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Depression: HELP
Articles by Tom G. Bolwig
Based on 9 articles published since 2008

Between 2008 and 2019, T. Bolwig wrote the following 9 articles about Depression.
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Editorial Electroconvulsive therapy reappraised. 2014

Bolwig, T G. ·Psychiatric Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. bolwig@tdcspace.dk. ·Acta Psychiatr Scand · Pubmed #24571063.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Issues for DSM-5: whither melancholia? The case for its classification as a distinct mood disorder. 2010

Parker, Gordon / Fink, Max / Shorter, Edward / Taylor, Michael Alan / Akiskal, Hagop / Berrios, German / Bolwig, Tom / Brown, Walter A / Carroll, Bernard / Healy, David / Klein, Donald F / Koukopoulos, Athanasios / Michels, Robert / Paris, Joel / Rubin, Robert T / Spitzer, Robert / Swartz, Conrad. · ·Am J Psychiatry · Pubmed #20595426.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Review ECT: its brain enabling effects: a review of electroconvulsive therapy-induced structural brain plasticity. 2014

Bouckaert, Filip / Sienaert, Pascal / Obbels, Jasmien / Dols, Annemieke / Vandenbulcke, Mathieu / Stek, Max / Bolwig, Tom. ·From the *University Psychiatric Center KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; †VUmc Amsterdam/GGZinGeest, Amsterdam, the Netherlands and ‡Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Copenhagen, Denmark. ·J ECT · Pubmed #24810772.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Since the past 2 decades, new evidence for brain plasticity has caused a shift in both preclinical and clinical ECT research from falsifying the "brain damage hypothesis" toward exploring ECT's enabling brain (neuro)plasticity effects. METHODS: By reviewing the available animal and human literature, we examined the theory that seizure-induced structural changes are crucial for the therapeutic efficacy of ECT. RESULTS: Both animal and human studies suggest electroconvulsive stimulation/electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-related neuroplasticity (neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, angiogenesis, or gliogenesis). CONCLUSION: It remains unclear whether structural changes might explain the therapeutic efficacy and/or be related to the (transient) learning and memory impairment after ECT. Methods to assess in vivo brain plasticity of patients treated with ECT will be of particular importance for future longitudinal studies to give support to the currently available correlational data.

4 Review Neuroimaging and electroconvulsive therapy: a review. 2014

Bolwig, Tom G. ·From the University of Copenhagen and Psychiatric Center Copenhagen, Denmark. ·J ECT · Pubmed #24800687.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and quantitative electroencephalography. METHODS: A PubMed literature search with focus on clinical studies was made from the inception of the database until December 2013 using the search terms electroconvulsive therapy and neuroimaging. RESULTS: Early methods allowing only identification of global changes of cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolism show considerable ictal increases of these measures, which normalize during the postictal period. Later methodological developments have given access to measurements of minute activity changes in localized cortical and subcortical areas of the brain and have revealed differences in neurophysiology and metabolism between the hyperactive ictal state and the restorative interictal/postictal periods. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies seem to pave way for new insights into ECT's effects on increased connectivity in the brain during depression. CONCLUSION: The existing data reveal considerable variations among studies and therefore do not yet allow the formulation of a unified hypothesis for the mechanism of ECT. The rapid developments in imaging technology, however, hold promises for further elucidation of the mode of action of ECT.

5 Review How does electroconvulsive therapy work? Theories on its mechanism. 2011

Bolwig, Tom G. ·Department of Psychiatry, Copenhagen University Hospital, 9 Blegdamsvej, Copenhagen, Denmark. bolwig@tdcspace.dk ·Can J Psychiatry · Pubmed #21324238.

ABSTRACT: This article reviews 3 current theories of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). One theory points to generalized seizures as essential for the therapeutic efficacy of ECT. Another theory highlights the normalization of neuroendocrine dysfunction in melancholic depression as a result of ECT. A third theory is based on recent findings of increased hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in experimental animals given electroconvulsive seizures. Presently, the endocrine theory has the strongest foundation to explain the working mechanism of ECT.

6 Article Clinical and psychometric validation of the psychotic depression assessment scale. 2015

Østergaard, Søren D / Pedersen, Christina H / Uggerby, Peter / Munk-Jørgensen, Povl / Rothschild, Anthony J / Larsen, Jens Ivar / Gøtzsche, Camilla / Søndergaard, Mia G / Bille, Anna Gry / Bolwig, Tom G / Larsen, Jens Knud / Bech, Per. ·Research Department P, Aarhus University Hospital - Risskov, Risskov, Denmark; Unit for Psychiatric Research, Aalborg Psychiatric Hospital, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark. Electronic address: soeoes@rm.dk. · Unit for Psychiatric Research, Aalborg Psychiatric Hospital, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark. · Department M, Aarhus University Hospital - Risskov, Risskov, Denmark. · University of Massachusetts Medical School and University of Massachusetts Memorial Health Care, Worcester, MA, USA. · Psychiatric Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Laboratory of Neuropsychiatry, Psychiatric Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Psychiatric Research Unit, Psychiatric Center North Zealand, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hillerød, Denmark. ·J Affect Disord · Pubmed #25462426.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that the 11-item Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), consisting of the 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6) of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and 5 psychosis items from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), is a valid measure for the severity of psychotic depression. The aim of this study was to subject the PDAS, and its depression (HAM-D6) and psychosis (BPRS5) subscales to further validation. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with psychotic depression at Danish psychiatric hospitals participated in semi-structured interviews. Video recordings of these interviews were assessed by two experienced psychiatrists (global severity rating of psychotic depression, depressive symptoms and psychotic symptoms) and by two young physicians (rating on 27 symptom items, including the 11 PDAS items). The clinical validity and responsiveness of the PDAS and its subscales was investigated by Spearman correlation analysis of the global severity ratings and the PDAS, HAM-D6, and BPRS5 total scores. The unidimensionality of the scales was tested by item response theory analysis (Mokken). RESULTS: Ratings from 39 participants with unipolar psychotic depression and nine participants with bipolar psychotic depression were included in the analysis. The Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the PDAS, HAM-D6 and BPRS5 were clinically valid (correlation coefficients from 0.78 to 0.85, p<0.001) and responsive (correlation coefficients from 0.72 to 0.86, p<0.001) measures of psychotic depression. According to the Mokken analysis, all three scales were unidimensional. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical validity, responsiveness and unidimensionality of the PDAS and its subscales were confirmed in an independent sample of patients with psychotic depression.

7 Article Systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage in clinical depression: associations to symptom severity and response to electroconvulsive therapy. 2013

Jorgensen, Anders / Krogh, Jesper / Miskowiak, Kamilla / Bolwig, Tom G / Kessing, Lars V / Fink-Jensen, Anders / Nordentoft, Merete / Henriksen, Trine / Weimann, Allan / Poulsen, Henrik E / Jorgensen, Martin B. ·Psychiatric Centre Copenhagen, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. anders.01.joergensen@regionh.dk ·J Affect Disord · Pubmed #23497793.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with increased oxidative stress and hypothesized to accelerate aging. Nucleic acid damage from oxidation is a critical part of the aging process, and a suggested early event in age-related somatic morbidities that are also prevalent in depression, such as dementia and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that increased severity of depression is associated with increased systemic oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, and that this increase is attenuated by an effective antidepressant treatment. METHODS: The urinary excretion of markers of systemic oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), respectively, were determined in healthy controls (N=28), moderately depressed, non-medicated patients (N=26) and severely depressed patients eligible for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (N=29). In the severely depressed patient group, samples were also obtained 1 week after the completion of ECT. RESULTS: Systemic RNA damage from oxidation, as measured by 8-oxoGuo excretion, was higher with increasing severity of depression (controlsSevere depression is associated with increased systemic oxidatively generated RNA damage, which may be an additional factor underlying the somatic morbidity and neurodegenerative features associated with depression. Due to the lack of normalization by clinically effective ECT, the phenomenon does not appear to be causally linked to the depressive state per se.

8 Article Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini. 2009

Bolwig, Tom G / Fink, Max. ·Department of Psychiatry, University of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, 9 Blegdamsvej, Copenhagen, Denmark. bolwig@tdcspace.dk ·J ECT · Pubmed #19209070.

ABSTRACT: The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described demonstrating that the electrical force encouraged hopeful applications. This history emphasizes the unique contribution in the induction of grand mal seizures as the therapeutic basis rather than the role of electricity alone.

9 Minor [Recovery of somatic functions in suicide patient--what about the mental functions?]. 2009

Bolwig, Tom G. · ·Ugeskr Laeger · Pubmed #19266696.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --