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Coronary Artery Disease: HELP
Articles from NIH Bethesda
Based on 260 articles published since 2010
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These are the 260 published articles about Coronary Artery Disease that originated from NIH Bethesda during 2010-2020.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11
1 Guideline ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Chest Pain-Possible Acute Coronary Syndrome. 2020

Anonymous4761190 / Batlle, Juan C / Kirsch, Jacobo / Bolen, Michael A / Bandettini, W Patricia / Brown, Richard K J / Francois, Christopher J / Galizia, Mauricio S / Hanneman, Kate / Inacio, Joao R / Johnson, Thomas V / Khosa, Faisal / Krishnamurthy, Rajesh / Rajiah, Prabhakar / Singh, Satinder P / Tomaszewski, Christian A / Villines, Todd C / Wann, Samuel / Young, Phillip M / Zimmerman, Stefan L / Abbara, Suhny. ·Miami Cardiac and Vascular Institute and Baptist Health of South Florida, Miami, Florida. Electronic address: juan.batlle@alumni.duke.edu. · Panel Chair, Cleveland Clinic Florida, Weston, Florida. · Panel Vice-Chair, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. · National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. · University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan. · University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. · The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio. · Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. · Sanger Heart and Vascular Institute, Charlotte, North Carolina; Cardiology Expert. · Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. · Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio. · UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. · University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama. · UC San Diego Health, San Diego, California; American College of Emergency Physicians. · University of Virginia Health Center, Charlottesville, Virginia; Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. · Ascension Healthcare Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Nuclear Cardiology Expert. · Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. · Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, Baltimore, Maryland. · Specialty Chair, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. ·J Am Coll Radiol · Pubmed #32370978.

ABSTRACT: Chest pain is a frequent cause for emergency department visits and inpatient evaluation, with particular concern for acute coronary syndrome as an etiology, since cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although history-based, electrocardiographic, and laboratory evaluations have shown promise in identifying coronary artery disease, early accurate diagnosis is paramount and there is an important role for imaging examinations to determine the presence and extent of anatomic coronary abnormality and ischemic physiology, to guide management with regard to optimal medical therapy or revascularization, and ultimately to thereby improve patient outcomes. A summary of the various methods for initial imaging evaluation of suspected acute coronary syndrome is outlined in this document. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

2 Editorial Global Developments in Stress Perfusion Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. 2020

Arai, Andrew E / Hsu, Li-Yueh. ·National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD. ·Circulation · Pubmed #32310697.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Bridging the Sex Gap in Early Myocardial Infarction Mortality: Why It Matters. 2017

Cook, Nakela L. ·From the Immediate Office of the Director, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD. nakela.cook@nih.gov. ·Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes · Pubmed #29246885.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Positron Emission Tomography Assessment of Left Main Coronary Arterial Inflammation With Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography Validation Before and After Statin Therapy: More Promise for Fluorodeoxyglucose Vascular Uptake? 2016

Mehta, Nehal N. ·From the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. nehal.mehta@nih.gov. ·Circ Cardiovasc Imaging · Pubmed #27956410.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Cholesterol Lowering in 2015: Still Answering Questions About How and in Whom. 2015

Greenland, Philip / Lauer, Michael S. ·Departments of Preventive Medicine and Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois2Senior Editor, JAMA. · Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. ·JAMA · Pubmed #26172891.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Dietary fatty acids and coronary heart disease. 2014

Reis, Jared P. ·From the Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD. reisjp@mail.nih.gov. ·Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol · Pubmed #25411104.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial Coronary computed tomographic angiography and incidental pulmonary nodules. 2014

Bluemke, David A. ·From the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. bluemked@nih.gov. ·Circulation · Pubmed #25015341.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Editorial Computed tomography perfusion to assess physiological significance of coronary stenosis in the post-FAME era (Fractional Flow Reserve versus Angiography for Multivessel Evaluation). 2013

Arai, Andrew E. ·Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland. Electronic address: araia@nih.gov. ·J Am Coll Cardiol · Pubmed #23773869.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Review Subclinical Atherosclerosis Imaging in People Living with HIV. 2019

Schoepf, Isabella C / Buechel, Ronny R / Kovari, Helen / Hammoud, Dima A / Tarr, Philip E. ·University Department of Medicine and Infectious Diseases Service, Kantonsspital Baselland, University of Basel, 4101 Bruderholz, Switzerland. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cardiac Imaging, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland. · Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland. · Center for Infectious Disease Imaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. · University Department of Medicine and Infectious Diseases Service, Kantonsspital Baselland, University of Basel, 4101 Bruderholz, Switzerland. philip.tarr@unibas.ch. ·J Clin Med · Pubmed #31362391.

ABSTRACT: In many, but not all studies, people living with HIV (PLWH) have an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) events compared to the general population. This has generated considerable interest in the early, non-invasive detection of asymptomatic (subclinical) atherosclerosis in PLWH. Ultrasound studies assessing carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) have tended to show a somewhat greater thickness in HIV+ compared to HIV-, likely due to an increased prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in PLWH. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) determination by non-contrast computed tomography (CT) seems promising to predict CV events but is limited to the detection of calcified plaque. Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) detects calcified and non-calcified plaque and predicts CAD better than either CAC or CIMT. A normal CCTA predicts survival free of CV events over a very long time-span. Research imaging techniques, including black-blood magnetic resonance imaging of the vessel wall and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the assessment of arterial inflammation have provided insights into the prevalence of HIV-vasculopathy and associated risk factors, but their clinical applicability remains limited. Therefore, CCTA currently appears as the most promising cardiac imaging modality in PLWH for the evaluation of suspected CAD, particularly in patients <50 years, in whom most atherosclerotic coronary lesions are non-calcified.

10 Review 70-year legacy of the Framingham Heart Study. 2019

Andersson, Charlotte / Johnson, Andrew D / Benjamin, Emelia J / Levy, Daniel / Vasan, Ramachandran S. ·Boston University's and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA. ca@heart.dk. · Department of Cardiology, Gentofte and Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark. ca@heart.dk. · Boston University's and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA. · Population Sciences Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. · Preventive Medicine and Cardiology Sections, Evans Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. · Boston University's and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA. vasan@bu.edu. · Preventive Medicine and Cardiology Sections, Evans Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. vasan@bu.edu. · Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. vasan@bu.edu. ·Nat Rev Cardiol · Pubmed #31065045.

ABSTRACT: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) was established in 1948 to improve understanding of the epidemiology of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the USA. In 1961, seminal work identified major risk factors for CHD (high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels and evidence on the electrocardiogram of left ventricular hypertrophy), which later formed the basis for multivariable 10-year and 30-year risk-prediction algorithms. The FHS cohorts now comprise three generations of participants (n ≈ 15,000) and two minority cohorts. The FHS cohorts are densely phenotyped, with recurring follow-up examinations and surveillance for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular end points. Assessment of subclinical disease and physiological profiling of these cohorts (with the use of echocardiography, ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring, exercise stress testing, cardiac CT, heart and brain MRI, serial vascular tonometry and accelerometry) have been performed repeatedly. Over the past decade, the FHS cohorts have undergone deep 'omics' profiling (including whole-genome sequencing, DNA methylation analysis, transcriptomics, high-throughput proteomics and metabolomics, and microbiome studies). The FHS is a rich, longitudinal, transgenerational and deeply phenotyped cohort study with a sustained focus on state-of-the-art epidemiological methods and technological advances to facilitate scientific discoveries.

11 Review Genetic and Nongenetic Implications of Racial Variation in Response to Antiplatelet Therapy. 2019

Iantorno, Micaela / Weintraub, William S / Garcia-Garcia, Hector M / Attaran, Saina / Gajanana, Deepakraj / Buchanan, Kyle D / Rogers, Toby / Torguson, Rebecca / Waksman, Ron. ·Section of Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia. · Section of Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia; Cardiovascular Branch, Division of Intramural Research, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. · Section of Interventional Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia. Electronic address: ron.waksman@medstar.net. ·Am J Cardiol · Pubmed #30967284.

ABSTRACT: Race has been identified as an independent risk factor for poor prognosis and an independent predictor of survival in coronary artery disease. Race-related dissimilarities have been identified in cardiovascular patients in terms of age of presentation, co-morbidities, socioeconomic status, and treatment approach as well as genetically driven race-related disparities in responsiveness to medications. Antiplatelet therapy represents a fundamental component of therapy in cardiovascular patients, especially in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. It has been argued that the different level of platelet reactivity and varying response to antiplatelet therapy among races may account in part for worse outcomes in certain populations. The purpose of this review is to describe genotypic and phenotypic race-related differences in platelet reactivity and responsiveness to cardiovascular treatment, focusing on antiplatelet therapy to highlight the need establish a more effective and targeted antithrombotic strategy.

12 Review Emergence of omega-3 fatty acids in biomedical research. 2019

Spector, Arthur A / Kim, Hee-Yong. ·Laboratory of Molecular Signaling, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5625 Fishers Lane, Room 3N07, Bethesda, MD 20892-9410, United States. Electronic address: spectora@nih.gov. · Laboratory of Molecular Signaling, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5625 Fishers Lane, Room 3N07, Bethesda, MD 20892-9410, United States. ·Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids · Pubmed #30553403.

ABSTRACT: Shortly after the discovery that linoleic acid was an essential fatty acid in 1930, α-linolenic acid also was reported to prevent the fatty acid deficiency syndrome in animals. However, several prominent laboratories could not confirm the findings with α-linolenic acid, and as a result there was a loss of interest in omega-3 fatty acids in lipid research. Even the findings that a prostaglandin can be synthesized from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is necessary for optimum retinal function generated only limited interest in omega-3 fatty acids. The breakthrough came in the 1970s when Dyerberg and Bang reported that the low incidence of atherosclerotic coronary disease in Greenland Eskimos was due to the high marine lipid content of their diet. They subsequently found that EPA, which was increased in Eskimo plasma, inhibited platelet aggregation, and they concluded that the low incidence of coronary artery disease was due to the anti-thrombotic effect of EPA. This stimulated widespread interest and research in EPA and DHA, leading to the present view that, like their omega-6 counterparts, omega-3 fatty acids have important physiological functions and are essential fatty acids.

13 Review Imaging the myocardial ischemic cascade. 2018

Stillman, Arthur E / Oudkerk, Matthijs / Bluemke, David A / de Boer, Menko Jan / Bremerich, Jens / Garcia, Ernest V / Gutberlet, Matthias / van der Harst, Pim / Hundley, W Gregory / Jerosch-Herold, Michael / Kuijpers, Dirkjan / Kwong, Raymond Y / Nagel, Eike / Lerakis, Stamatios / Oshinski, John / Paul, Jean-François / Slart, Riemer H J A / Thourani, Vinod / Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn / Wintersperger, Bernd J. ·Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, 1365 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA. aestill@emory.edu. · Center of Medical Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. · Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, Bethesda, MD, USA. · Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Department of Radiology, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland. · Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, 1365 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA. · Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. · Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. · Departments of Internal Medicine & Radiology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA. · Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Radiology, Haaglanden Medical Center, The Hague, The Netherlands. · Department of Cardiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. · Institute for Experimental and Translational Cardiovascular Imaging, DZHK Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, University Hospital, Frankfurt/Main, Germany. · Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Department of Radiology, Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, Paris, France. · Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. · Department of Cardiac Surgery, MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA. · Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. · Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. ·Int J Cardiovasc Imaging · Pubmed #29556943.

ABSTRACT: Non-invasive imaging plays a growing role in the diagnosis and management of ischemic heart disease from its earliest manifestations of endothelial dysfunction to myocardial infarction along the myocardial ischemic cascade. Experts representing the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging and the European Society of Cardiac Radiology have worked together to organize the role of non-invasive imaging along the framework of the ischemic cascade. The current status of non-invasive imaging for ischemic heart disease is reviewed along with the role of imaging for guiding surgical planning. The issue of cost effectiveness is also considered. Preclinical disease is primarily assessed through the coronary artery calcium score and used for risk assessment. Once the patient becomes symptomatic, other imaging tests including echocardiography, CCTA, SPECT, PET and CMR may be useful. CCTA appears to be a cost-effective gatekeeper. Post infarction CMR and PET are the preferred modalities. Imaging is increasingly used for surgical planning of patients who may require coronary artery bypass.

14 Review Bridging the gap for lipid lowering therapy: plaque regression, coronary computed tomographic angiography, and imaging-guided personalized medicine. 2017

Kwan, Alan C / Aronis, Konstantinos N / Sandfort, Veit / Blumenthal, Roger S / Bluemke, David A. ·a Department of Medicine , Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine , Baltimore , MA , USA. · b Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Department of the National Institutes of Health , Bethesda , MD , USA. · c Department of Cardiology , Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine , Baltimore , MA , USA. ·Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther · Pubmed #28657444.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Lipid-lowering therapy effectively decreases cardiovascular risk on a population level, but it remains difficult to identify an individual patient's personal risk reduction while following guideline directed medical therapy, leading to overtreatment in some patients and cardiovascular events in others. Recent improvements in cardiac CT technology provide the ability to directly assess an individual's atherosclerotic disease burden, which has the potential to personalize risk assessment for lipid-lowering therapy. Areas covered: We review the current unmet need in identifying patients at elevated residual risk despite guideline directed medical therapy, the evidence behind plaque regression as a potential marker of therapeutic response, and highlight state-of-the-art advances in coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) for measurement of quantitative and qualitative changes in coronary atherosclerosis over time. Literature search was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar for literature relevant to statin therapy and residual risk, coronary plaque regression measurement, and CCTA assessment of quantitative and qualitative change in coronary atherosclerosis. Expert commentary: We discuss the potential ability of CCTA to guide lipid-lowering therapy as a bridge between population and personalized medicine in the future, as well as the potential barriers to its use.

15 Review Cardiac Applications of PET-MR. 2017

Bergquist, Peter J / Chung, Michael S / Jones, Anja / Ahlman, Mark A / White, Charles S / Jeudy, Jean. ·Department of Diagnostic Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Radiology, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA. · Department of Diagnostic Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. jjeudy@umm.edu. · University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 S Greene Street, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA. jjeudy@umm.edu. ·Curr Cardiol Rep · Pubmed #28401505.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the clinical applications of PET-MR in the setting of cardiac imaging with emphasis on specific scenarios where both techniques together provided added information. RECENT FINDINGS: Synergy of cardiac PET and MR fusion may hold similar promise eliminating ionizing radiation and improving tissue contrast. Future development of new hybrid scanners, use of new imaging tracers, and clinical applications are significant factors which will influence its use. Both positron emission tomography (PET) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) provide important anatomic and physiologic information with regard to the heart. Being able to combine the data from these two examinations in a hybrid technique allows for a more complete evaluation of cardiac pathology. While hybrid PET-CT has already established the utility of a combined imaging approach, the use of CMR in lieu of CT allows for elimination of ionizing radiation and for improved tissue contrast.

16 Review CT calcium scoring. History, current status and outlook. 2017

Sandfort, V / Bluemke, D A. ·Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA. · Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address: david.bluemke@nih.gov. ·Diagn Interv Imaging · Pubmed #27423708.

ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular risk assessment has assumed a prominent role in the course of preventive care of all adults. Traditionally cardiovascular risk assessment has been performed using risk factors including gender, age, smoking history, lipid status, diabetes status, and family history. Increasingly, imaging has been deployed to directly detect coronary atherosclerotic disease. Quantification of coronary calcium (e.g., Agatston method, calcium mass and volume) is readily detected using helical CT scanners. Large multicenter cohort studies have enabled a better understanding of the relevance of coronary calcium detection. The purpose of this review is to review the methods for quantification of coronary artery calcium, as well as to present current and future perspectives on calcium scoring for cardiovascular risk stratification.

17 Review Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in the Evaluation of Chest Pain of Suspected Cardiac Origin. 2016

Bittencourt, Marcio Sommer / Hulten, Edward A / Veeranna, Vikas / Blankstein, Ron. ·From Center for Clinical and Epidemiological Research, University Hospital & São Paulo State Cancer Institute, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Brazil (M.S.B.);Preventive Medicine Center, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil (M.S.B.);Cardiology Service, Department of Internal Medicine, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD (E.A.H.) · andCardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine and Radiology · Brigham and Women's Hospital · Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (V.V., R.B.). ·Circulation · Pubmed #27185023.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

18 Review Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73). 2016

Ramsden, Christopher E / Zamora, Daisy / Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon / Faurot, Keturah R / Broste, Steven K / Frantz, Robert P / Davis, John M / Ringel, Amit / Suchindran, Chirayath M / Hibbeln, Joseph R. ·Section on Nutritional Neurosciences, Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Program on Integrative Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Chris.Ramsden@nih.gov. · Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · Section on Nutritional Neurosciences, Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. · Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Program on Integrative Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Psychiatric Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. · Department of Biostatistics, UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. ·BMJ · Pubmed #27071971.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine the traditional diet-heart hypothesis through recovery and analysis of previously unpublished data from the Minnesota Coronary Experiment (MCE) and to put findings in the context of existing diet-heart randomized controlled trials through a systematic review and meta-analysis. DESIGN: The MCE (1968-73) is a double blind randomized controlled trial designed to test whether replacement of saturated fat with vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid reduces coronary heart disease and death by lowering serum cholesterol. Recovered MCE unpublished documents and raw data were analyzed according to hypotheses prespecified by original investigators. Further, a systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials that lowered serum cholesterol by providing vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid in place of saturated fat without confounding by concomitant interventions was conducted. SETTING: One nursing home and six state mental hospitals in Minnesota, United States. PARTICIPANTS: Unpublished documents with completed analyses for the randomized cohort of 9423 women and men aged 20-97; longitudinal data on serum cholesterol for the 2355 participants exposed to the study diets for a year or more; 149 completed autopsy files. INTERVENTIONS: Serum cholesterol lowering diet that replaced saturated fat with linoleic acid (from corn oil and corn oil polyunsaturated margarine). Control diet was high in saturated fat from animal fats, common margarines, and shortenings. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Death from all causes; association between changes in serum cholesterol and death; and coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarcts detected at autopsy. RESULTS: The intervention group had significant reduction in serum cholesterol compared with controls (mean change from baseline -13.8%v-1.0%; P<0.001). Kaplan Meier graphs showed no mortality benefit for the intervention group in the full randomized cohort or for any prespecified subgroup. There was a 22% higher risk of death for each 30 mg/dL (0.78 mmol/L) reduction in serum cholesterol in covariate adjusted Cox regression models (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.32; P<0.001). There was no evidence of benefit in the intervention group for coronary atherosclerosis or myocardial infarcts. Systematic review identified five randomized controlled trials for inclusion (n=10,808). In meta-analyses, these cholesterol lowering interventions showed no evidence of benefit on mortality from coronary heart disease (1.13, 0.83 to 1.54) or all cause mortality (1.07, 0.90 to 1.27). CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence from randomized controlled trials shows that replacement of saturated fat in the diet with linoleic acid effectively lowers serum cholesterol but does not support the hypothesis that this translates to a lower risk of death from coronary heart disease or all causes. Findings from the Minnesota Coronary Experiment add to growing evidence that incomplete publication has contributed to overestimation of the benefits of replacing saturated fat with vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid.

19 Review Low Radiation Dose Calcium Scoring: Evidence and Techniques. 2016

Baron, Kaitlin B / Choi, Andrew D / Chen, Marcus Y. ·Division of Cardiology, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC USA. · Division of Cardiology, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC USA ; Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Laboratory, Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Building 10, B1D416, Bethesda, MD 20891-1061 USA. · Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Laboratory, Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Building 10, B1D416, Bethesda, MD 20891-1061 USA. ·Curr Cardiovasc Imaging Rep · Pubmed #27057268.

ABSTRACT: Coronary computed tomography (CT) allows for the acquisition of thin slices of the heart and coronary arteries, which can be used to detect and quantify coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Despite the proven clinical value in cardiac risk prognostication, there remain concerns regarding radiation exposure from CAC CT scans. There have been several recent technical advancements that allow for significant radiation dose reduction in CAC scoring. This paper reviews the clinical utility and recent literature in low radiation dose CAC scoring.

20 Review The Link Between Inflammatory Disorders and Coronary Heart Disease: a Look at Recent Studies and Novel Drugs in Development. 2016

Teague, H / Mehta, Nehal N. ·National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. · National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. nehal.mehta@nih.gov. · Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Branch, NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, CRC, Room 5-5140, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. nehal.mehta@nih.gov. ·Curr Atheroscler Rep · Pubmed #26739273.

ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a critical component in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD), specifically in the process of atherogenesis. Human translational and preclinical studies have demonstrated that inflammation contributes to the development, sustainment, and progression of atherosclerosis, and epidemiological studies demonstrate that human diseases associated with increased systemic inflammation increase the risk of CHD-related events. Therefore, over the last decade, multiple clinical studies were designed to target the inflammatory cascade in order to reduce the risk of CHD and to identify which populations may benefit from these preventative treatment strategies. This review briefly summarizes inflammation as a risk factor in atherosclerosis, human disease states associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, and current treatment strategies for CHD targeting the inflammatory cascade.

21 Review Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarization and Coronary Vasodilation: Diverse and Integrated Roles of Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Gap Junctions. 2016

Ellinsworth, David C / Sandow, Shaun L / Shukla, Nilima / Liu, Yanping / Jeremy, Jamie Y / Gutterman, David D. ·Bristol Heart Institute, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. · Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland, Australia. · Division of Research Infrastructure, National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. · Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Departments of Medicine, Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. ·Microcirculation · Pubmed #26541094.

ABSTRACT: Myocardial perfusion and coronary vascular resistance are regulated by signaling metabolites released from the local myocardium that act either directly on the VSMC or indirectly via stimulation of the endothelium. A prominent mechanism of vasodilation is EDH of the arteriolar smooth muscle, with EETs and H(2)O(2) playing important roles in EDH in the coronary microcirculation. In some cases, EETs and H(2)O(2) are released as transferable hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) that act directly on the VSMCs. By contrast, EETs and H(2)O(2) can also promote endothelial KCa activity secondary to the amplification of extracellular Ca(2+) influx and Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores, respectively. The resulting endothelial hyperpolarization may subsequently conduct to the media via myoendothelial gap junctions or potentially lead to the release of a chemically distinct factor(s). Furthermore, in human isolated coronary arterioles dilator signaling involving EETs and H(2)O(2) may be integrated, being either complimentary or inhibitory depending on the stimulus. With an emphasis on the human coronary microcirculation, this review addresses the diverse and integrated mechanisms by which EETs and H(2)O(2) regulate vessel tone and also examines the hypothesis that myoendothelial microdomain signaling facilitates EDH activity in the human heart.

22 Review Cardiovascular magnetic resonance phase contrast imaging. 2015

Nayak, Krishna S / Nielsen, Jon-Fredrik / Bernstein, Matt A / Markl, Michael / D Gatehouse, Peter / M Botnar, Rene / Saloner, David / Lorenz, Christine / Wen, Han / S Hu, Bob / Epstein, Frederick H / N Oshinski, John / Raman, Subha V. ·Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, 3740 McClintock Ave, EEB 406, Los Angeles, California, 90089-2564, USA. knayak@usc.edu. · Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. jfnielse@umich.edu. · Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. mbernstein@mayo.edu. · Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA. mmarkl@northwestern.edu. · Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK. p.gatehouse@rbht.nhs.uk. · Cardiovascular Imaging, Imaging Sciences Division, Kings's College London, London, UK. rene.botnar@kcl.ac.uk. · Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. david.saloner@ucsf.edu. · Center for Applied Medical Imaging, Siemens Corporation, Baltimore, MD, USA. christine.lorenz@siemens.com. · Imaging Physics Laboratory, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA. han.wen@nih.gov. · Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Palo Alto, CA, USA. hub@pamf.org. · Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA. fredepstein@virginia.edu. · Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA. jnoshin@emory.edu. · Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. raman.1@osu.edu. ·J Cardiovasc Magn Reson · Pubmed #26254979.

ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) phase contrast imaging has undergone a wide range of changes with the development and availability of improved calibration procedures, visualization tools, and analysis methods. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-art in CMR phase contrast imaging methodology, clinical applications including summaries of past clinical performance, and emerging research and clinical applications that utilize today's latest technology.

23 Review Noninvasive Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression: Status of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography. 2015

Sandfort, Veit / Lima, Joao A C / Bluemke, David A. ·From the Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (V.S., D.A.B.) · and Department of Radiology (J.A.C.L.) and Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine (J.A.C.L.), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. ·Circ Cardiovasc Imaging · Pubmed #26156016.

ABSTRACT: The process of coronary artery disease progression is infrequently visualized. Intravascular ultrasound has been used to gain important insights but is invasive and therefore limited to high-risk patients. For low-to-moderate risk patients, noninvasive methods may be useful to quantitatively monitor plaque progression or regression and to understand and personalize atherosclerosis therapy. This review discusses the potential for coronary computed tomography angiography to evaluate the extent and subtypes of coronary plaque. Computed tomographic technology is evolving and image quality of the method approaches the level required for plaque progression monitoring. Methods to quantify plaque on computed tomography angiography are reviewed as well as a discussion of their use in clinical trials. Limitations of coronary computed tomography angiography compared with competing modalities include limited evaluation of plaque subcomponents and incomplete knowledge of the value of the method especially in patients with low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk.

24 Review New Insights from Major Prospective Cohort Studies with Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR). 2015

Arai, Andrew E. ·National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Bldg 10, Rm B1D416, MSC 1061, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1061, USA, araia@nih.gov. ·Curr Cardiol Rep · Pubmed #25939757.

ABSTRACT: Since 1948, epidemiology studies played an important role in understanding cardiovascular disease and afforded an opportunity to learn about newer diagnostic tests. In 2000, the MESA Study incorporated several advanced cardiovascular imaging modalities including cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and coronary artery calcium scans. The decade of follow-up enabled prognosis studies, an important step beyond association studies. In brief, left ventricular hypertrophy by cardiac MRI predicted incident heart failure and stroke. In the MESA Study, coronary artery calcium was a better predictor of coronary artery disease end points than the non-contrast-enhanced MRI scan. In the ICELAND MI substudy of the AGES-Reykjavik Study, a contrast-enhanced MRI scan detected many more unrecognized myocardial infarctions (MIs) (UMIs) than detected by electrocardiography and documented these UMI had adverse prognostic significance. Thus, cardiac MRI has been successfully incorporated into large population studies and shown added value over conventional measurements of cardiovascular disease.

25 Review Stimulating high impact HIV-related cardiovascular research: recommendations from a multidisciplinary NHLBI Working Group on HIV-related heart, lung, and blood disease. 2015

Shah, Monica R / Cook, Nakela / Wong, Renee / Hsue, Priscilla / Ridker, Paul / Currier, Judith / Shurin, Susan. ·National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. Electronic address: shahmr@nhlbi.nih.gov. · National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. · Division of Cardiology, University of California-San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California. · Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. · Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, California. · National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. ·J Am Coll Cardiol · Pubmed #25677433.

ABSTRACT: The clinical challenges confronting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shifted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses to chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, chronic lung disease, and chronic anemia. With the growing burden of HIV-related heart, lung, and blood (HLB) disease, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recognizes it must stimulate and support HIV-related HLB research. Because HIV offers a natural, accelerated model of common pathological processes, such as inflammation, HIV-related HLB research may yield important breakthroughs for all patients with HLB disease. This paper summarizes the cardiovascular recommendations of an NHLBI Working Group, Advancing HIV/AIDS Research in Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases, charged with identifying scientific priorities in HIV-related HLB disease and developing recommendations to promote multidisciplinary collaboration among HIV and HLB investigators. The working group included multidisciplinary sessions, as well as HLB breakout sessions for discussion of disease-specific issues, with common themes about scientific priorities and strategies to stimulate HLB research emerging in all 3 groups.

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