, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila,” Bucharest, Romania. ·Am J Ther · Pubmed #30839370.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The risk of ischemic stroke (IS) is significant within 6-12 months from the myocardial revascularization for an acute cardiac event. Consequently, we can expect to have patients with an acute IS occurring right in the time frame of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) imposed by the coronary heart disease (CHD). AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Until present, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with acute IS in need of DAPT for ischemic heart disease. The aim of this article was to go through the available data and to depict the appropriate therapeutic strategy for this category of patients. DATA SOURCES: We have performed a systematic review of the literature through June 2018, using Medline/PubMed database. THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES: DAPT (aspirin and only clopidogrel among all P2Y12 inhibitors) might be maintained or initiated for CHD in patients with minor acute stroke and high-risk transient ischemic attack patient with IS attributable to an important intracranial stenosis, as long as this drug combination proved to be safe for them in the prevention of stroke recurrence. In patients with IS receiving thrombolysis, with increased size of infarction or high National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS), the risk of hemorrhagic transformation under DAPT must be weighed against the risk of stent thrombosis in the coronary arteries, which, on its turn, depends on the clinical form for which myocardial revascularization was performed, the time interval from the complexity of a certain interventional procedure. CONCLUSIONS: In the acute phase of an IS, maintenance or initiation of DAPT therapy imposed by CHD relies, on one hand, on the risk of hemorrhagic transformation of the brain injury and, on the other hand, on the risk of stent thrombosis in the coronary arteries. The management of these patients must be carried on by a vascular team, on an individualized basis.

385 Review Evolving Role of PET in Detecting and Characterizing Atherosclerosis. 2019

Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming / Moghbel, Mateen C / Gerke, Oke / Alavi, Abass. ·Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense University Hospital, J. B. Winsløws Vej 4, 5000 Odense C, Denmark; Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Winsløwparken 19, 3. salOdense C - DK-5000, Denmark. Electronic address: pfhc@rsyd.dk. · Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5105, USA. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense University Hospital, J. B. Winsløws Vej 4, 5000 Odense C, Denmark. · Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ·PET Clin · Pubmed #30826018.

ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular molecular imaging has focused on assessing myocardial perfusion and ventricular ejection fraction. These modalities target late downstream effects of the atherosclerotic disease process; this calls for a change of focus toward methods that can detect early arterial wall changes before macrocalcifications become visible on computed tomography angiography and provide a better understanding of the disease process. We summarize current knowledge on PET in atherosclerosis and highlight pertinent questions relating to the early detection of atherosclerosis. The future of PET in atherosclerosis may be early individualized quantification of the arteriosclerotic disease burden rather than exploration of features of individual arterial plaques.

386 Review In-hospital and long-term outcomes of HIV-positive patients undergoing PCI according to kind of stent: a meta-analysis. 2019

Peyracchia, Mattia / Verardi, Roberto / Rubin, Sergio Raposeiras / Abu-Assi, Emad / Montrucchio, Chiara / Perl, Leor / Grossomarra, Walter / Calcagno, Andrea / Omedè, Pierluigi / Montefusco, Antonio / Bonora, Stefano / Moretti, Claudio / D'Amico, Maurizio / Mauro, Rinaldi / D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio. ·Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Città Della Salute e della Scienza, University of Turin, Turin, Italy. · Department of Cardiology and Coronary Care Unit, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña. · Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Álvaro Cunqueiro, Vigo, Spain. · Division of Infectious Disease, University of Turin, Turin, Italy. · Cardiology Department, Rabin Medical Center, Petach-Tikva and the "Sackler" Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel. ·J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) · Pubmed #30664538.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive patients is related to the interaction between traditional and HIV-specific factors. Limited data are available regarding the prognosis of HIV-positive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: All observational studies evaluating the prognosis of HIV-positive patients treated with PCI were included. In-hospital and long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) [composite endpoint of all-cause death or myocardial infarction (MI)] were the primary endpoints, whereas in-hospital and long-term all-cause death, cardiovascular death, MI, stent thrombosis, target vessel revascularization (TVR), target lesion revascularization (TLR), and bleeding complications were the secondary ones. FINDINGS: In all, 1243 patients in nine studies were included, with a mean age of 54 years. Among them, 12% were female and 91% were admitted for acute coronary syndromes. In-hospital MACE occurred in 6.0% (5.4-6.6), death in 4.2% (2.6-5.9), and MI in 1.3% (0-2.8), whereas major bleeding occurred in 2.0% (1.7-2.3) of the patients. After 2 years (1.6-3.1), long-term MACE occurred in 17.4% (11.9-22.3), all-cause death in 8.7% (3.2-14.2), and MI in 7.8% (5.5-10.1) of the patients, whereas stent thrombosis and TVR in 3.4% (1.5-5.3) and 10.5% (7.5-13.4), respectively. In patients treated with drug-eluting stents (DES), the rate of long-term MACE was 22.3% (10.1-34.4), with an incidence of 4.9% (0.0-11.4) of MI and 5.7% (2.3-13.7, all 95% confidence intervals of TLR. INTERPRETATION: HIV-positive patients have a high risk of in-hospital and long-term MACE after PCI, partially reduced by the use of DES. Further studies on the risk of recurrent ischemic events with current generation stents are needed, to offer a tailored therapy in this high-risk population.

387 Review Ceramides as Novel Disease Biomarkers. 2019

Kurz, Jennifer / Parnham, Michael J / Geisslinger, Gerd / Schiffmann, Susanne. ·Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Branch for Translational Medicine and Pharmacology TMP, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address: jennifer.kurz@ime.fraunhofer.de. · Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Branch for Translational Medicine and Pharmacology TMP, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. · pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Goethe University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt/Main, Germany. · Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Branch for Translational Medicine and Pharmacology TMP, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany; pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Goethe University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt/Main, Germany. ·Trends Mol Med · Pubmed #30477968.

ABSTRACT: Ceramides are sphingolipids and integral components of the eukaryotic cell membrane. Apart from providing structural integrity, ceramides have also been shown to act as second messengers in cell signaling processes. In recent publications, ceramide modulation has been reported in pathological conditions such as cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease (AD), coronary artery disease (CAD), multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as depression. Ceramides or ceramide panel combinations have been proposed as specific disease biomarkers that could be detected in diseased tissue, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood. This article reviews ceramide modulation in a selection of different diseases and the potential use of ceramides as biomarkers in diagnostics, determination of disease stage and personalized medicine.

388 Review Current Evidence in Cardiothoracic Imaging: Computed Tomography-derived Fractional Flow Reserve in Stable Chest Pain. 2019

Schwartz, Fides R / Koweek, Lynne M / Nørgaard, Bjarne L. ·Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC. · Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark. ·J Thorac Imaging · Pubmed #30376481.

ABSTRACT: High-accuracy diagnostic imaging is needed to diagnose and manage coronary artery disease as well as to allow risk stratification for future events. Advancements in multidetector computed tomography and image postprocessing allow for routine computed tomography coronary angiography to provide anatomic luminal assessment similar to invasive coronary angiography, and, similarly, computational fractional flow reserve derived from computed tomography facilitates determination of hemodynamically relevant stenosis comparable to invasive fractional flow reserve. In this review article, we describe the diagnostic performance and the potential impact of fractional flow reserve derived from computed tomography in clinical practice.

389 Review Moving into the next era of PET myocardial perfusion imaging: introduction of novel 2019

Werner, Rudolf A / Chen, Xinyu / Rowe, Steven P / Lapa, Constantin / Javadi, Mehrbod S / Higuchi, Takahiro. ·Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany. · Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University of Wuerzburg, Oberduerrbacher Strasse 6, 97080, Wuerzburg, Germany. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany. thiguchi@me.com. · Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University of Wuerzburg, Oberduerrbacher Strasse 6, 97080, Wuerzburg, Germany. thiguchi@me.com. · Department of Biomedical Imaging, National Cardiovascular and Cerebral Center, Suita, Japan. thiguchi@me.com. ·Int J Cardiovasc Imaging · Pubmed #30334228.

ABSTRACT: The heart failure epidemic continues to rise with coronary artery disease as one of its main causes. Novel concepts for risk stratification to guide the referring cardiologist towards revascularization procedures are of significant value. Myocardial perfusion imaging using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) agents has demonstrated high accuracy for the detection of clinically relevant stenoses. With positron emission tomography (PET) becoming more widely available, mainly due to its diagnostic performance in oncology, perfusion imaging with that modality is more practical than in the past and overcomes existing limitations of SPECT MPI. Advantages of PET include more reliable quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow, the routine use of computed tomography for attenuation correction, a higher spatiotemporal resolution and a higher count sensitivity. Current PET radiotracers such as rubidium-82 (half-life, 76 s), oxygen-15 water (2 min) or nitrogen-13 ammonia (10 min) are labeled with radionuclides with very short half-lives, necessitating that stress imaging is performed under pharmacological vasodilator stress instead of exercise testing. However, with the introduction of novel

390 Review Neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation: a novel clinical and therapeutic challenge. 2019

Borovac, Josip A / D'Amario, Domenico / Vergallo, Rocco / Porto, Italo / Bisignani, Antonio / Galli, Mattia / Annibali, Gianmarco / Montone, Rocco A / Leone, Antonio Maria / Niccoli, Giampaolo / Crea, Filippo. ·Department of Pathophysiology, University of Split School of Medicine, Soltanska 2, Split, Croatia. · University Hospital of Split, Spinciceva 1, Split, Croatia. · Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Sciences, Institute of Cardiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Largo Agostino Gemelli, Rome, Italy. ·Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother · Pubmed #30285099.

ABSTRACT: The recognition that obstructive disease of the epicardial coronary arteries, causing ischaemic heart disease, can be treated with a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been a major discovery in cardiology in the last 40 years contributing, in particular, to the reduction of mortality associated to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, even in the era of drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation, a sizable proportion of patients who undergo PCI may develop late or very late post-implantation complications, that occur in the form of restenosis, neoatherosclerosis, and/or in-stent thrombosis. Such complications are clinically relevant since they can cause AMI and negatively impact on the outcome. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are complex but related to inhibition of neointimal proliferation by DES that, on the hand, reduces the rate of in-stent restenosis, but, on the other hand, causes dysfunctional vessel healing, persistent inflammation, platelet activation, and adverse immunological responses. Multiple approaches have been developed or are under evaluation to target DES-related complications including pharmacotherapy, procedure-related imaging methods, novel stent designs, and drug-delivery methods. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the latest preclinical, translational, and clinical pharmacotherapeutic developments in this setting that target novel cellular mechanisms and pathways that might contribute to neoatherosclerosis. Due to the importance of secondary prevention in the reduction of DES-associated complications, this review also provides a short overview of pharmacological agents that are established or currently being investigated in this regard.

391 Review Percutaneous coronary intervention for stable coronary artery disease. 2019

Al-Lamee, Rasha K / Nowbar, Alexandra N / Francis, Darrel P. ·Imperial College London, London, UK. · Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK. ·Heart · Pubmed #30242142.

ABSTRACT: The adverse consequences of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are death, myocardial infarction (MI) and angina. Trials in stable CAD show that percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) does not reduce mortality. PCI does appear to reduce spontaneous MI rates but at the expense of causing some periprocedural MI. Therefore, the main purpose of PCI is to relieve angina. Indeed, patients and physicians often choose PCI rather than first attempting to control symptoms with anti-anginal medications as recommended by guidelines. Nevertheless, it is unclear how effective PCI is at relieving angina. This is because, whereas anti-anginal medications are universally required to be tested against placebo, there is no such requirement for procedural interventions such as PCI. The first placebo-controlled trial of PCI showed a surprisingly small effect size. This may be because it is overly simplistic to assume that the presence of a stenosis and inducible ischaemia in a patient means that the clinical chest pain they report is caused by ischaemia. In this article, we review the evidence base and argue that if we as a medical specialty wish to lead the science of procedures for symptom control, we should recognise the special merit of placebo-controlled experiments.

392 Review Editor's Choice- Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of MINOCA: an update. 2019

Scalone, Giancarla / Niccoli, Giampaolo / Crea, Filippo. ·Institute of Cardiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Italy. ·Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care · Pubmed #29952633.

ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is a syndrome with different causes, characterised by clinical evidence of myocardial infarction with normal or near-normal coronary arteries on angiography. Its prevalence ranges between 5% and 25% of all myocardial infarction. The prognosis is extremely variable, depending on the cause of MINOCA. The key principle in the management of this syndrome is to clarify the underlying individual mechanisms to achieve patient-specific treatments. Clinical history, electrocardiogram, cardiac enzymes, echocardiography, coronary angiography and left ventricular angiography represent the first level diagnostic investigations to identify the causes of MINOCA. Regional wall motion abnormalities at left ventricular angiography limited to a single epicardial coronary artery territory identify an 'epicardial pattern'whereas regional wall motion abnormalities extended beyond a single epicardial coronary artery territory identify a 'microvascular pattern'. The most common causes of MINOCA are represented by coronary plaque disease, coronary dissection, coronary artery spasm, coronary microvascular spasm, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, coronary thromboembolism, other forms of type 2 myocardial infarction and MINOCA of uncertain aetiology. This review aims at summarising the diagnosis and management of MINOCA, according to the underlying physiopathology.

393 Review Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins as a Source of Proinflammatory Lipids in the Arterial Wall. 2019

Öörni, Katariina / Lehti, Satu / Sjövall, Peter / Kovanen, Petri T. ·Wihuri Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland. · RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Boras, Sweden. ·Curr Med Chem · Pubmed #29848270.

ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein B -containing lipoproteins include triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons and their remnants, and very low-density lipoproteins and their remnants) and cholesterol-rich low-density lipoprotein particles. Of these, lipoproteins having sizes below 70-80 nm may enter the arterial wall, where they accumulate and induce the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. The processes that lead to accumulation of lipoprotein-derived lipids in the arterial wall have been largely studied with a focus on the low-density lipoprotein particles. However, recent observational and genetic studies have discovered that the triglyceriderich lipoproteins and their remnants are linked with cardiovascular disease risk. In this review, we describe the potential mechanisms by which the triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins can contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions, and highlight the differences in the atherogenicity between low-density lipoproteins and the remnant lipoproteins.

394 Review Management of percutaneous coronary intervention complications. 2019

Kandan, Sri Raveen / Johnson, Thomas William. ·Bristol Heart Institute, Bristol, UK. ·Heart · Pubmed #29760245.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

395 Review None 2018

Alekhin, M N. ·Central Clinical Hospital with Policlinic of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation. amn@mail.ru. ·Kardiologiia · Pubmed #30625079.

ABSTRACT: This literature review in devoted to the potential of application of contrast-enhanced echocardiography (CEE) for assessment of structure and function of left cardiac chambers. It contains based on current recommendations discussion of main indications for CEE and analysis of its possibilities in evaluation of perfusion of the left ventricular myocardium, detection of myocardial ischemia, and assessment of myocardial viability. Data on CEE safety and possible side effects associated with the use of ultrasound contrasts are also presented.

396 Review The Beneficial Therapy with Colchicine for Atherosclerosis via Anti-inflammation and Decrease in Hypertriglyceridemia. 2018

Spartalis, Michael / Spartalis, Eleftherios / Tzatzaki, Eleni / Tsilimigras, Diamantis I / Moris, Demetrios / Kontogiannis, Christos / Kaminiotis, Vaios Vasileios / Paschou, Stavroula A / Chatzidou, Sofia / Siasos, Gerasimos / Voudris, Vassilis / Iliopoulos, Dimitrios C. ·Division of Cardiology, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Athens, Greece. · ESC Working Group on Thrombosis, Sophia Antipolis Cedex 06903, France. · Laboratory of Experimental Surgery and Surgical Research, University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece. · Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, United States. · Department of Clinical Therapeutics, "Alexandra" Hospital, University of Athens, 11528 Athens, Greece. · Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, "Aghia Sophia" Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece. · 1st Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, 11527 Athens, Greece. ·Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem · Pubmed #30526472.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lipid-lowering therapy and control of cardiovascular risk factors are the current recommendations of atherosclerotic disease management. Despite optimal treatment the rate of acute coronary syndrome events remains high. Inflammation plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic plaque formation, progression and rupture, which conclusively causes acute clinical episodes. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to give a conceptual description of the potential therapeutic benefits and effects of colchicine in inflammation-mediated atherosclerotic disease and hypertriglyceridemia. METHOD: A complete literature survey was performed using the PubMed database search to collect available information regarding colchicine, atherosclerosis, and hypertriglyceridemia. RESULTS: A total of 42 studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the review. Inflammation is a well-known key mediator of atherogenesis in coronary artery disease. Colchicine has direct antiinflammatory effects by inhibiting critical inflammatory signaling networks as the inflammasome, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and expression of adhesion molecules, preventing both local chemoattraction of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and systemic inflammation including the decrease of the release of IL-1β by the neutrophils. CONCLUSION: Colchicine reduces the levels of inflammatory markers, stabilizes the coronary plaque, leads to more favorable cardiac healing after damage, and reduces the acute coronary syndromes event recurrence. Colchicine reduces the myocardial infarct size, myocardial fibrosis, and improves the hemodynamic parameters. Several studies report the potential attenuating role of colchicine on triglyceride levels. Current evidence though regarding the pathophysiological mechanism of colchicine's triglyceride-lowering effect remains scarce.

397 Review The Impact of Obesity on the Cardiovascular System. 2018

Csige, Imre / Ujvárosy, Dóra / Szabó, Zoltán / Lőrincz, István / Paragh, György / Harangi, Mariann / Somodi, Sándor. ·Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Hungary. · Division of Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Hungary. · Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Debrecen, Hungary. ·J Diabetes Res · Pubmed #30525052.

ABSTRACT: Obesity is a growing health problem worldwide. It is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk on the one hand of obesity itself and on the other hand of associated medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, insulin resistance, and sleep apnoea syndrome). Obesity has an important role in atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Obesity leads to structural and functional changes of the heart, which causes heart failure. The altered myocardial structure increases the risk of atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. However, obesity also has a protective effect on the clinical outcome of underlying cardiovascular disease, the phenomenon called obesity paradox. The improved cardiac imaging techniques allow the early detection of altered structure and function of the heart in obese patients. In this review, we attempt to summarize the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular diseases and outline the underlying mechanisms. The demonstrated new techniques of cardiac diagnostic procedures allow for the early detection and treatment of subclinical medical conditions and, therefore, the prevention of cardiovascular events.

398 Review Endothelial Function: A Short Guide for the Interventional Cardiologist. 2018

Gori, Tommaso. ·Kardiologie I, Zentrum für Kardiologie der Universitätsmedizin Mainz and DZHK Standort Rhein-Main, Langenbeckstr 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany. tommaso.gori@unimedizin-mainz.de. ·Int J Mol Sci · Pubmed #30513819.

ABSTRACT: An impaired function of the coronary endothelium is an important determinant of all stages of atherosclerosis, from initiation, to mediation of functional phenomena-such as spasm and plaque erosion, to atherothrombotic complications. Endothelial function is modified by therapies, including stent implantation. Finally, endothelial function changes over time, in response to physical stimuli and pharmocotherapies, and its assessment might provide information on how individual patients respond to specific therapies. In this review, we describe the role of the endothelium in the continuum of coronary atherosclerosis, from the perspective of the interventional cardiologist. In the first part, we review the current knowledge of the role of endothelial (dys)function on atherosclerotic plaque progression/instabilization and on the mechanisms of ischemia, in the absence of coronary artery stenosis. In the second part of this review, we describe the impact of coronary artery stenting on endothelial function, platelet aggregation, and inflammation.

399 Review The Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Setting of Coronary Artery Disease and COPD: A Review. 2018

Pizzini, Alex / Lunger, Lukas / Sonnweber, Thomas / Weiss, Guenter / Tancevski, Ivan. ·Department of Internal Medicine II, Infectious Diseases, Pneumology, Rheumatology, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. alex.pizzini@i-med.ac.at. · Department of Urology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 Munich, Germany. lukas.lunger@tum.de. · Department of Internal Medicine II, Infectious Diseases, Pneumology, Rheumatology, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Thomas.Sonnweber@i-med.ac.at. · Department of Internal Medicine II, Infectious Diseases, Pneumology, Rheumatology, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Guenter.Weiss@i-med.ac.at. · Department of Internal Medicine II, Infectious Diseases, Pneumology, Rheumatology, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Ivan.Tancevski@i-med.ac.at. ·Nutrients · Pubmed #30513804.

ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a growing healthcare concern and will represent the third leading cause of death worldwide within the next decade. COPD is the result of a complex interaction between environmental factors, especially cigarette smoking, air pollution, and genetic preconditions, which result in persistent inflammation of the airways. There is growing evidence that the chronic inflammatory state, measurable by increased levels of circulating cytokines, chemokines, and acute phase proteins, may not be confined to the lungs. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and especially coronary artery disease (CAD) are common comorbidities of COPD, and low-grade systemic inflammation plays a decisive role in its pathogenesis. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (

400 Review [Negative emotions associated with cardiovascular diseases]. 2018

Balog, Piroska. ·Magatartástudományi Intézet, Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Budapest, Nagyvárad tér 4. XX. emelet, 1089. ·Orv Hetil · Pubmed #30501523.

ABSTRACT: With regard to cardiovascular health, the role of negative emotions, particularly that of depression, anxiety, vital exhaustion and hostility has been studied the most widely. Mainly the somatic symptoms of depression and, out of anxiety disorders, generalised anxiety and panic disorder have been linked to cardiovascular diseases. Based on an analysis of interviews of patients having suffered myocardial infarction, it was found that vital exhaustion (a combination of loss of energy, increased irritability, and general demoralization) is a precursor of infarction. Vital exhaustion has proven to contribute to the development of coronary heart diseases, being one of the most important risk factors in both sexes. With regard to hostility, studies show that anger suppression and destructive anger expression (blaming others) are closely linked to a higher incidence of coronary heart diseases. Evidence shows that the relationship between negative emotions and cardiovascular diseases is one of a two-way causality, that is, the presence of a cardiovascular disease may also enhance negative emotions, low heart rate variability playing a crucial role in both diseases. This study also presents interview questions suggested by the European Guidelines (2016) to estimate negative emotions related to coronary heart diseases. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(48): 2005-2010.

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