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Depression: HELP
Articles by Rajesh Kumar Goel
Based on 15 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, Rajesh K. Goel wrote the following 15 articles about Depression.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Managing epilepsy-associated depression: Serotonin enhancers or serotonin producers? 2017

Singh, Tanveer / Goel, Rajesh Kumar. ·Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, India. · Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, India. Electronic address: goelrkpup@gmail.com. ·Epilepsy Behav · Pubmed #28038393.

ABSTRACT: Depression is one of the major psychiatric comorbidities having a major impact on the quality of life in people with epilepsy (PWE). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered as safest therapy for the treatment of depression in PWE. Although administration of SSRIs increases the synaptic serotonin levels, it decreases the overall serotonin synthesis in the brain. Long-term therapy with SSRIs has been reported to decrease serotonin synthesis, which may be the possible reason for lessening of their antidepressant effect over time as well as elevated seizure outcomes observed in PWE. Thus the present scenario warrants streamlined studies to explore the safety and efficacy of SSRIs as well as approaches beyond SSRIs for treatment of depression in epilepsy. In this review, we outline the approaches which may restore serotonin levels rather than a pseudo enhancement of serotonin with SSRIs. The potential of various anti-inflammatory approaches such as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, inflammatory cytokine inhibitors, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors pertaining to their serotonin restoring effects is discussed as possible therapy for treatment of depression in epilepsy.

2 Article Ferulic Acid Supplementation for Management of Depression in Epilepsy. 2017

Singh, Tanveer / Kaur, Taranjot / Goel, Rajesh Kumar. ·Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 147002, India. · Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 147002, India. goelrkpup@gmail.com. ·Neurochem Res · Pubmed #28608235.

ABSTRACT: Neuroinflammation driven altered neurochemical milieu have been reported to play a significant role in pathogenesis of comorbid depression in epilepsy. Most of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as levetiracetam, taigabine, topiramate have not been reported any significant effect in alleviating neuroinflammation, which may explain their ineffectiveness in ameliorating depression associated with epilepsy. The supplementation of antidepressants (ADs) attracts various pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with AEDs and was considered unsafe in epilepsy. This scenario pushes us to search therapies beyond ADs by critically exploring the disease mechanism. Thus, as suggested by our previous findings, anti-inflammatory phytotherapy (Ferulic acid) appears a promising adjuvant therapy with levetiracetam for effective and safe management of depression associated with epilepsy. Pentylenetetrazole kindling induced epileptic animals were treated with vehicle, levetiracetam (40 mg/kg/day i.p.) and levetiracetam in combination with two doses of ferulic acid (40, 80 mg/kg)/day/p.o. for 15 days. Every 5th day during the treatment, depression was evaluated and animals were administered pentylenetetrazole to evaluate the effect of different pharmacological interventions on seizure severity. The epileptic animals were reported decreased seizure threshold associated with comorbid depression. The treatment with levetiracetam was found ineffective in ameliorating the associated depression. However ferulic acid supplementation with levetiracetam ameliorated comorbid depression supported with restored circulating corticosterone levels, decreased proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity in mice brain. Thus, suggesting supplementation of anti-inflammatory phytomolecules such as ferulic acid as safe and effective adjuvant therapy for the management of comorbid depression in epilepsy.

3 Article Agmatine for combined treatment of epilepsy, depression and cognitive impairment in chronic epileptic animals. 2017

Singh, Tanveer / Bagga, Neetu / Kaur, Anureet / Kaur, Navjot / Gawande, Dinesh Yugraj / Goel, Rajesh Kumar. ·Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 147002, India. · Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 147002, India; Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, Kamptee, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. · Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 147002, India. Electronic address: goelrkpup@gmail.com. ·Biomed Pharmacother · Pubmed #28586743.

ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is fourth most common neurological disorders associated with depression and cognitive deficits. As per present scenario, none of the antiseizure drugs have been reported successful to have ameliorative effect on epilepsy associated depression and cognitive deficits. Thus, the study was envisioned to assess an ameliorative potential of agmatine on epilepsy and its efficacy and safety for management of associated depression and cognitive deficits. The animals were made epileptic employing pentylenetetrazole (35mg/kg i.p. every 48±2h) kindling model of epilepsy and subsequently were treated with vehicle, valproic acid (300mg/kg/day i.p.) and agmatine (2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg)/day/i.p. for 15days. Except naïve, all the groups were challenged with same pentylenetetrazole dose as employed during kindling on days 5, 10, and 15 to evaluate seizure severity. Two hours after seizure severity test, tail suspension test and passive shock avoidance paradigm was employed to evaluate depression and cognitive behavior respectively. Results suggested that epileptic animals were significantly associated with depression and cognitive impairment. Chronic valproate treatment significantly reduced seizure severity, but was found unable to mitigate depression and cognitive deficits. However, agmatine treatment dose dependently ameliorated seizure severity as well as associated depression and cognitive deficits. On 15th day, animals were euthanized and pertinent neurochemical estimations were carried out in cortical and hippocampal areas of the mice brain. Thus, study concluded that agmatine ameliorated seizure severity, depression and cognitive impairment in epileptic animals, possibly via restoring glutamate-GABA neurotransmission and serotonin synthesis with decreased nitrosative stress.

4 Article Neurochemical evidence based suggested therapy for safe management of epileptogenesis. 2017

Kaur, Navjot / Singh, Tanveer / Kumar, Sandeep / Goel, Rajesh Kumar. ·Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, India. · Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, India. Electronic address: goelrkpup@gmail.com. ·Epilepsy Behav · Pubmed #28570965.

ABSTRACT: Most of the clinically available antiepileptic drugs have only antiseizure effects and are reported unable to prevent epileptogenesis. In the past decade, several drugs underwent clinical trials for management of epileptogenesis, but none of the drugs tested was found effective. One of the major lacunas is availability of appropriate preclinical approaches to delineate mechanisms of epileptogenesis. Thus, the present study attempts to suggest a neurochemistry based approach for safe management of epileptogenesis. The altered neurochemical milieu in amygdala, cortex and hippocampus areas of the mice brain in naïve, kindled and kindling resistant animals has been delineated. The endogenous natural antiepileptogenic neurochemical defense mechanism observed in kindling resistant animals may uncover neurochemical mechanisms of epileptogenesis and in turn suggest us novel interventions for safe management of epileptogenesis. The kindling epileptogenesis was carried out in two month old male Swiss albino mice by administering subconvulsive pentylenetetrazole (35mg/kg; i.p.) at an interval of 48±2h for 42days. 2h after the last pentylenetetrazole injection, the animals were subjected to behavioral evaluations. Four hours after behavioral evaluation, all animals were euthanized and discrete parts of brain (amygdala, cortex and hippocampus) were harvested for neurochemical analysis. Results revealed that 60% of animals responded to kindling as observed with decreased seizure threshold, while the rest were found resistant. The kindled animals were found to be associated with anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment; while in kindling resistant animals no such behavioral deficits were observed. The neurochemical analysis revealed that in kindled animals altered glutamate-GABA neurotransmission, and decreased taurine, glycine, d-serine, monoamine levels with elevated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity were observed, which may be convicted for progression of kindling epileptogenesis. However, in kindling resistant animals elevated GABA, taurine, tryptophan, serotonin, glycine, and d-serine levels with decreased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity were observed as natural endogenous antiepileptogenic mechanisms, which may be foreseen as safe pharmacological targets for management of epileptogenesis.

5 Article Adjuvant quercetin therapy for combined treatment of epilepsy and comorbid depression. 2017

Singh, Tanveer / Kaur, Taranjot / Goel, Rajesh Kumar. ·Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India. · Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India. Electronic address: goelrkpup@gmail.com. ·Neurochem Int · Pubmed #28065794.

ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is one of the major neurological disorders frequently associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression. The predisposition of tryptophan metabolism towards kynurenine pathway has been reported as one of the plausible reasons for association of depression in epilepsy. Hence, this study was envisaged to evaluate the dose dependent inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme employing quercetin (screened employing in vitro method) with levetiracetam for combined management of epilepsy and comorbid depression. Kindling was induced in male swiss albino mice by administration of pentylenetetrazole subconvulsive doses (35 mg/kg, i.p.) at an interval of 48 ± 2 h. Kindled animals were treated with vehicle, levetiracetam (40 mg/kg/day i.p.) levetiracetam in combination with different doses of quercetin (10 mg/kg; 20 mg/kg; 40 mg/kg)/day/p.o. for 15 days. Except naïve, all the groups were challenged with pentylenetetrazole (35 mg/kg i.p.) on day 5, 10, and 15 to evaluate the seizure severity score. Depression was evaluated in all experimental groups using the tail suspension and sucrose preference test on days 1, 5, 10 and 15, 2 h after pentylenetetrazole challenge. Results suggested that vehicle treated kindled animals were significantly associated with depression. Chronic levetiracetam treatment significantly reduced seizure severity score, but further worsened the associated depression. Quercetin supplementation with levetiracetam dose dependently ameliorated depression associated with epilepsy. Neurochemical and biochemical findings also supported the behavioural findings of the study. Thus, our results suggested that supplementation of quercetin with levetiracetam could be explored further for combined treatment of epilepsy and comorbid depression.

6 Article Adjuvant neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition for combined treatment of epilepsy and comorbid depression. 2017

Singh, Tanveer / Goel, Rajesh Kumar. ·Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India. · Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India. Electronic address: goelrkpup@gmail.com. ·Pharmacol Rep · Pubmed #27923157.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Elevated nitric oxide (NO) levels in the brain have been apparently associated with depression in kindled animals. Owing to the major role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in brain and ineffectiveness of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in restoring nitrosative stress, the present study was envisaged to evaluate the adjuvant nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) with valproic acid for combined treatment of epilepsy and associated depression. METHODS: Pentylenetetrazole kindled animals associated with depression were treated with vehicle, valproate (300mg/kg/day ip), valproate with 7-NI (10mg/kg; 20mg/kg; 40mg/kg)/day ip and 7-NI (40mg/kg/day ip) for 15days. Except naïve, all groups were challenged with pentylenetetrazole (35mg/kg ip) on days 5, 10, and 15 to evaluate seizure severity. Depression was evaluated in all experimental groups using the tail suspension and forced swim test on days 1, 5, 10 and 15. On day 15, biochemical (corticosterone levels) and neurochemical (serotonin, kynurenine, tryptophan, glutamate, GABA, nitrite levels) estimations were carried out in cortical and hippocampal area of mice brain. RESULTS: Vehicle treated kindled animals were significantly associated with depression. Chronic valproate treatment in kindled animals significantly reduced seizure severity, but could not reverse associated depression. 7-NI per se treatment in kindled animals was also reported unable to restore the associated depression completely. However, 7-NI supplementation with valproate significantly reduced seizure severity score and completely ameliorated depression with restoration of altered biochemical and neurochemical milieu. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant nNOS inhibition can be previewed as safe therapy with AEDs for the combined management of epilepsy and associated depression.

7 Article Evidence in support of using a neurochemistry approach to identify therapy for both epilepsy and associated depression. 2016

Singh, Tanveer / Goel, Rajesh Kumar. ·Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and drug research, Punjabi University, Patiala, India. · Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and drug research, Punjabi University, Patiala, India. Electronic address: goelrkpup@gmail.com. ·Epilepsy Behav · Pubmed #27423076.

ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to develop a neurochemistry-based single or adjuvant therapy approach for comprehensive management of epilepsy and associated depression employing pentylenetetrazole-kindled animals. Kindling was induced in two-month-old male Swiss albino mice by administering a subconvulsant pentylenetetrazole dose (35mg/kg, i.p.) at an interval of 48±2h. These kindled animals were treated with saline and sodium valproate (300mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 15days. Except for the naïve group, all other groups were challenged with pentylenetetrazole (35mg/kg, i.p.) on days 5, 10, and 15 to evaluate the seizure severity. Depression was evaluated in all experimental groups after normalization of locomotor activity, using tail suspension and forced swim test on days 1, 5, 10, and 15. Four hours after behavioral evaluations on day 15, all animals were euthanized to collect their serum and discrete brain parts. Corticosterone levels were estimated in all the experimental groups as a marker of a dysregulated hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis. Neurochemical alterations (norepinephrine, dopamine, tryptophan, kynurenine, serotonin, glutamate, GABA, and total nitrate levels) were also estimated in the cortical and hippocampal areas of the mouse brain. Results revealed that saline-treated kindled animals were associated with significant depression and altered neurochemical milieu in comparison with naïve animals. Chronic valproate treatment in kindled animals significantly reduced seizure severity score bud did not ameliorate associated depression or completely restore altered biochemical and neurochemical milieu. Based on the observation of neurochemical changes in all the groups, we propose that restoration of altered neurochemical milieu, elevated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme activity, and corticosterone levels using pharmacological tools with/out valproic acid may be explored for management of both epilepsy and comorbid depression.

8 Article Protective Effect of Nerolidol Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling, Oxidative Stress and Associated Behavioral Comorbidities in Mice. 2016

Kaur, Dilpreet / Pahwa, Priyanka / Goel, Rajesh Kumar. ·Pharmacology Division, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, 147002, Punjab, India. · Pharmacology Division, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, 147002, Punjab, India. goelrkpup@gmail.com. ·Neurochem Res · Pubmed #27418279.

ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of nerolidol on the development of kindling and associate oxidative stress and behavioral comorbidities. Kindling was induced by repeated injections of a sub-convulsive dose of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ-35 mg/kg; i.p.), at an interval of 48 ± 2 h for 43 days (21 injections). Nerolidol was administered daily in three doses (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) along with alternate day PTZ injection. To access behavioral comorbidities, animals were subjected to tail suspension test (TST) and passive shock avoidance (PSA) test to evaluate the associated depression and memory impairment respectively on the last day of PTZ administration. Following behavioral assessment, neurotransmitter level and oxidative stress markers were evaluated in brain. The results showed that nerolidol significantly suppressed the progression of kindling. Also, nerolidol ameliorates the kindling associated depression and memory impairment as indicated by decreased immobility time and increased step down latency, respectively, as compared to vehicle control animals. Further, these behavioral observations were complimented with corresponding neurochemical and oxidative stress markers changes. In conclusion, the results of present study showed that nerolidol treatment has protective effect against PTZ-induced kindling and associated oxidative stress and behavioral comorbidities.

9 Article Adjuvant indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme inhibition for comprehensive management of epilepsy and comorbid depression. 2016

Singh, Tanveer / Goel, Rajesh Kumar. ·Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India. · Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India. Electronic address: goelrkpup@gmail.com. ·Eur J Pharmacol · Pubmed #27189423.

ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is one of the major neurological disorders frequently associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression. Alteration of tryptophan metabolism towards kynurenine pathway may be one of the plausible reasons for association of depression in epilepsy. Hence, this study was envisaged to evaluate the dose dependent inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme (responsible for shifting tryptophan metabolism) employing minocycline with valproic acid for comprehensive management of epilepsy and comorbid depression. Kindling was induced in male swiss albino mice by administration of pentylenetetrazole subconvulsive dose (35mg/kg, i.p.) at an interval of 48±2h. Kindled animals were treated with saline, valproate (300mg/kg/day i.p.), valproate in combination with different doses of minocycline (10mg/kg; 20mg/kg; 40mg/kg)/day i.p. and minocycline per se (40mg/kg/day i.p.) for 15 days. Except naïve, all the groups were challenged with pentylenetetrazole (35mg/kg i.p.) on day 5, 10, and 15 to evaluate the seizure severity score. Depression was evaluated in all experimental groups using tail suspension and forced swim test on days 1, 5, 10 and 15, 2h after pentylenetetrazole challenge. Results suggested that saline treated kindled animals were significantly associated with depression. Chronic valproate treatment significantly reduced seizure severity score but unable to ameliorate the associated depression. Minocycline supplementation with valproic acid dose dependently ameliorated depression associated with epilepsy. Neurochemical and biochemical findings also supported the behavioural findings of the study. Thus, our results suggested that supplementation of IDO enzyme inhibitors with valproic acid could be explored further for comprehensive management of epilepsy and associated depression.

10 Article Ameliorative effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling and associated depression and memory deficit. 2016

Pahwa, Priyanka / Goel, Rajesh Kumar. ·Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India. · Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India. Electronic address: goelrkpup@gmail.com. ·Epilepsy Behav · Pubmed #26970996.

ABSTRACT: Asparagus racemosus (A. racemosus) roots are extensively used in traditional medicine for the management of epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of A. racemosus root extract (ARE) against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling and associated depression and memory deficit. Kindling was successfully induced by repeated administration of a subconvulsant dose of PTZ (35 mg/kg; i.p.) at an interval of 48 ± 2 h in 43 days (21 injections). Pretreatment with valproate (300 mg/kg; i.p.), a major antiepileptic drug as well as ARE significantly suppressed the progression of kindling. Moreover, ARE also ameliorated the kindling-associated depression and memory deficit as indicated by decreased immobility time and increased step-down latency, respectively, as compared to vehicle control animals. Further, these behavioral observations were complemented with analogous neurochemical changes. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that ARE treatment has an ameliorative effect against PTZ-induced kindling and associated behavioral comorbidities.

11 Article Ficus religiosa L. figs--a potential herbal adjuvant to phenytoin for improved management of epilepsy and associated behavioral comorbidities. 2014

Singh, Paramdeep / Singh, Damanpreet / Goel, Rajesh Kumar. ·Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India. · Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India. Electronic address: goelrkpup@gmail.com. ·Epilepsy Behav · Pubmed #25461211.

ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress, together with mitochondrial dysfunction, has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of epileptogenesis and its associated comorbidities. Phytoflavonoids have shown numerous beneficial ameliorative effects on different neurological disorders by virtue of their antioxidant effect. The present study investigated the effect of flavonoid-rich ethyl acetate fraction of the crude fig extract of Ficus religiosa in combination with phenytoin on seizure severity, depressive behavior, and cognitive deficit in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled mice. The flavonoid-rich ethyl acetate fraction of the crude fig extract was found to show significant antioxidant potential in various in vitro free radical scavenging assays. Combined treatment of this fraction (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg; i.p.) along with a subeffective dose of phenytoin (15 mg/kg; i.p.) in postkindled animals once daily for fifteen days showed a dose-dependent decrease in the seizure severity score, a decreased number of mistakes, increased step-down latency in passive shock avoidance paradigm, and decreased immobility time in the tail suspension test in comparison with the phenytoin only-treated group. Biochemical investigations of the brain tissue showed amelioration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and reduced catalase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, thereby indicating suppression of oxidative stress. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed the protective effect of the flavonoid-rich fraction of F. religiosa along with a subeffective dose of phenytoin in PTZ-kindling-associated cognitive deficit and depressive behavior with complete suppression of seizures through reduction of oxidative stress, supporting the the need for clinical evaluation of the supplementation of phytoflavonoids along with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for management of epilepsy and its psychiatric and cognitive comorbidities.

12 Article Ameliorative effect of Curcumin on seizure severity, depression like behavior, learning and memory deficit in post-pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice. 2013

Choudhary, Kailash M / Mishra, Awanish / Poroikov, Vladimir V / Goel, Rajesh Kumar. ·Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India. ·Eur J Pharmacol · Pubmed #23461849.

ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder and generally associated with certain psychiatric comorbidities. Among several comorbidities depressive behavior and cognitive impairment has been reported to be most debilitating comorbidity associated with epilepsy. This study was envisaged to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Curcumin on depression like behavior and cognitive impairment observed in pentylenetetrazole kindled animals. Male Swiss Albino mice were kindled with subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (35 mg/kg, i.p.). Successfully kindled animals were used in the study to observe the effect of different treatments. Treatment groups received phenytoin (30 mg/kg) and Curcumin (50, 100 and 200mg/kg) for 15 days. The animals were challenged with pentylenetetrazole (35 mg/kg, i.p.) on day 5, 10 and 15 and seizure severity score, immobility period, number of mistakes and step down latency were recorded. On 15th day, all the animals were sacrificed after behavioral evaluations and their brain was isolated and homogenized to estimate brain norepinephrine, serotonin, total nitrite level and acetylcholinesterase activity. Phenytoin treatment significantly improved the depressive like behavior along with its anticonvulsant effect, however was unable to improve memory impairment. Curcumin significantly attenuated seizure severity, depression like behavior and memory impairment in kindled animals, in dose dependent manner. These results were supported by the biochemical modulation of brain monoamine, nitrosative stress level and acetylcholinesterase activity. Thus present study concluded that Curcumin has the ameliorative effect on seizure severity, depression like behavior and memory impairment in pentylenetetrazole kindled mice, possibly via central monoaminergic modulation and inhibitory effect on nitrosative stress and acetylcholinesterase activity.

13 Article Effect of saponin fraction from Ficus religiosa on memory deficit, and behavioral and biochemical impairments in pentylenetetrazol kindled mice. 2013

Singh, Damanpreet / Mishra, Awanish / Goel, Rajesh Kumar. ·Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India. ·Epilepsy Behav · Pubmed #23332444.

ABSTRACT: In our previous study, the saponin-rich fraction (SRF) of adventitious root extract of Ficus religiosa L. (Moraceae) was shown to have an anticonvulsant effect in acute animal models of convulsions. The present study was envisaged to study the effect of SRF in the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling mouse model and its associated depression and cognition deficit. Treatment with the SRF (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg; i.p.) for 15 days in kindled mice significantly decreased seizure severity on days 5, 10 and 15 when challenged with PTZ (35 mg/kg; i.p.). Marked protection against kindling-associated depression was also observed on days 10 and 15 in the SRF-treated groups when tested using the tail-suspension test. However, the SRF treatment failed to protect kindling-associated learning and memory impairments in the passive shock avoidance paradigm. The observed behavioral effects were corroborated with modulation in the levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, GABA and glutamate in discrete brain regions.

14 Article Dual protective effect of Passiflora incarnata in epilepsy and associated post-ictal depression. 2012

Singh, Bhupinder / Singh, Damanpreet / Goel, Rajesh Kumar. ·Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002, Punjab, India. ·J Ethnopharmacol · Pubmed #22107833.

ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae) has been used for the treatment of epilepsy in several traditional systems of medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata contain multiple bioactive metabolites such as, flavonoids (like, chrysin that show CNS depressant activity by agonizing GABA-benzodiazepine receptor), amino acids (like, GABA), harmala alkaloids (reversible monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor), etc. In view of this, the present study was designed to investigate dual protective effect of the hydroethanolic extract of Passiflora incarnata in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure and associated post-ictal depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different groups of mice were administered with repeated subconvulsive doses of PTZ (50mg/kg; i.p.) at an interval of 5 days for 15 days. From 5th to 15th day the animals in different groups were administered daily with varying doses of hydroethanolic extract of Passiflora incarnata (150, 300, and 600mg/kg; i.p.), diazepam (2mg/kg; i.p.) and vehicle. On every 5th day, after PTZ treatment, seizure severity (score) was noted. Following convulsive episodes the locomotor activity (using actophotometer) and immobility period (using forced swim test) were also determined. On 15th day after behavioral assessment, the brain serotonin and noradrenaline levels were determined using spectrofluorometric methods. RESULTS: Treatment with the extract significantly (p<0.05) reduced the seizure severity and immobility period as compared to vehicle control, in a dose and time-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract treatment retained the serotonin and noradrenaline levels of the brain. CONCLUSIONS: The results of present study concluded that the hydroethanolic extract of Passiflora incarnata suppress PTZ-induced seizures, and ameliorates its associated post-ictal depression, which has been found to be get worsened with the standard antiepileptic drug, diazepam.

15 Article PASS-assisted exploration of antidepressant activity of 1,3,4-trisubstituted-beta-lactam derivatives. 2008

Mittal, Munish / Goel, Rajesh K / Bhargava, Gaurav / Mahajan, Mohinder P. ·Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab 147002, India. ·Bioorg Med Chem Lett · Pubmed #18835165.

ABSTRACT: Assisted by PASS predictions, the antidepressant activity of 1,3,4-trisubstituted monocyclic beta-lactams in seasonal affective disorders is described.