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Coronary Artery Disease: HELP
Articles from Iran
Based on 410 articles published since 2009
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These are the 410 published articles about Coronary Artery Disease that originated from Iran during 2009-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17
1 Editorial Is there a relationship between non-obstructive coronary artery disease or cardiac syndrome X and migraine? An integrated multi-disciplinary approach. 2016

Nemati, Reza / Nabipour, Iraj / Akbarzadeh, Mehdi / Assadi, Majid. ·Department of Neurology, Bushehr University Medical Hospital, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran. assadipoya@yahoo.com. ·Hell J Nucl Med · Pubmed #27999825.

ABSTRACT: Non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) which is mostly called cardiac syndrome X (CSX) is noted in about 30% of men and 40%-60% of women and seems to be incremental. In addition, frequent myocardial perfusion defects with various levels of severity are often seen in this disease. Recently, we noticed that the frequency of migraine in patients with CSX was noticeably higher than in healthy people and in CAD patients. This may support the evolving story that CSX is related to migraine and to chest pain and that CSX and migraine may have a similar pathophysiology. Hence, myocardial perfusion imaging could be used as a complement any diagnostic test to support the relation between CSX and migraine.

2 Review Paracrine Mechanisms Involved in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation into Cardiomyocytes. 2019

Farzaneh, Maryam / Rahimi, Fatemeh / Alishahi, Masoumeh / Khoshnam, Seyed E. ·Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran. · Department of Biology, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. · Physiology Research Center, Department of Physiology, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. ·Curr Stem Cell Res Ther · Pubmed #30152289.

ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the world-wide healthcare problem that involves the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes myocardial infarction and coronary artery diseases (CAD). Dysfunctional myocardial cells are leading causes of low cardiac output or ventricular dysfunction after cardiac arrest and may contribute to the progression of CVD which could not generate new cardiomyocytes in human adult heart. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which are present in adult marrow can self-renew and have the capacity of differentiation into multiple types of cells including cardiomyocytes. Recent biochemical analyses greatly revealed that several regulators of MSCs, such as HGF, PDGF, Wnt, and Notch-1 signaling pathways have been shown to be involved in the proliferation and differentiation into cardiomyocytes. Preclinical studies are paving the way for further applications of MSCs in the repair of myocardial infarction. In this study, we discuss and summarize the paracrine mechanisms involved in MSCs differentiation into cardiomyocytes.

3 Review N1-methylnicotinamide (MNAM) as a guardian of cardiovascular system. 2018

Nejabati, Hamid Reza / Mihanfar, Aynaz / Pezeshkian, Masoud / Fattahi, Amir / Latifi, Zeinab / Safaie, Naser / Valiloo, Mohammad / Jodati, Ahmad Reza / Nouri, Mohammad. ·Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. · Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. · Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. ·J Cell Physiol · Pubmed #29741779.

ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is identified as the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, which could initiate the formation of a blood clot in which its growth to coronary artery can lead to a heart attack. N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is an enzyme that converts the NAM (nicotinamide) to its methylated form, N1-methylnicotinamide (MNAM). Higher levels of MNAM have been reported in cases with coronary artery disease (CAD). Further, MNAM increases endothelial prostacyclin (PGI2) and nitric oxide (NO) and thereby causes vasorelaxation. The vasoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic roles of MNAM have been well documented; however, the exact underlying mechanisms remain to be clarified. Due to potential role of MNAM in the formation of lipid droplets (LDs), it might exert its function in coordination with lipids, and their targets. In this study, we summarized the roles of MNAM in cardiovascular system and highlighted its possible mode of actions.

4 Review Appropriateness of statin prescription in the elderly. 2018

Ruscica, M / Macchi, C / Pavanello, C / Corsini, A / Sahebkar, A / Sirtori, C R. ·Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: massimiliano.ruscica@unimi.it. · Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. · Centro E. Grossi Paoletti, Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. · Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; Multimedica IRCCS, Milan, Italy. · Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. · Dyslipidemia Center, A.S.S.T. Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Milan, Italy. ·Eur J Intern Med · Pubmed #29310996.

ABSTRACT: Statins, the most widely used drugs in the Western world, have become a pivotal component in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular diseases. Although benefits have been well documented in younger-than-75-year-old individuals, the value of statins in people aged >75years and over is controversial. The CTT meta-analysis calculated an absolute risk reduction of 0.6%/year per 38.7mg/dl reduction in LDL-C levels in patients aged >75years, that would translate into a number needed to treat of 167. However, the absolute effect of a 38.7mg/dl cholesterol lowering on the rate of annual ischemic heart disease mortality is 10-fold larger in older vs younger patients. In order to advise physician prescription, three major Guidelines have been published over the last few years, i.e. the AHA/ACC and the NLA in the US, and the ESC/EAS in Europe. Moreover, statin prescription in the elderly should also consider the cardiovascular outcomes of elderly patients reported in classical statin preventive trials which give important clues on adherence and persistence of use, as well as on drug safety. The present review discusses benefits of intensive vs moderate statin therapy, justifications for the use of aggressive lipid management in the very old and the use of statins in frail elderlies. The final decision on the therapeutic strategy with statins in elderlies at higher risk to develop cardiovascular events should be always based on a careful analysis of the patient's general health and on the presence of metabolic abnormalities or drug interactions potentially leading to risk.

5 Review Important signals regulating coronary artery angiogenesis. 2018

Shoeibi, Sara / Mozdziak, Paul / Mohammadi, Shabnam. ·Cellular and Molecular research Center, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Electronic address: ShoeibiS901@gmail.com. · Graduate Physiology Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. · Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran. ·Microvasc Res · Pubmed #29247718.

ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is a complex process of budding, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing microvessels, via migration, proliferation and survival. Vascular angiogenesis factors include different classes of molecules that have a fundamental role in blood vessel formation. Numerous inducers of angiogenesis, such as the members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), angiopoietin (Ang), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), have an important role in angiogenesis. However, VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) expression appear to be important in intraplaque angiogenesis. Interaction and combined effects between growth factors is essential in endothelial cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and endothelial cell-cell communication that ultimately lead to the microvessel formation. Since VEGF has a key role during angiogenesis; it may be considered as a good therapeutic target in the clinic. The essential function of several angiogenic factors involved in coronary angiogenesis and intraplaque angiogenesis in atherosclerosis are carefully considered along with the use of angiogenic factors in clinical practice.

6 Review The diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating microRNAs in coronary artery disease: A novel approach to disease diagnosis of stable CAD and acute coronary syndrome. 2018

Parizadeh, Seyed Mostafa / Ferns, Gordon A / Ghandehari, Maryam / Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi / Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid / Parizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza / Avan, Amir. ·Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. · Department of Medical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. · Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Division of Medical Education, Falmer, Brighton, Sussex, UK. · Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. ·J Cell Physiol · Pubmed #29215707.

ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common manifestation of CVD and the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with a substantial morbidity and mortality in most populations globally. There are several biomarkers for diagnosis of MI. Troponin is routinely used as a biomarker in patients with chest pain, but it lacks sensitivity in the first hours of onset of symptoms, and so there is still a clinical need for new biomarkers for the diagnosis of CAD events. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation and their expression is altered during CAD events. Whilst studies have shown that several miRNAs are not superior to troponin in the diagnosis of a MI, they may be useful in the early diagnosis and prognosis of patients with CAD, however further studies are required. In this review we have summarized the recent studies investigating circulating miRNAs as novel biomarkers for the early detection of MI, CVD risk stratification and in the assessment of the prognosis of patients with ACS.

7 Review Association of Helicobacter Pylori with Presence of Myocardial Infarction in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 2017

Rahmani, Yousef / Mohammadi, Sareh / Babanejad, Mehran / Rai, Alireza / Zalei, Bahar / Shahmohammadi, Afshar. ·Cardiovascular Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. · Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Ali and Taleghani Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Kermanshah, Iran. ·Ethiop J Health Sci · Pubmed #29217946.

ABSTRACT: Background: Over the past decade, cardiovascular diseases have been recognized as the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most prevalent types of cardiovascular diseases that is caused by the closure of coronary arteries and ischemic heart muscle. Numerous studies have analyzed the role of H. pylori as a possible risk factor for coronary artery diseases, in most of which the role of infection in coronary artery disease is not statistically significant. Methods: These contradictory findings made us conduct a systematic review to analyze all relevant studies in Iran through a meta-analysis and report a comprehensive and integrated result. All published studies from September 2000 until September 2016 were considered. Using reliable Latin databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, Google search, Scopus, Science Direct and Persian databases like SID, Irandoc, Iran Mede and Magiran. After quality control, these studies were entered into a meta-analysis by using the random effects model. After evaluating the studies, 11 papers were finally selected and assessed. Results: A total of 2517 participants had been evaluated in these studies, including 1253 cases and 1264 controls. Based on the results of meta-analysis and using random effects model, an overall estimate of Conclusions: The results of this review study show that H. pylori are associated with the incidence of MI so that the odds ratio of MI in the patients with helicobacter pylori is twice greater than that of the people without H. pylori. Future studies are recommended to evaluate the mechanisms associated with relation of H. pylori with MI as well as its association with time.

8 Review Frailty and Mortality Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 2017

Tse, Gary / Gong, Mengqi / Nunez, Julia / Sanchis, Juan / Li, Guangping / Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Sadeq / Wong, Wing Tak / Wong, Sunny Hei / Wu, William K K / Bazoukis, George / Yan, Gan-Xin / Lampropoulos, Konstantinos / Baranchuk, Adrian M / Tse, Lap Ah / Xia, Yunlong / Liu, Tong / Woo, Jean / Anonymous1210925. ·Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, P.R. China; Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, P.R. China. · Tianjin Key Laboratory of Ionic-Molecular Function of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Cardiology, Tianjin Institute of Cardiology, Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China. · Cardiology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario, INCLIVA, Departamento de Medicina, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; CIBER in Cardiovascular Diseases (CIBERCV), Madrid, Spain. · Cardiovascular Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. · School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. · Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, P.R. China; Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. · Second Department of Cardiology, Laboratory of Cardiac Electrophysiology, "Evangelismos" General Hospital of Athens, Athens, Greece. · Lankenau Institute for Medical Research and Lankenau Medical Center, Wynnewood, Pennsylvania; Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China. · Department of Medicine, Kingston General Hospital, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. · Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. · Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, P.R. China. · Tianjin Key Laboratory of Ionic-Molecular Function of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Cardiology, Tianjin Institute of Cardiology, Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: liutongdoc@126.com. · Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, P.R. China. ·J Am Med Dir Assoc · Pubmed #29079033.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Frailty has been identified as a risk factor for mortality. However, whether frailty increases mortality risk in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the frailty measures and mortality outcomes in this setting. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched until July 23, 2017 for studies evaluating the association between frailty measures and mortality in individuals who have undergone PCI. RESULTS: A total of 141 entries were retrieved from our search strategy. A total of 8 studies involving 2332 patients were included in the final meta-analysis (mean age: 69 years; 68% male, follow-up duration was 30 ± 28 months). Frailty was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality after PCI, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.97 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-5.66, P = .001]. This was substantial heterogeneity present (I CONCLUSIONS: Frailty leads to significantly higher mortality rates in patients who have undergone PCI. Both the Fried score and Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale are powerful predictors of mortality. These findings may support the notion that an alternative to invasive strategy should be considered in frail patients who are indicated for revascularization.

9 Review Cytokines and MicroRNA in Coronary Artery Disease. 2017

Mirzaei, Hamed / Ferns, Gordon A / Avan, Amir / Mobarhan, Majid G. ·School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. · Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Sussex, United Kingdom. · School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Cancer Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address: avana@mums.ac.ir. · School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address: ghayourm@mums.ac.ir. ·Adv Clin Chem · Pubmed #28939213.

ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health problem globally. The high incidence and case fatality of CVD are, to a large extent, a consequence of its late diagnosis and lack of highly sensitive and specific markers. Only a very small number of biomarkers, such as troponin, detect late disease. There is some evidence of an association and dysregulation between specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of CVD. These molecules are involved in inflammatory and immune mechanisms associated with atherogenesis. Several molecular/cellular pathways that include STAT, MAPK, and SMAD are modulated by cytokines. Against this background, microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs with important roles in pathological events, leading to atherosclerotic CVD. It has been shown that the latter could affect cytokine production and contribute to progression of atherosclerotic CVD. Moreover, modulation of miRNAs appears to inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis, attenuate infarct size, and reduce cardiac dysfunction. This review highlights several recent preclinical and clinical studies on the role of cytokines in CVD, novel miRNA-based therapeutic approaches for therapeutic intervention, and potential circulating cytokines that have promise as biomarkers in CVD.

10 Review Multiscale technologies for treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy. 2017

Mahmoudi, Morteza / Yu, Mikyung / Serpooshan, Vahid / Wu, Joseph C / Langer, Robert / Lee, Richard T / Karp, Jeffrey M / Farokhzad, Omid C. ·Center for Nanomedicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. · Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. · Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 13169-43551, Iran. · Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. · Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. · Institute of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. · The David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. · Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. · Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. · Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. · Division of Engineering in Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. · Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ·Nat Nanotechnol · Pubmed #28875984.

ABSTRACT: The adult mammalian heart possesses only limited capacity for innate regeneration and the response to severe injury is dominated by the formation of scar tissue. Current therapy to replace damaged cardiac tissue is limited to cardiac transplantation and thus many patients suffer progressive decay in the heart's pumping capacity to the point of heart failure. Nanostructured systems have the potential to revolutionize both preventive and therapeutic approaches for treating cardiovascular disease. Here, we outline recent advancements in nanotechnology that could be exploited to overcome the major obstacles in the prevention of and therapy for heart disease. We also discuss emerging trends in nanotechnology affecting the cardiovascular field that may offer new hope for patients suffering massive heart attacks.

11 Review Common Variants of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Coronary Artery Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 2017

Alizadeh, Shahab / Djafarian, Kurosh / Alizadeh, Hamzeh / Mohseni, Reza / Shab-Bidar, Sakineh. ·Students' Scientific Research Center (SSRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran. ·J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics · Pubmed #28351026.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: ApaI, FokI, TaqI, and BsmI polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been reported to be associated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), although the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to explore whether these polymorphisms play a role in the genetic susceptibility to CAD. METHODS: A comprehensive search of Medline and Embase databases was conducted for studies evaluating the association between the VDR polymorphisms and CAD risk. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess the strength of association in the dominant model, recessive model, allelic model, and genotypes contrast. RESULTS: Nine studies involving a total of 5,259 cases and 1,981 controls were finally included in this meta-analysis. Overall, no significant associations were found between ApaI, FokI, TaqI, and BsmI polymorphisms and the risk of CAD in any of the genetic models (all p ˃ 0.05). Moreover, a subgroup analysis by ethnicity did not reveal a significant relationship between any of the examined polymorphisms and CAD risk in Caucasians and East-Asians for any model (all p ˃ 0.05). CONCLUSION: Current evidence suggests that the ApaI, FokI, TaqI, and BsmI polymorphisms of the VDR gene might not be associated with genetic susceptibility to CAD. Further well-designed studies with large sample sizes are needed to confirm our results.

12 Review Artifacts in Quantitative analysis of myocardial perfusion SPECT, using Cedars-Sinai QPS Software. 2017

Malek, Hadi / Yaghoobi, Nahid / Hedayati, Raheleh. ·Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical & Research Center, Vali-Asr Ave.Nyayesh Blvd., 1996911151, Tehran, Iran. · Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical & Research Center, Vali-Asr Ave.Nyayesh Blvd., 1996911151, Tehran, Iran. nahidyaghoobi46@gmail.com. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rasool-e Akram Hospital Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. ·J Nucl Cardiol · Pubmed #27834038.

ABSTRACT: Quantitative analysis of myocardial perfusion Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images is increasingly applied in modern nuclear cardiology practice, assisting in the interpretation of myocardial perfusion images (MPI). There are different extensively validated state-of-the-art software packages, including QPS (cedars-Sinai), Corridor 4DM (University of Michigan) and Emory cardiac toolbox (Emory university), providing highly accurate and reproducible data. However, these software packages may suffer from potential artifacts related to patient or technical factors. By recognizing the source of such artifacts, the interpreting physician can avoid misinterpretation of MPI study. In this review, we discuss some of technical pitfalls that may occur in Quantitative Perfusion SPECT software (QPS, cedars-Sinai Medical center).

13 Review The 9p21 Locus and its Potential Role in Atherosclerosis Susceptibility; Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. 2016

Tajbakhsh, Amir / Khorrami, Mohammad Sadegh / Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi / Aghasizade, Malihe / Pasdar, Alireza / Maftouh, Mina / Tabatabai, Ehsan / Parizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza / Fazeli, Mostafa / Ferns, Gordon A / Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid / Avan, Amir. ·Biochemistry of Nutrition Research Center; School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad. · Molecular Medicine Group, Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran. ·Curr Pharm Des · Pubmed #27356775.

ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global mortality. Although extensive efforts have been made to identify valid biomarkers for CVD risk, relatively few are of proven clinical utility. It is recognized that genetic factors play a major role in determining the susceptibility to CVD. Recent genome-wide-association-studies have demonstrated common genetic variants in a region on chromosome 9p21 associated with an increased risk of CVD. Several genetic-polymorphisms have been identified in this region that are highly associated with CVD, and these are clustered around the gene loci for CDKN2B (coding for p15ink4b), CDKN2A (coding for p16ink4a and p14ARF) and the 3' end of CDKN2BAS, which has been termed antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL). Targeted deletion of the 9p21 locus reduces the cardiac expression of CDKN2A/B and is the most frequent mechanism for methylthioadenosine phosphorylase inactivation, leading to a less stable plaque phenotype in the artery. Further investigations will be essential to explore the clinical utility of emerging-markers in larger and multicenter setting in order to establish their values for risk stratification or prediction a chance of future CVD events. The aim of the current review was to provide an overview of the possible molecular mechanisms by which the chromosome 9p21 locus may confer CVD risk, and the consequential clinical implications with particular emphasis on preclinical/clinical trials on genetic changes of this locus and CVD risk.

14 Review Nanotechnology in diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease. 2016

Karimi, Mahdi / Zare, Hossein / Bakhshian Nik, Amirala / Yazdani, Narges / Hamrang, Mohammad / Mohamed, Elmira / Sahandi Zangabad, Parham / Moosavi Basri, Seyed Masoud / Bakhtiari, Leila / Hamblin, Michael R. ·Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Biomaterials Group, Materials Science & Engineering Department, Iran University of Science & Technology, P.O. Box 1684613114 Tehran, Iran. · Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences & Technologies, University of Tehran 1439957131 Tehran, Iran. · Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, 14588 Tehran, Iran. · School of Computer Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Civil & Environmental Engineering Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. · Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. · Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. · Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences & Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ·Nanomedicine (Lond) · Pubmed #26906471.

ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology could provide a new complementary approach to treat coronary artery disease (CAD) which is now one of the biggest killers in the Western world. The course of events, which leads to atherosclerosis and CAD, involves many biological factors and cellular disease processes which may be mitigated by therapeutic methods enhanced by nanotechnology. Nanoparticles can provide a variety of delivery systems for cargoes such as drugs and genes that can address many problems within the arteries. In order to improve the performance of current stents, nanotechnology provides different nanomaterial coatings, in addition to controlled-release nanocarriers, to prevent in-stent restenosis. Nanotechnology can increase the efficiency of drugs, improve local and systematic delivery to atherosclerotic plaques and reduce the inflammatory or angiogenic response after intravascular intervention. Nanocarriers have potential for delivery of imaging and diagnostic agents to precisely targeted destinations. This review paper will cover the current applications and future outlook of nanotechnology, as well as the main diagnostic methods, in the treatment of CAD.

15 Review Impact of statin therapy on coronary plaque composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of virtual histology intravascular ultrasound studies. 2015

Banach, Maciej / Serban, Corina / Sahebkar, Amirhossein / Mikhailidis, Dimitri P / Ursoniu, Sorin / Ray, Kausik K / Rysz, Jacek / Toth, Peter P / Muntner, Paul / Mosteoru, Svetlana / García-García, Hector M / Hovingh, G Kees / Kastelein, John J P / Serruys, Patrick W / Anonymous1451006. ·Department of Hypertension, Chair of Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 113, 90-549, Lodz, Poland. maciejbanach@aol.co.uk. · Department of Functional Sciences, Discipline of Pathophysiology, Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania. dr.corinaserban@yahoo.com. · Biotechnology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. amir_saheb2000@yahoo.com. · Metabolic Research Centre, Royal Perth Hospital, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia. amir_saheb2000@yahoo.com. · Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Free Campus, University College London Medical School, University College London, London, UK. mikhailidis@aol.com. · Department of Functional Sciences, Discipline of Public Health, Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania. sursoniu@yahoo.com. · School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK. koshray@gmail.com. · Chair of Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland. jacek.rysz@umed.lodz.pl. · Preventive Cardiology, CGH Medical Center, Sterling, IL, USA. Peter.Toth@cghmc.com. · The Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, Baltimore, MD, USA. Peter.Toth@cghmc.com. · Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. pmuntner@uab.edu. · Institute for Cardiovascular Medicine Timisoara, Cardiology Department, Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania. tanaliliana@yahoo.co.uk. · Department of Interventional Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. hgarcia@cardialysis.nl. · Cardialysis BV, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. hgarcia@cardialysis.nl. · Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. g.k.hovingh@amc.uva.nl. · Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. j.j.kastelein@amc.uva.nl. · Department of Interventional Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. patrick.w.j.c.serruys@gmail.com. · Imperial College, London, UK. patrick.w.j.c.serruys@gmail.com. ·BMC Med · Pubmed #26385210.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) imaging is an innovative tool for the morphological evaluation of coronary atherosclerosis. Evidence for the effects of statin therapy on VH-IVUS parameters have been inconclusive. Consequently, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the impact of statin therapy on plaque volume and its composition using VH-IVUS. METHODS: The search included PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Embase (through 30 November 2014) to identify prospective studies investigating the effects of statin therapy on plaque volume and its composition using VH-IVUS. RESULTS: We identified nine studies with 16 statin treatment arms and 830 participants. There was a significant effect of statin therapy in reducing plaque volume (standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.137, 95 % confidence interval (CI): -0.255, -0.019; P = 0.023), external elastic membrane volume (SMD: -0.097, 95 % CI: -0.183, -0.011; P = 0.027) but not lumen volume (SMD: -0.025, 95 % CI: -0.110, +0.061; P = 0.574). There was a significant reduction in fibrous plaque volume (SMD: -0.129, 95 % CI: -0.255, -0.003; P = 0.045) and an increase of dense calcium volume (SMD: +0.229, 95 % CI: +0.008, +0.450; P = 0.043), while changes in fibro-fatty (SMD: -0.247, 95 % CI: -0.592, +0.098; P = 0.16) and necrotic core (SMD: +0.011, 95 % CI: -0.144, +0.165; P = 0.892) tissue volumes were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicates a significant effect of statin therapy on plaque and external elastic membrane volumes and fibrous and dense calcium volumes. There was no effect on lumen volume, fibro-fatty and necrotic tissue volumes.

16 Review Effect of statin therapy on plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. 2015

Sahebkar, A / Simental-Mendía, L E / Guerrero-Romero, F / Golledge, J / Watts, G F. ·Biotechnology Research Centre, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. · Metabolic Research Centre, Royal Perth Hospital, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia. · Biomedical Research Unit, Mexican Social Security Institute, Durango, Mexico. · Vascular Biology Unit, Queensland Research Centre for Peripheral Vascular Disease, College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University Townsville, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. · Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, The Townsville Hospital, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. · Lipid Disorders Clinic, Cardiovascular Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. ·Diabetes Obes Metab · Pubmed #26183252.

ABSTRACT: AIMS: To evaluate the magnitude of the effect of statin therapy on plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) levels through a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. METHODS: A random-effects model (using DerSimonian-Laird method) and the generic inverse variance method were used for quantitative data synthesis. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I(2) index. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using the one-study remove approach. Random-effects meta-regression was performed using an unrestricted maximum likelihood method to evaluate the association between statin-induced elevation of plasma PCSK9 concentrations with duration of treatment and magnitude of LDL cholesterol reduction. RESULTS: A total of 15 clinical trials examining the effects of statin therapy on plasma PCSK9 levels were included. Meta-analysis of data from single-arm statin treatment arms [weighted mean difference (WMD) 40.72 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) 34.79, 46.65; p < 0.001] and randomized placebo-controlled trials (WMD 22.98 ng/ml, 95% CI 17.95, 28.01; p < 0.001) showed a significant increase in plasma PCSK9 concentrations after statin therapy, irrespective of the type of statin administered in either of the analyses (single-arm or randomized placebo-controlled trial). There was no significant elevation of plasma PCSK9 levels with statin/ezetimibe combination therapy compared with statin monotherapy (WMD 23.14 ng/ml, 95% CI -1.97, 48.25; p = 0.071); however, removal of one study in the meta-analysis yielded a significant result in the sensitivity analysis (WMD 31.41 ng/ml, 95% CI 7.86, 54.97; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that statin therapy causes a significant increase in plasma PCSK9 concentrations.

17 Review Genes associated with low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. 2014

Ahmadzadeh, Alireza / Azizi, Fereidoun. ·Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. ·Arch Iran Med · Pubmed #24916532.

ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is the main cause of death in the world through causing ischemic heart disease (IHD). Altered serum lipid level is the most important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Many studies reveal a strong inverse association between low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and increased risk of IHD. On the other hand, plasma levels of HDL-C has a strong hereditary basis. This review focuses on recent data about genetic defects that reduce the level of HDL-C. In order to investigate possible genes linked to low HDL-C disorder, we reviewed previous studies; we searched current medical literature from September 1990 through January 2013 for the genetics causes of low HDL-C levels. Genetic defects in ATP binding cassette protein (ABCA1), apolipoprotein (APO) A1, lecithin cholesteryl acyl transferase, Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and angiopoietin-like 3 proteins (ANGPTL3) associated with low HDL-C. Other potentially important candidates involved in low HDL-C syndromes are metabolic disorders including sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 and glucocerebrosidase. Also Molecular variations in many genes such as ABCAI and APOAI, TRIB1 and Apo E, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX), Hepatic lipase (HL), lecithin cholesteryl acyl transferase and some linkage analysis have been associated with reduced HDL-Status. Low HDL-C syndrome has a strong genetic basis and is correlated with an increased risk of CAD.

18 Review Is oxytocin a therapeutic factor for ischemic heart disease? 2013

Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad / Mirzabeglo, Parasto. ·Cancer Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. aalizadeh@razi.tums.ac.ir ·Peptides · Pubmed #23659864.

ABSTRACT: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is among the most important and top ranked causes of death in the world, and its preventive and interventional mechanisms are actively being investigated. Preconditioning may still be beneficial in some situations such as IHD. Development of cardioprotective agents to improve myocardial function, to decrease the incidence of arrhythmias, to delay the onset of necrosis, and to limit the total extent of infarction during IHD is of great clinical importance. In order to reduce morbidity, a new treatment modality must be developed, and oxytocin may indeed be one of the candidates. There is increasing experimental evidence indicating that oxytocin may have cardioprotective effects either by decreasing the extent of reperfusion injury or by pharmacologic preconditioning activity. This review shows that in the presence of oxytocin, the cardioprotective effects may be increased to some extent. The presented board of evidence focuses on the valuable effects of oxytocin on myocardial function and candidates it for future clinical studies in the realm of ischemic heart diseases.

19 Review Carotid endarterectomy for carotid stenosis in patients selected for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. 2009

Mortaz Hejri, Sara / Mostafazadeh Davani, Babak / Sahraian, Mohamad Ali. ·Student's Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Pursina Ave, Keshavarz Blvd, Tehran, Iran. ·Cochrane Database Syst Rev · Pubmed #19821353.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Carotid stenosis and coronary artery disease can occur simultaneously. In patients with coronary artery disease who are scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, but who also have carotid artery stenosis, there is controversy about the role of carotid surgery. It is not known whether any benefit from prophylactic carotid endarterectomy (by avoiding stroke and neurological dysfunction complicating CABG surgery) outweighs the risks. OBJECTIVES: To assess, in patients undergoing CABG surgery with a carotid stenosis more than 50%, the effects of carotid endarterectomy plus best medical therapy compared with best medical therapy alone on the overall risk of major clinical outcomes including death, stroke, and myocardial infarction. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the trials registers of the Cochrane Stroke Group (searched October 2008) and the Cochrane Heart Group (searched November 2008). In addition, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2008), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2008), EMBASE (1980 to November 2008), reference lists of identified trials, and ongoing trials and research registers (last searched November 2008). SELECTION CRITERIA: We planned to include all truly randomised controlled trials comparing carotid endarterectomy plus best medical therapy with best medical therapy alone in patients selected for CABG surgery. The main outcome was perioperative death. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned for two review authors to independently assess the methodological quality of included studies, and extract data. MAIN RESULTS: We did not find any eligible studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence from randomised trials by which to assess the benefits and risks of prophylactic carotid surgery before CABG surgery. Randomised controlled trials are required to reliably document the risks and benefits of such procedures.

20 Review Review of the linogram and sinogram: an easy way to detect off-peak artifacts in myocardial perfusion SPECT. 2009

Mommennezhad, Mehdi / Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul / Sadeghi, Ramin / Kakhki, Vahid Reza Dabbagh. ·Department of Nuclear Medicine, Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. ·J Nucl Med Technol · Pubmed #19692451.

ABSTRACT: The correct energy window setting and a stable photopeak position are crucial for good data acquisition. We report a patient whose myocardial perfusion SPECT images showed mildly irregular radiotracer uptake when the patient was prone but not when the patient was supine. Review of the sinogram showed clear interruptions in the sinusoidal shape of the raw data when the patient was prone. Detailed technical evaluation revealed that the artifact was caused by an unstable photopeak position due to malfunction of a power supply board of the gamma-camera. This case emphasizes the importance of reviewing the sinogram display and raw data to assess the integrity of data acquisition and to reveal any potential technical problems such as a spontaneous shift of the photopeak.

21 Clinical Trial Serum concentrations of MCP-1 and IL-6 in combination predict the presence of coronary artery disease and mortality in subjects undergoing coronary angiography. 2017

Tajfard, Mohammad / Latiff, Latiffah A / Rahimi, Hamid Reza / Moohebati, Mohsen / Hasanzadeh, Mehdi / Emrani, Ahmad Sarreshtehdar / Esmaeily, Habibollah / Taghipour, Ali / Mirhafez, Sayed Reza / Ferns, Gordon A / Mardan-Nik, Maryam / Mohammadzadeh, Elham / Avan, Amir / Hanachi, Parichehr / Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid. ·Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. · Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Seri Kembangan, Malaysia. · Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Seri Kembangan, Malaysia. latiffah.latiff@gmail.com. · Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. · Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. · Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, School of Health, Management & Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. · Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran. · Division of Medical Education, Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Brighton, Sussex, BN1 9PH, UK. · Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. · Department of Biology, Biochemistry Unit, Alzahra University, Tehran, IR, Iran. · Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. ghayourm@mums.ac.ir. ·Mol Cell Biochem · Pubmed #28534120.

ABSTRACT: Cytokines play a key role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of current study was to investigate the relationship between the serum concentrations of 12 cytokines with mortality and extent of CAD in individuals undergoing angiography and healthy controls. 342 CAD patients were recruited and divided into 2 groups: those with ≥50% occlusion in at least one coronary artery [Angiography (+)] or <50% obstruction in coronary arteries [Angiography (-)]. Also 120 healthy subjects were enrolled as control group. Lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, body mass index, and blood pressure were evaluated in all the subjects. An Evidence Investigator

22 Clinical Trial The Impacts of Cardiac Rehabilitation Program on Exercise Capacity, Quality of Life, and Functional Status of Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction. 2015

Sadeghi, Masoumeh / Garakyaraghi, Mohammad / Taghavi, Mahboobeh / Khosravi, Mohsen / Sarrafzadegan, Nizal / Roohafza, Hamidreza. ·Cardiac Rehabilitation Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. · Heart Failure Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. · Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. · Psychosomatic Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. ·Rehabil Nurs · Pubmed #24842623.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To determine the impacts of cardiac rehabilitation on exercise capacity, quality of life (QOL), and functional status in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). DESIGN: Self-controlled clinical trial. METHODS: CAD patients with mild to moderate left ventricular dysfunction participated in an exercise-based rehabilitation program for eight consecutive weeks. Subjects underwent an exercise test before and 8 weeks after rehabilitation. QOL was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. Functional status was assessed in terms of sleep time, walking, cycling, exercise, and working duration. FINDINGS: Seventy patients (age=57.5±10.2 years, 77.1% male) were studied. After rehabilitation, peak exercise capacity increased from 8.00±2.56 to 10.08±3.00 METs (p<.001) and exercise duration increased from 14.17±5.27 to 17.21±5.85 minutes (p<.001). Patients' QOL improved in physical and psychological dimensions (p<.05). Cycling, walking, and exercising status significantly increased after the study (p<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac rehabilitation improves exercise capacity, QOL, and functional status of CAD patients with mild to moderate left ventricular dysfunction. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Cardiac rehabilitation practitioners should encourage patients to attend to and be compliant in the rehabilitation programs.

23 Clinical Trial Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with coronary artery disease: is Helicobacter pylori a risk factor? 2014

Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid / Hejazi, Seyyed Fakhroldin / Damanpak, Vahid / Vahedian, Mostafa / Sattari, Mohammadamin / Seyyedmajidi, Mohammadreza. ·Clinical Research Development Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran. · Golestan Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (GRCGH), Golestan University of Medical Sciences (GOUMS), 10th Azar, 5 Azar Boulevard, Gorgan, Golestan Province, Iran. ·ScientificWorldJournal · Pubmed #24574896.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is the most common infection in the world and coronary artery disease (CAD) is probably associated with it. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the association between HP infection and CAD in suspected patients referred for coronary angiography. The coronary angiography was performed using Judkins method and patients were assigned to participate in CAD positive (>50% luminal diameter stenosis) and negative groups. The serum HP IgG antibody was checked. RESULTS: Positive and negative CAD groups consisted of 62 and 58 patients, respectively. HP was more prevalent among CAD+ patients, and with increasing the number of coronary arteries with stenosis, the HP seropositivity increased so that 76.3% of patients with multiple vessel diseases (MVD) and 70% of patients with single vessel diseases (SVD) were HP seropositive versus 50% in control group (P = 0.006). Positive CAD was significantly associated with HDL level (P = 0.01) and ESR level (P = 0.006). Also, CAD+ patients had higher CRP levels than controls and it was statistically different between SVD group and controls (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: HP infection is more prevalent in CAD positive patients and, in case of proving causal relationship, it can be considered as a reversible risk factor for CAD.

24 Clinical Trial Impact of oral 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (calcitriol) replacement therapy on coronary artery risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients. 2013

Bonakdaran, Shokoufeh / Nejad, Afsoon F / Abdol-Reza, Varasteh / Hatefi, Asieh / Shakeri, Mohammad. ·Endocrine Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Postal Code: 91766, Iran. bonakdaransh@mums.ac.ir. ·Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets · Pubmed #24180458.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Observational data suggest that low 25-hyroxyvitamin D is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors include diabetes, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, hypertension, microalbuminuria and inflammation. We examined the differences between risk factors of CVD before and after treatment with calcitriol in type 2 diabetic patients with vitamin D deficiency. METHODS: This study was a clinical trial consisting of 119 type 2 diabetic patients. Forty three patients had vitamin D insufficiency (25 OH D less than 30 ng/dl) who underwent calcitriol treatment with 0.5 microgram per day for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), lipid profile, high sensitive C-reactive protein (HsCRP), Homocysteine and albumin to creatinine ratio were measured, before and after the treatment period. Then the two sets of results were compared with each other. RESULTS: Following treatment with calcitriol HbA1C, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein(LDL), high density lipoprotein(HDL) and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.04, 0.001 and 0.04 respectively) but the changes in other parameters were not significant. CONCLUSION: Replacement of vitamin D may have a beneficial effect on some of the risk factors of CVD in diabetic patients.

25 Clinical Trial Retinal vessel abnormalities predict coronary artery diseases. 2013

Tabatabaee, A / Asharin, M R / Dehghan, M H / Pourbehi, M R / Nasiri-Ahmadabadi, M / Assadi, M. ·Department of Cardiology, Shariati Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. ·Perfusion · Pubmed #23322671.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There are limited data supporting an association between retinal microvascular changes and cardiovascular mortality, but there is no convincing evidence of an independent or direct association with atherosclerosis in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. The present study examines the relationship between retinal microvascular changes and angiographic findings. METHODS: Patients who were candidates for angiography were, at first, referred to the ophthalmology department for the determination of the severity of retinal atherosclerosis based on the Scheie classification. Angiography was carried out afterwards. Each patient completed a questionnaire, also providing information on risk factors. For each patient, the Gensini score was calculated using angiography findings. RESULTS: A total of 168 patients (99 males and 69 females) with a mean age of 55.3±11.9 years were included in this study. The results show a significant association between CAD severity and retinal artery atherosclerosis (r = 0.47, p = 0.0001). In multiple regression analyses with CAD severity (using Gensini scoring) as a dependent variable, we observed a significant association between atherosclerosis scores based on Scheie criteria (β=0.31, p<0.0001), diabetes mellitus (DM) (β=0.29, p<0.0001), hypertension (β=0.23, p<0.0001), smoking (β=0.20, p<0.0001), and age (β=0.15, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that fundoscopic changes might be a predictor of CADs. However, more well-designed studies to verify these results are still needed.

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