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Depression: HELP
Articles by Louise Arseneault
Based on 14 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, L. Arseneault wrote the following 14 articles about Depression.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Life Span Studies of ADHD-Conceptual Challenges and Predictors of Persistence and Outcome. 2016

Caye, Arthur / Swanson, James / Thapar, Anita / Sibley, Margaret / Arseneault, Louise / Hechtman, Lily / Arnold, L Eugene / Niclasen, Janni / Moffitt, Terrie / Rohde, Luis Augusto. ·ADHD Outpatient Program, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. · Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA. · MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health at the Florida International University, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. · MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. · Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. · Department of Psychiatry, Nisonger Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. · Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Centre for Collaborative Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. · Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. · ADHD Outpatient Program, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. lrohde@terra.com.br. · National Institute of Developmental Psychiatry for Children and Adolescents, São Paulo, Brazil. lrohde@terra.com.br. · Serviço de Psiquiatria da Infância e Adolescência, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, 4o andar, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre, 90035-003, Brazil. lrohde@terra.com.br. ·Curr Psychiatry Rep · Pubmed #27783340.

ABSTRACT: There is a renewed interest in better conceptualizing trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood, driven by an increased recognition of long-term impairment and potential persistence beyond childhood and adolescence. This review addresses the following major issues relevant to the course of ADHD in light of current evidence from longitudinal studies: (1) conceptual and methodological issues related to measurement of persistence of ADHD, (2) estimates of persistence rate from childhood to adulthood and its predictors, (3) long-term negative outcomes of childhood ADHD and their early predictors, and (4) the recently proposed new adult-onset ADHD. Estimates of persistence vary widely in the literature, and diagnostic criteria, sample characteristics, and information source are the most important factors explaining variability among studies. Evidence indicates that ADHD severity, comorbid conduct disorder and major depressive disorder, and treatment for ADHD are the main predictors of ADHD persistence from childhood to adulthood. Comorbid conduct disorder and ADHD severity in childhood are the most important predictors of adverse outcomes in adulthood among children with ADHD. Three recent population studies suggested the existence of a significant proportion of individuals who report onset of ADHD symptoms and impairments after childhood. Finally, we highlight areas for improvement to increase our understanding of ADHD across the life span.

2 Article Maternal depression in the intergenerational transmission of childhood maltreatment and its sequelae: Testing postpartum effects in a longitudinal birth cohort. 2019

Choi, Karmel W / Houts, Renate / Arseneault, Louise / Pariante, Carmine / Sikkema, Kathleen J / Moffitt, Terrie E. ·Duke University. · King's College London. ·Dev Psychopathol · Pubmed #29562945.

ABSTRACT: Mothers who have experienced childhood maltreatment are more likely to have children also exposed to maltreatment, a phenomenon known as intergenerational transmission. Factors in the perinatal period may contribute uniquely to this transmission, but timing effects have not been ascertained. Using structural equation modeling with 1,016 mothers and their 2,032 children in the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, we tested the mediating role of postpartum depression between maternal childhood maltreatment and a cascade of negative child outcomes, specifically child exposure to maltreatment, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing symptoms: (a) adjusting for later maternal depression, (b) comparing across sex differences, and (c) examining the relative role of maltreatment subtypes. Mothers who had been maltreated as children, especially those who had experienced emotional or sexual abuse, were at increased risk for postpartum depression. In turn, postpartum depression predicted children's exposure to maltreatment, followed by emotional and behavioral problems. Indirect effects from maternal childhood maltreatment to child outcomes were robust across child sex and supported significant mediation through postpartum depression; however, this appeared to be carried by mothers' depression beyond the postpartum period. Identifying and treating postpartum depression, and preventing its recurrence, may help interrupt the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment and its sequelae.

3 Article Concurrent and Longitudinal Contribution of Exposure to Bullying in Childhood to Mental Health: The Role of Vulnerability and Resilience. 2017

Singham, Timothy / Viding, Essi / Schoeler, Tabea / Arseneault, Louise / Ronald, Angelica / Cecil, Charlotte M / McCrory, Eamon / Rijsdijk, Frülhing / Pingault, Jean-Baptiste. ·Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, England. · Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, King's College London, London, England. · Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Birkbeck, London, England. · Department of Psychology, King's College London, London, England. ·JAMA Psychiatry · Pubmed #28979965.

ABSTRACT: Importance: Exposure to bullying is associated with poor mental health. However, the degree to which observed associations reflect direct detrimental contributions of exposure to bullying to mental health remains uncertain, as noncausal relationships may arise from genetic and environmental confounding (eg, preexisting vulnerabilities). Determining to what extent exposure to bullying contributes to mental health is an important concern, with implications for primary and secondary interventions. Objective: To characterize the concurrent and longitudinal contribution of exposure to bullying to mental health in childhood and adolescence using a twin differences design to strengthen causal inference. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were drawn from the Twins Early Development Study, a population-based cohort recruited from population records of births in England and Wales between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 1996. Data collection took place when the participants were between 11 and 16 years of age from December 1, 2005, to January 31, 2013. Data analysis was conducted from January 1, 2016, to June 20, 2017. Exposures: Participants completed the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale at 11 and 14 years of age. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mental health assessments at 11 and 16 years of age included anxiety, depression, hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention, conduct problems, and psychotic-like experiences (eg, paranoid thoughts or cognitive disorganization). Results: The 11 108 twins included in the final sample (5894 girls and 5214 boys) were a mean age of 11.3 years at the first assessment and 16.3 years at the last assessment. The most stringent twin differences estimates (monozygotic) were consistent with causal contribution of exposure to bullying at 11 years to concurrent anxiety, depression, hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems. Effects decreased over time; that is, substantial concurrent contributions to anxiety (β = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.22-0.33) persisted for 2 years (β = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.04-0.20) but not 5 years. Direct contributions to paranoid thoughts and cognitive disorganization persisted for 5 years. Conclusions and Relevance: This study is the largest to date to characterize the contribution of exposure to bullying in childhood to mental health using a twin differences design and multi-informant, multiscale data. Stringent evidence of the direct detrimental contribution of exposure to bullying in childhood to mental health is provided. Findings also suggest that childhood exposure to bullying may partly be viewed as a symptom of preexisting vulnerabilities. Finally, the dissipation of effects over time for many outcomes highlights the potential for resilience in children who were bullied. In addition to programs that aim to reduce exposure to bullying, interventions may benefit from addressing preexisting vulnerabilities and focus on resilience.

4 Article Buffering effects of safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships among women with childhood histories of maltreatment. 2017

Jaffee, S R / Takizawa, R / Arseneault, L. ·Department of Psychology,University of Pennsylvania,Philadelphia,USA. · Department of Clinical Psychology,Graduate School of Education,The University of Tokyo,Tokyo 113-0033,Japan. · MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre,Institute of Psychiatry,Psychology and Neuroscience,King's College London,London SE5 8AF,UK. ·Psychol Med · Pubmed #28803556.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adults who were victims of childhood maltreatment tend to have poorer health compared with adults who did not experience abuse. However, many are in good health. We tested whether safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships buffer women with a history of childhood maltreatment from poor health outcomes in later life. METHODS: Participants included women from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study who were involved in an intimate relationship at some point by the time their twin children were 10 years old. Women were initially interviewed in 1999-2000 (mean age = 33 years) and 2, 5, and 7 years later. They reported on their physical and mental health, and their health-risk behaviours. RESULTS: Compared with women who did not experience abuse in childhood, women with histories of maltreatment were at elevated risk for mental, physical, and health-risk behaviours, including major depressive disorder, sleep, and substance use problems. Cumulatively, safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships characterized by a lack of violence, emotional intimacy, and social support buffered women with a history of maltreatment from poor health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasize that negative social determinants of health - such as a childhood history of maltreatment - confer risk for psychopathology and other physical health problems. If, however, a woman's current social circumstances are sufficiently positive, they can promote good health, particularly in the face of past adversity.

5 Article Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study. 2016

Newbury, Joanne / Arseneault, Louise / Caspi, Avshalom / Moffitt, Terrie E / Odgers, Candice L / Fisher, Helen L. ·MRC Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. · MRC Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, and Centre for Genomic and Computational Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC. · Center for Child and Family Policy and the Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC. · MRC Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; helen.2.fisher@kcl.ac.uk helen.2.fisher@kcl.ac.uk. ·Schizophr Bull · Pubmed #27153864.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children's risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. METHODS: Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children's mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis. RESULTS: Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16-2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15-2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms.

6 Article Social isolation, loneliness and depression in young adulthood: a behavioural genetic analysis. 2016

Matthews, Timothy / Danese, Andrea / Wertz, Jasmin / Odgers, Candice L / Ambler, Antony / Moffitt, Terrie E / Arseneault, Louise. ·MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. · Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. · National and Specialist Child Traumatic Stress and Anxiety Clinic, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. · Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. · Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, and Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. · MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. louise.arseneault@kcl.ac.uk. ·Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol · Pubmed #26843197.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To investigate the association between social isolation and loneliness, how they relate to depression, and whether these associations are explained by genetic influences. METHODS: We used data from the age-18 wave of the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 1116 same-sex twin pairs born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. Participants reported on their levels of social isolation, loneliness and depressive symptoms. We conducted regression analyses to test the differential associations of isolation and loneliness with depression. Using the twin study design, we estimated the proportion of variance in each construct and their covariance that was accounted for by genetic and environmental factors. RESULTS: Social isolation and loneliness were moderately correlated (r = 0.39), reflecting the separateness of these constructs, and both were associated with depression. When entered simultaneously in a regression analysis, loneliness was more robustly associated with depression. We observed similar degrees of genetic influence on social isolation (40 %) and loneliness (38 %), and a smaller genetic influence on depressive symptoms (29 %), with the remaining variance accounted for by the non-shared environment. Genetic correlations of 0.65 between isolation and loneliness and 0.63 between loneliness and depression indicated a strong role of genetic influences in the co-occurrence of these phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Socially isolated young adults do not necessarily experience loneliness. However, those who are lonely are often depressed, partly because the same genes influence loneliness and depression. Interventions should not only aim at increasing social connections but also focus on subjective feelings of loneliness.

7 Article Sibling bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and self-harm. 2015

Arseneault, Louise. ·King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, SGDP Centre, London, UK; louise.arseneault@kcl.ac.uk. ·Evid Based Ment Health · Pubmed #26002541.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Article Bullying victimization in childhood predicts inflammation and obesity at mid-life: a five-decade birth cohort study. 2015

Takizawa, R / Danese, A / Maughan, B / Arseneault, L. ·MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre,Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience,King's College London,London SE5 8AF,UK. ·Psychol Med · Pubmed #25988703.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We aimed to test whether childhood bullying victimization increases risk for age-related disease at mid-life using biological markers including inflammation and adiposity, independent of other childhood risk factors and key adult variables. METHOD: The present study was a 50-year prospective longitudinal birth cohort study of all births in Britain in 1 week in 1958. Exposure to bullying was assessed prospectively when participants were aged 7 and 11 years (27.7% occasionally bullied; 14.6% frequently bullied). Blood inflammation biomarkers [C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen] and adiposity [body mass index (BMI) and waist:hip ratio] were measured at age 45 years. RESULTS: Participants who had been frequently bullied in childhood showed increased levels of CRP at mid-life [β = 0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.10] and higher risk for clinically relevant inflammation cut-off [CRP > 3 mg/l: 20.4% v. 15.9%, odds ratio (OR) = 1.35, 95% CI 1.12-1.64]. Women who were bullied in childhood had higher BMI than non-bullied participants and were at increased risk of being obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2: occasionally bullied: 26.0% v. 19.4%, OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.18-1.77; frequently bullied: 26.2% v. 19.4%, OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83). Findings remained significant when controlling for childhood risk factors (e.g. parental social class; participants' BMI and psychopathology in childhood) and key adult variables (e.g. adult social class, smoking, diet and exercise). CONCLUSIONS: Bullied children show increases in risk factors for age-related disease in middle adulthood, independent of co-occurring childhood and adult risks. Given the high prevalence of bullying victimization in childhood, tackling this form of psychosocial stress early in life has the potential of reducing risk for age-related disease and its associated burden.

9 Article Intimate partner violence and new-onset depression: a longitudinal study of women's childhood and adult histories of abuse. 2015

Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle / Fisher, Helen L / York-Smith, Marianna / Fincham-Campbell, Stephanie / Moffitt, Terrie E / Arseneault, Louise. ·School of Criminology, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; Research Center of the Montreal Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada; Research Group on Child Maladjustment, Montreal, QC, Canada. ·Depress Anxiety · Pubmed #25691224.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that women victims of intimate partner violence are at increased risk for poor mental health. This research disentangled the effect of partner violence on new-onset depression and psychosis spectrum symptoms from effects of child maltreatment and other confounding factors, including substance abuse and antisocial personality. METHODS: Participants were 1,052 mothers involved in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative cohort of families followed prospectively. To test the directionality of associations between partner violence and depression, only women without a history of depression at the beginning of the study were considered (n = 978). Partner violence and mental health were assessed during face-to-face interviews with women across three time points. RESULTS: Four of 10 women reported being the victim of violence from their partner in a 10-year period. They represent 33% of our cohort and they account for 51% of new-onset depression. These women had a twofold increase in their risk of suffering from new-onset depression once the effect of childhood maltreatment, socioeconomic deprivation, antisocial personality, and young motherhood were controlled. Women who were abused both in childhood and adulthood were four to seven times more likely to suffer from depression than never-abused women. We observed similar associations with psychosis spectrum symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Women victims of partner violence account for more than their share of depression. Findings strengthen existing evidence that partner violence independently contributes to women's poor mental health. Psychological difficulties among a considerable number of women could be reduced by stopping partner violence.

10 Article Why some children with externalising problems develop internalising symptoms: testing two pathways in a genetically sensitive cohort study. 2015

Wertz, Jasmin / Zavos, Helena / Matthews, Timothy / Harvey, Kirsten / Hunt, Alice / Pariante, Carmine M / Arseneault, Louise. ·MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. · Stress, Psychiatry and Immunology Laboratory, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. ·J Child Psychol Psychiatry · Pubmed #25292456.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Children with externalising problems are at risk of developing internalising problems as they grow older. The pathways underlying this developmental association remain to be elucidated. We tested two processes that could explain why some children with externalising problems develop internalising symptoms in preadolescence: a mediation model whereby the association between early externalising and later new internalising symptoms is explained by negative experiences; and a genetic model, whereby genes influence both problems. METHODS: We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Study, a 1994-1995 birth cohort of 2,232 twins born in England and Wales. We assessed externalising and internalising problems using combined mothers' and teachers' ratings at age 5 and 12. We measured bullying victimisation, maternal dissatisfaction and academic difficulties between age 7 and 10 and used linear regression analyses to test the effects of these negative experiences on the association between early externalising and later internalising problems. We employed a Cholesky decomposition to examine the genetic influences on the association. RESULTS: Children with externalising problems at age 5 showed increased rates of new internalising problems at age 12 (r = .24, p < .001). Negative experiences accounted for some of the association between early externalising and later internalising problems. Behavioural-genetic analyses indicated that genes influencing early externalising problems also affected later internalising problems. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the role of genetic influences in explaining why some children with externalising problems develop internalising symptoms in preadolescence. Negative experiences also contribute to the association, possibly through gene-environment interplay. Mental health professionals should monitor the development of internalising symptoms in young children with externalising problems.

11 Article Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children. 2012

Belsky, Daniel W / Caspi, Avshalom / Arseneault, Louise / Bleidorn, Wiebke / Fonagy, Peter / Goodman, Marianne / Houts, Renate / Moffitt, Terrie E. ·University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA. dbelsky@unc.edu ·Dev Psychopathol · Pubmed #22293008.

ABSTRACT: It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis-stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology.

12 Article Family income and youths' symptoms of depression and anxiety: a longitudinal study of the French GAZEL Youth cohort. 2010

Melchior, Maria / Chastang, Jean-François / Walburg, Vera / Arseneault, Louise / Galéra, Cédric / Fombonne, Eric. ·Epidemiology of Occupational and Social Determinants of Health, Inserm U1018, CESP, YMRS1018, Villejuif, France. maria.melchior@inserm.fr ·Depress Anxiety · Pubmed #21132845.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether socioeconomic inequalities with regard to depression and anxiety are present in adolescence and young adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that in the community, youths growing up in families with low income have elevated rates of such psychological difficulties. METHODS: We used data from participants of the GAZEL Youth study, a French community-based cohort assessed in 1991 and 1999 (n = 941 youths, 4-18 years of age at baseline). Measures of family income and youths' symptoms of depression and anxiety (assessed using the ASEBA family of instruments) were obtained from parents and youths at study baseline and follow-up. Covariates included family characteristics (parental divorce, parental unemployment or labor force exit, parental health difficulties including psychopathology and the quality of family relations) and youths' characteristics (sex, age, stressful life events, history of internalizing and externalizing problems). RESULTS: Youths from families with low income during the study period had elevated odds of symptoms of depression and anxiety at follow-up (compared to youths from families with intermediate/high income, age-adjusted OR: 1.74, 95% CI 1.17-2.57; fully adjusted OR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.27-2.97). In particular, the likelihood of psychological difficulties was elevated among youths from families that experienced decreasing and persistently low income over time (fully adjusted ORs, respectively: 2.44, 95% CI 1.24-4.81 and 1. 83, 95% 1.10-3.06). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians need to be aware that youths growing up in low-income families in the community may be at risk of depression and anxiety during the period of transition to adulthood.

13 Article Self-control and its relation to joint developmental trajectories of cannabis use and depressive mood symptoms. 2010

Otten, Roy / Barker, Edward D / Maughan, Barbara / Arseneault, Louise / Engels, Rutger C M E. ·Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands. r.otten@pwo.ru.nl ·Drug Alcohol Depend · Pubmed #20656424.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cannabis use and depressive mood symptoms in adolescence have been found to co-occur. In exploring the nature of this relationship and in the search for mechanisms that explain this link, scholars have postulated the idea for a 'common liability model'. According to this model, the link between cannabis use and depressive symptoms can be explained by an underlying risk factor. One important candidate for this underlying risk factor may be self-control, as a reflection of immature self-regulatory systems in adolescence. In the present study, we will test the extent to which joint development of cannabis use and depressive symptoms can be explained as an expression of self-control. METHODS: A total of 428 adolescents participated in a five-wave longitudinal design. Main study outcomes were self-reports of self-control (age 12) and cannabis use and depressive symptoms (ages 12-16). RESULTS: We established six trajectories of joint development of cannabis use and depressive symptoms. Conditional probabilities indicated that cannabis use and depressive symptoms were symmetrically related. Levels of self-control were lowest for adolescents following the joint developmental pathway of cannabis use and high depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of self-control are predictive of joint development of cannabis use and depressive symptoms. Future studies should concentrate on the role of self-control in co-occurrence of other health risk behaviors and on psychological and physiological mechanisms underlying self-control and its relation to co-occurrence.

14 Article Early environment and major depression in young adults: a longitudinal study. 2008

Gourion, David / Arseneault, Louise / Vitaro, Frank / Brezo, Jelena / Turecki, Gustavo / Tremblay, Richard E. ·Research Unit on Children's Psychosocial Maladjustment (GRIP), University of Montreal, Sainte Justine Hospital Research Center, 3175 Cote-Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Canada. davidgourion@yahoo.fr ·Psychiatry Res · Pubmed #18849082.

ABSTRACT: Post-natal incubator care represents an early specific environment that may affect the risk for major depression later in life. A subsample of 1212 young adults from the French-speaking general population of the region of Quebec were selected from an ongoing longitudinal study that started during their kindergarten years. Information on peri-natal condition, obstetrical complications and incubator care was collected by consulting hospital medical records. Participants were evaluated using DSM III-R based psychiatric assessment when they were 15 and 21 years old. Incubator care predicted an approximate two- to three-fold decreased risk for depressive disorder at age 21. Results from three different logistic models adjusting for family adversity and for maternal depression confirmed this relationship. Analyses were replicated for depression at age 15, showing the same association in female adolescents. This study suggests that post-natal incubator care may paradoxically decrease the occurrence of major depression later in life. This protective effect might be direct (through optimized biological, physiological and sensory parameters) or indirect (induction of specific parent-child interactions due to the perception of their infant's vulnerability). This study could enhance understanding of the links between early post-natal environment and affective disorders later in life.