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Depression: HELP
Articles by Tolulope T. Sajobi
Based on 14 articles published since 2010
(Why 14 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, T. Sajobi wrote the following 14 articles about Depression.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Article Global assessment of migraine severity measure: preliminary evidence of construct validity. 2019

Sajobi, Tolulope T / Amoozegar, Farnaz / Wang, Meng / Wiebe, Natalie / Fiest, Kirsten M / Patten, Scott B / Jette, Nathalie. ·Department of Community Health Sciences and O'Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Cumming School of Medicine 3280 Hospital Drive NW Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4Z6, Canada. ttsajobi@ucalgary.ca. · Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences and O'Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Cumming School of Medicine 3280 Hospital Drive NW Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4Z6, Canada. · Department of Critical Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. · Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA. ·BMC Neurol · Pubmed #30947702.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In persons with migraine, severity of migraine is an important determinant of several health outcomes (e.g., patient quality of life and health care resource utilization). This study investigated how migraine patients rate the severity of their disease and how these ratings correlate with their socio-demographic, clinical, and psycho-social characteristics. METHODS: This is a cohort of 263 adult migraine patients consecutively enrolled in the Neurological Disease and Depression Study (NEEDs). We obtained a broad range of clinical and patient-reported measures (e.g., patients' ratings of migraine severity using the Global Assessment of Migraine Severity (GAMS), and migraine-related disability, as measured by the Migraine Disability Scale (MIDAS)). Depression was measured using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the 14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Median regression analysis was used to examine the predictors of patient ratings of migraine severity. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients was 42.5 years (SD = 13.2). While 209 (79.4%) patients were females, 177 (67.4%) participants reported "moderately severe" to "extremely severe" migraine on the GAMS, and 100 (31.6%) patients had chronic migraine. Patients' report of severity on the GAMS was strongly correlated with patients' ratings of MIDAS global severity question, overall MIDAS score, migraine type, PHQ-9 score, and frequency of migraine attacks. Mediation analyses revealed that MIDAS mediated the effect of depression on patient ratings of migraine severity, accounting for about 32% of the total effect of depression. Overall, migraine subtype, frequency of migraine, employment status, depression, and migraine-related disability were statistically significant predictors of patient-ratings of migraine severity. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the impact of clinical and psychosocial determinants of patient-ratings of migraine severity. GAMS is a brief and valid tool that can be used to assess migraine severity in busy clinical settings.

2 Article Trajectories of perceived social support in acute coronary syndrome. 2019

Wang, Meng / Norris, Colleen M / Graham, Michelle M / Santana, Maria / Liang, Zhiying / Awosoga, Oluwagbohunmi / Southern, Danielle A / James, Matthew T / Wilton, Stephen B / Quan, Hude / Lu, Mingshan / Ghali, William / Knudtson, Merril / Sajobi, Tolulope T. ·Department of Community Health Sciences & O'Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. · Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. · Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. · Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Canada. · Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. · Department of Cardiac Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. · Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences & O'Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. tolu.sajobi@ucalgary.ca. ·Qual Life Res · Pubmed #30607784.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Perceived social support is known to be an important predictor of health outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study investigates patterns of longitudinal trajectories of patient-reported perceived social support in individuals with ACS. METHODS: Data are from 3013 patients from the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease registry who had their first cardiac catheterization between 2004 and 2011. Perceived social support was assessed using the 19-item Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS) 2 weeks, 1 year, and 3 years post catheterization. Group-based trajectory analysis based on longitudinal multiple imputation model was used to identify distinct subgroups of trajectories of perceived social support over a 3-year follow-up period. RESULTS: Three distinct social support trajectory subgroups were identified, namely: "High" social support group (60%), "Intermediate" social support group (30%), and "Low" social support subgroup (10%). Being female (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = [1.18-2.36]), depression (OR = 8.10; 95% CI = [4.27-15.36]) and smoking (OR = 1.70; 95% CI = [1.23-2.35]) were predictors of the differences among these trajectory subgroups. CONCLUSION: Although the majority of ACS patients showed increased or fairly stable trajectories of social support, about 10% of the cohort reported declining social support. These findings can inform targeted psycho-social interventions to improve their perceived social support and health outcomes.

3 Article Effects of depression and anxiety on quality of life in five common neurological disorders. 2018

Prisnie, Joey C / Sajobi, Tolulope T / Wang, Meng / Patten, Scott B / Fiest, Kirsten M / Bulloch, Andrew G M / Pringsheim, Tamara / Wiebe, Samuel / Jette, Nathalie. ·Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada. · Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Community Health Sciences and O'Brien Institute for Public Health, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences and O'Brien Institute for Public Health, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Psychiatry and Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research, University of Calgary, Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences and O'Brien Institute for Public Health, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada. · Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Community Health Sciences and O'Brien Institute for Public Health, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada. · Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Community Health Sciences and O'Brien Institute for Public Health, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, United States. Electronic address: nathalie.jette@mssm.edu. ·Gen Hosp Psychiatry · Pubmed #29684713.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether anxiety and depression impact health-related quality of life (HRQoL) equally across neurological diseases. This study examines the association between anxiety or depression and HRQoL in select neurological disorders. METHODS: HRQoL was measured using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) in neurological patients: epilepsy (n = 279), migraine (n = 268), multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 222), stroke (n = 204), and Parkinson's disease (PD) (n = 224). Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A), respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate variables associated with the SF-12 mental health component (MCS) and physical health component scores (PCS). Pratt index was used to estimate the relative importance of anxiety and depression on HRQoL. RESULTS: Anxiety and depression had the largest contribution to PCS in stroke and to MCS in epilepsy. Overall, anxiety and depression had a larger contribution to MCS as compared to PCS, except in stroke patients. Different patterns were seen across neurological diseases, with mental health variables strongly affecting MCS in all conditions, with also a sizable contribution to PCS in migraine, MS, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression have varying impacts on HRQoL across neurological diseases. It is important for clinicians to be aware of how these patterns differ in each condition.

4 Article Trajectories of Health-Related Quality of Life in Coronary Artery Disease. 2018

Sajobi, Tolulope T / Wang, Meng / Awosoga, Oluwagbohunmi / Santana, Maria / Southern, Danielle / Liang, Zhiying / Galbraith, Diane / Wilton, Stephen B / Quan, Hude / Graham, Michelle M / James, Matthew T / Ghali, William A / Knudtson, Merrill L / Norris, Colleen / Anonymous1140940. ·From the Department of Community Health Sciences, O'Brien Institute for Public Health (T.T.S., M.W., M.S., D.S., Z.L., D.G., H.Q., M.T.J., W.A.G.), Department of Cardiac Sciences (D.G., S.B.W., M.L.K.), and Department of Medicine (S.B.W., M.T.J., W.A.G., M.L.K.), University of Calgary, Canada · Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Canada (O.A.) · and Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry (M.M.G.) and Faculty of Nursing (C.N.), University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. ·Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes · Pubmed #29545392.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessment is an important health outcome for measuring the efficacy of treatments and interventions for coronary artery disease (CAD). HRQOL is known to improve over the first year after interventions for CAD, but there is limited knowledge of the changes in HRQOL beyond 1 year. We investigated heterogeneity in long-term trajectories of HRQOL in patients with CAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were obtained from 6226 patients identified from the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease with at least 1-vessel CAD who underwent their first catheterization between 2006 and 2009. HRQOL was assessed using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire, a 19-item disease-specific measure of HRQOL for patients with CAD. Group-based trajectory analysis was used to identify various subgroups of Seattle Angina Questionnaire trajectories over time while adjusting for missing data through a longitudinal multiple imputation model. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of differences among the identified subgroups. Our analysis revealed significant improvements in HRQOL across all the 5 domains of Seattle Angina Questionnaire overtime for the whole data. Multitrajectory analyses revealed 4 HRQOL trajectory subgroups including high (25.1%), largely increased (32.3%), largely decreased (25.0%), and low (17.6%) trajectories. Age, sex, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, previous history of myocardial infarction, smoking, depression, anxiety, type of treatment received, and perceived social support were significant predictors of differences among these trajectory subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights variations in longitudinal trajectories of HRQOL in patients with CAD. Despite overall improvements in HRQOL, about a quarter of our cohort experienced a significant decline in their HRQOL over the 5-year period. Understanding these HRQOL trajectories may help personalize prognostic information, identify patients and HRQOL domains on which clinical interventions are most beneficial, and support treatment decisions for patients with CAD.

5 Article Major depression and secondhand smoke exposure. 2018

Patten, Scott B / Williams, Jeanne V A / Lavorato, Dina H / Woolf, Benjamin / Wang, Jian Li / Bulloch, Andrew G M / Sajobi, Tolulope. ·Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6; Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Canada; Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Canada. Electronic address: patten@ucalgary.ca. · Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6. · Oxford University, Oxford, UK. · Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6; Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Canada; Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Canada; O'Brien Institute for Public Health, Canada. ·J Affect Disord · Pubmed #28841490.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have consistently linked smoking to poor mental health. Among non-smokers, some studies have also reported associations between secondhand smoke exposure and psychological symptoms. However, an association between secondhand smoke exposure and depressive disorders has not been well established. METHODS: This analysis used cross-sectional data from a series of 10 population surveys conducted in Canada between 2003 and 2013. The surveys targeted the Canadian household population, included a brief structured interview for past year major depressive episode (MDE) and included items assessing secondhand smoke exposure. We used two-stage individual-level random-effects meta-regression to synthesize results from these surveys. RESULTS: Over the study interval, about 20% of non-smokers reported substantial exposure to secondhand smoke. In this group, the pooled annual prevalence of MDE was 6.1% (95% CI 5.3-6.9) compared to 4.0% (95% CI 3.7-4.3) in non-smokers without secondhand smoke exposure. The crude odds ratio was 1.5 (95% CI 1.4-1.7). With adjustment for a set of potential confounding variables the odds ratio was unchanged, 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 - 1.6). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide additional support for public health measures aimed at reducing secondhand smoke exposure. A causal connection between secondhand smoke exposure and MDEs cannot be confirmed due to the cross-sectional nature of the data. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish temporal sequencing.

6 Article Patterns of association of chronic medical conditions and major depression. 2018

Patten, S B / Williams, J V A / Lavorato, D H / Wang, J L / Jetté, N / Sajobi, T T / Fiest, K M / Bulloch, A G M. ·Department of Community Health Sciences and Department of Psychiatry,Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary,Calgary, AB, T2N 4Z6,Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences,University of Calgary,Calgary, AB, T2N 4Z6,Canada. · Department of Psychiatry and Department of Community Health Sciences,University of Calgary, Mathison Centre for Research & Education in Mental Health, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary,Calgary, AB, T2N 4Z6,Canada. · Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Department of Community Health Sciences,Hotchkiss Brain Institute and O'Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary,Calgary, AB, T2N 4Z6,Canada. · Critical Care Medicine,University of Calgary,Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4,Canada. ·Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci · Pubmed #27784343.

ABSTRACT: AIMS: Age and sex-related patterns of association between medical conditions and major depressive episodes (MDE) are important for understanding disease burden, anticipating clinical needs and for formulating etiological hypotheses. General population estimates are especially valuable because they are not distorted by help-seeking behaviours. However, even large population surveys often deliver inadequate precision to adequately describe such patterns. In this study, data from a set of national surveys were pooled to increase precision, supporting more precise characterisation of these associations. METHODS: The data were from a series of Canadian national surveys. These surveys used comparable sampling strategies and assessment methods for MDE. Chronic medical conditions were assessed using items asking about professionally diagnosed medical conditions. Individual-level meta-analysis methods were used to generate unadjusted, stratified and adjusted prevalence odds ratios for 11 chronic medical conditions. Random effects models were used in the meta-analysis. A procedure incorporating rescaled replicate bootstrap weights was used to produce 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Overall, conditions characterised by pain and inflammation tended to show stronger associations with MDE. The meta-analysis uncovered two previously undescribed patterns of association. Effect modification by age was observed in varying degrees for most conditions. This effect was most prominent for high blood pressure and cancer. Stronger associations were found in younger age categories. Migraine was an exception: the strength of association increased with age, especially in men. Second, especially for conditions predominantly affecting older age groups (arthritis, diabetes, back pain, cataracts, effects of stroke and heart disease) confounding by age was evident. For each condition, age adjustment resulted in strengthening of the associations. In addition to migraine, two conditions displayed distinctive patterns of association. Age adjusted odds ratios for thyroid disease reflected a weak association that was only significant in women. In epilepsy, a similar strength of association was found irrespective of age or sex. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of MDE is elevated in association with most chronic conditions, but especially those characterised by inflammation and pain. Effect modification by age may reflect greater challenges or difficulties encountered by young people attempting to cope with these conditions. This pattern, however, does not apply to migraine or epilepsy. Neurobiological changes associated with these conditions may offset coping-related effects, such that the association does not weaken with age. Prominent confounding by age for several conditions suggests that age adjustments are necessary in order to avoid underestimating the strength of these associations.

7 Article Major depression and non-specific distress following smoking cessation in the Canadian general population. 2017

Patten, Scott B / Williams, Jeanne V A / Lavorato, Dina H / Wang, Jian Li / Sajobi, Tolulope T / Bulloch, Andrew G M. ·Department of Community Health Sciences and Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Canada; Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Canada; Senior Health Scholar, Alberta Innovates, Health Solutions, Canada; Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6. Electronic address: patten@ucalgary.ca. · Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6. · Department of Community Health Sciences and Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Canada; Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences and Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary and the O'Brien Institute for Public Health, Canada. ·J Affect Disord · Pubmed #28477495.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Outcome data from smoking cessation trials indicate that improvement in mental health occurs after smoking cessation. This suggests that smoking cessation should be a priority for mental health services. However, participants in such trials may not be representative of the general population. This study investigates changes in mental health following smoking cessation in a set of general population samples. METHODS: Data from a library of cross-sectional surveys conducted by Statistics Canada between 2001 and 2013 were included in this analysis. Survey estimates were pooled in order to increase precision. Associations between smoking (and smoking cessation), major depressive episodes (MDE) and non-specific distress (assessed using the K-6 scale) were evaluated using meta-analysis and meta-regression techniques. RESULTS: The annual prevalence of major depression was higher in daily (11.0%) than in never smokers (4.4%). The prevalence in former daily smokers was 5.1%. The prevalence of MDE and distress was elevated in those recently quitting but returned to baseline levels within one year. CONCLUSIONS: After smoking cessation, indicators of mental health improve over time, especially in the first year. The findings support the idea that smoking cessation should be a part of the management of common mood and anxiety disorders. However, due to its observational nature this study in itself cannot confirm causality, sustained abstinence may be an effect of improved mental health rather than its cause. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional nature of the constituent surveys does not allow causal inference. No biological measures (e.g. cotinine) were available.

8 Article Association of Depression and Treated Depression With Epilepsy and Seizure Outcomes: A Multicohort Analysis. 2017

Josephson, Colin B / Lowerison, Mark / Vallerand, Isabelle / Sajobi, Tolulope T / Patten, Scott / Jette, Nathalie / Wiebe, Samuel. ·Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada2Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada3Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada4O'Brien Institute of Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada5Clinical Research Unit, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada3Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada4O'Brien Institute of Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada6Department of Psychiatry, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. · Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada2Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada3Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada4O'Brien Institute of Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada5Clinical Research Unit, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ·JAMA Neurol · Pubmed #28241168.

ABSTRACT: Importance: A bidirectional relationship exists between epilepsy and depression. However, any putative biological gradient between depression severity and the risk of epilepsy, and the degree to which depression mediates the influence of independent risk factors for epilepsy, has yet to be examined. Objective: To determine the effect of depression on the risk of epilepsy and seizure outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: An observational study of a population-based primary care cohort (all patients free of prevalent depression and epilepsy at 18-90 years of age who were active after the Acceptable Mortality Reporting date in The Health Improvement Network database) and a prospectively collected tertiary care cohort (all patients whose data were prospectively collected from the Calgary Comprehensive Epilepsy Programme). The analyses were performed on March 16, 2016. Main Outcome and Measures: The hazard of developing epilepsy after incident depression and vice versa was calculated. In addition, a mediation analysis of the effect of depression on risk factors for epilepsy and the odds of seizure freedom stratified by the presence of depression were performed. Results: We identified 10 595 709 patients in The Health Improvement Network of whom 229 164 (2.2%) developed depression and 97 177 (0.9%) developed epilepsy. The median age was 44 years (interquartile range, 32-58 years) for those with depression and 56 years (interquartile range, 43-71 years) for those with epilepsy. Significantly more patients with depression (144 373 [63%] were women, and 84 791 [37%] were men; P < .001) or epilepsy (54 419 [56%] were women, and 42 758 [44%] were men; P < .001) were female. Incident epilepsy was associated with an increased hazard of developing depression (hazard ratio [HR], 2.04 [95% CI, 1.97-2.09]; P < .001), and incident depression was associated with an increased hazard of developing epilepsy (HR, 2.55 [95% CI, 2.49-2.60]; P < .001) There was an incremental hazard according to depression treatment type with lowest risk for those receiving counselling alone (HR, 1.84 [95% CI, 1.30-2.59]; P < .001), an intermediate risk for those receiving antidepressants alone (HR, 3.43 [95% CI, 3.37-3.47]; P < .001), and the highest risk for those receiving both (HR, 9.85 [95% CI, 5.74-16.90]; P < .001). Furthermore, depression mediated the relationship between sex, social deprivation, and Charlson Comorbidity Index with incident epilepsy, accounting for 4.6%, 7.1%, and 20.6% of the total effects of these explanatory variables, respectively. In the Comprehensive Epilepsy Programme, the odds of failing to achieve 1-year seizure freedom were significantly higher for those with depression or treated depression. Conclusions and Relevance: Common underlying pathophysiological mechanisms may explain the risk of developing epilepsy following incident depression. Treated depression is associated with worse epilepsy outcomes, suggesting that this may be a surrogate for more severe depression and that severity of depression is associated with severity of epilepsy.

9 Article Is the prevalence of major depression increasing in the Canadian adolescent population? Assessing trends from 2000 to 2014. 2017

Wiens, Kathryn / Williams, Jeanne V A / Lavorato, Dina H / Duffy, Anne / Pringsheim, Tamara M / Sajobi, Tolulope T / Patten, Scott B. ·Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Canada. Electronic address: kathrynwiens@ucalgary.ca. · Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Canada. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Canada; Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Canada. · Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Psychiatry, Pediatrics and Community Health Sciences, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Canada; Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Canada. ·J Affect Disord · Pubmed #28012349.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is a relatively common diagnosis with onset across the lifespan. There is a recent belief that major depressive episodes (MDE) are increasing in adolescence; however, it is not clear if this is truly an increase in prevalence or reflective of other causes such as change in diagnostic patterns. This study aimed to determine whether evidence supports an epidemic of MDE in Canadian adolescents. METHODS: Past year MDE prevalence estimates were derived from a series of nationally representative surveys. Random effects meta-regression and graphical analyses were used to evaluate trends. A post hoc analysis compared trends in MDE prevalence to trends in self-reported mood disorder diagnosis (made by a health professional). The sample was split into 9 birth cohorts to examine whether MDE prevalence increased in more recent cohorts. RESULTS: Prevalence of MDE did not significantly change between 2000 and 2014 (β=0.001; p=0.532), and there was no modification of trends by sex or age. However, prevalence of self-reported mood disorder diagnosis by a health professional increased from 2003 to 2014 (β=0.001; p=0.024). There was no indication that MDE prevalence differed by birth cohort. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include reduced precision in subgroup analyses, lack of clinical judgement in the structured diagnostic interview, and inability to differentiate mild, moderate and severe episodes of depression. CONCLUSION: These findings do not support an epidemic of MDE in adolescents, however as more individuals report diagnoses by a health professional, future policy may need to incorporate an increase in need of mental health services.

10 Article Seasonal variation in major depressive episode prevalence in Canada. 2017

Patten, S B / Williams, J V A / Lavorato, D H / Bulloch, A G M / Fiest, K M / Wang, J L / Sajobi, T T. ·Department of Community Health Sciences,University of Calgary,Calgary,Alberta,Canada. · Department of Internal Medicine (Neurology),University of Manitoba,Winnipeg,Manitoba,Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences and Department of Clinical Neurosciences,University of Calgary,Calgary,Alberta,Canada. ·Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci · Pubmed #26751782.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to describe variation, over the months of the year, in major depressive episode (MDE) prevalence. This is an important aspect of the epidemiological description of MDE, and one that has received surprisingly little attention in the literature. Evidence of seasonal variation in MDE prevalence has been weak and contradictory. Most studies have sought to estimate the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder using cut-points applied to scales assessing mood seasonality rather than MDE. This approach does not align with modern classification in which seasonal depression is a diagnostic subtype of major depression rather than a distinct category. Also, some studies may have lacked power to detect seasonal differences. We addressed these limitations by examining the month-specific occurrence of conventionally defined MDE and by pooling data from large epidemiological surveys to enhance precision in the analysis. METHOD: Data from two national survey programmes (the National Population Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey) were used, providing ten datasets collected between 1996 and 2013, together including over 500,000. These studies assessed MDE using a short form version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for major depression, with one exception being a 2012 survey that used a non-abbreviated version of the CIDI. The proportion of episodes occurring in each month was evaluated using items from the diagnostic modules and statistical methods addressing complex design features of these trials. Overall month-specific pooled estimates and associated confidence intervals were estimated using random effects meta-analysis and a gradient was assessed using a meta-regression model that included a quadratic term. RESULTS: There was considerable sampling variability when the month-specific proportions were estimated from individual survey datasets. However, across the various datasets, there was sufficient homogeneity to justify the pooling of these estimated proportions, producing large gains in precision. Seasonal variation was clearly evident in the pooled data. The highest proportion of episodes occurred in December, January and February and the lowest proportions occurred in June, July and August. The proportion of respondents reporting MDE in January was 70% higher than August, suggesting an association with implications for health policy. The pattern persisted with stratification for age group, sex and latitude. CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal effects in MDE may have been obscured by small sample sizes in prior studies. In Canada, MDE has clear seasonal variation, yet this is not addressed in the planning of services. These results suggest that availability of depression treatment should be higher in the winter than the summer months.

11 Article An investigation into the psychosocial effects of the postictal state. 2016

Josephson, Colin B / Engbers, Jordan D T / Sajobi, Tolulope T / Jette, Nathalie / Agha-Khani, Yahya / Federico, Paolo / Murphy, William / Pillay, Neelan / Wiebe, Samuel. ·From the Department of Clinical Neurosciences (C.B.J., N.J., Y.A.-K., P.F., W.M., N.P., S.W.), Clinical Research Unit (J.D.T.E., T.T.S., S.W.), and Department of Community Health Sciences (T.T.S., N.J., S.W.), Cumming School of Medicine, Hotchkiss Brain Institute (T.T.S., N.J., P.F., S.W.), and O'Brien Institute of Public Health (T.T.S., N.J., S.W.), University of Calgary, Canada. · From the Department of Clinical Neurosciences (C.B.J., N.J., Y.A.-K., P.F., W.M., N.P., S.W.), Clinical Research Unit (J.D.T.E., T.T.S., S.W.), and Department of Community Health Sciences (T.T.S., N.J., S.W.), Cumming School of Medicine, Hotchkiss Brain Institute (T.T.S., N.J., P.F., S.W.), and O'Brien Institute of Public Health (T.T.S., N.J., S.W.), University of Calgary, Canada. swiebe@ucalgary.ca. ·Neurology · Pubmed #26819455.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether postictal cognitive and behavioral impairment (PCBI) is independently associated with specific aspects of a patient's psychosocial health in those with epilepsy and nonepileptic events. METHODS: We used the University of Calgary's Comprehensive Epilepsy Clinic prospective cohort database to identify patients reporting PCBI. The cohort was stratified into those diagnosed with epilepsy or nonepileptic events at first clinic visit. Univariate comparisons and stepwise multiple logistic regression with backward elimination method were used to identify factors associated with PCBI for individuals with epilepsy and those with nonepileptic events. We then determined if PCBI was independently associated with depression and the use of social assistance when controlling for known risk factors. RESULTS: We identified 1,776 patients, of whom 1,510 (85%) had epilepsy and 235 had nonepileptic events (13%). PCBI was independently associated with depression in those with epilepsy (odds ratio [OR] 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.83; p = 0.03) and with the need for social assistance in those with nonepileptic events (OR 4.81; 95% CI 2.02-11.42; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PCBI appears to be significantly associated with differing psychosocial outcomes depending on the patient's initial diagnosis. Although additional research is necessary to examine causality, our results suggest that depression and employment concerns appear to be particularly important factors for patients with PCBI and epilepsy and nonepileptic attacks, respectively.

12 Article The association between major depression prevalence and sex becomes weaker with age. 2016

Patten, Scott B / Williams, Jeanne V A / Lavorato, Dina H / Wang, Jian Li / Bulloch, Andrew G M / Sajobi, Tolulope. ·Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 4Z6, Canada. patten@ucalgary.ca. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N4Z6, Canada. patten@ucalgary.ca. · Mathison Centre for Research and Education in Mental Health, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N4Z6, Canada. patten@ucalgary.ca. · Alberta Innovates, Health Solutions, 1500, 10104 - 103 Avenue, Edmonton, AB, T5J4A7, Canada. patten@ucalgary.ca. · Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 4Z6, Canada. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N4Z6, Canada. · Mathison Centre for Research and Education in Mental Health, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N4Z6, Canada. · Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, 1403 - 29 Street NW, Calgary, AB, T2N2T9, Canada. ·Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol · Pubmed #26743882.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Women have a higher prevalence of major depressive episodes (MDE) than men, and the annual prevalence of MDE declines with age. Age by sex interactions may occur (a weakening of the sex effect with age), but are easily overlooked since individual studies lack statistical power to detect interactions. The objective of this study was to evaluate age by sex interactions in MDE prevalence. METHODS: In Canada, a series of 10 national surveys conducted between 1996 and 2013 assessed MDE prevalence in respondents over the age of 14. Treating age as a continuous variable, binomial and linear regression was used to model age by sex interactions in each survey. To increase power, the survey-specific interaction coefficients were then pooled using meta-analytic methods. RESULTS: The estimated interaction terms were homogeneous. In the binomial regression model I (2) was 31.2 % and was not statistically significant (Q statistic = 13.1, df = 9, p = 0.159). The pooled estimate (-0.004) was significant (z = 3.13, p = 0.002), indicating that the effect of sex became weaker with increasing age. This resulted in near disappearance of the sex difference in the 75+ age group. This finding was also supported by an examination of age- and sex-specific estimates pooled across the surveys. CONCLUSIONS: The association of MDE prevalence with sex becomes weaker with age. The interaction may reflect biological effect modification. Investigators should test for, and consider inclusion of age by sex interactions in epidemiological analyses of MDE prevalence.

13 Article Determinants of disease severity in adults with epilepsy: Results from the Neurological Diseases and Depression Study. 2015

Sajobi, Tolulope T / Jette, Nathalie / Zhang, Yukun / Patten, Scott B / Fiest, Kirsten M / Engbers, Jordan D T / Lowerison, Mark W / Wiebe, Samuel. ·Department of Community Health Sciences & O'Brien Institute of Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Clinical Research Unit, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. Electronic address: tolu.sajobi@ucalgary.ca. · Department of Community Health Sciences & O'Brien Institute of Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. · Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences & O'Brien Institute of Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences & O'Brien Institute of Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. · Clinical Research Unit, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. · Department of Community Health Sciences & O'Brien Institute of Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Clinical Research Unit, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. ·Epilepsy Behav · Pubmed #26287469.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Epilepsy severity has been recognized as a significant predictor of health-related quality of life in patients with epilepsy. However, clinical markers of epilepsy severity such as seizure frequency often fail to capture important aspects of the disease. This study investigates the factors associated with patient-reported severity of epilepsy, assessed by the Global Assessment of Severity of Epilepsy (GASE) scale in adults with epilepsy. METHODS: Data from a cohort of 250 patients consecutively enrolled in the Neurological Diseases and Depression Study (NEEDS) were used to assess the determinants of epilepsy severity as measured by the GASE scale. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the mediation effect of clinical and sociodemographic characteristics on patients' ratings on the GASE scale. RESULTS: The mean age of the study participants was 39.8 (SD=14.9) years, of which 44.4% were male. About 66.8% of the participants reported "not at all severe" or "a little severe" epilepsy, while 0.4% reported "extremely severe" epilepsy. One-year seizure freedom, number of antiseizure medications, medication side effects, depression, anxiety, and seizure-related disability were identified as significant determinants of patients' ratings of epilepsy severity. Seizure-related disability mediated the effects of 1-year seizure freedom, number of antiseizure medications, and medication side effects on epilepsy severity. CONCLUSION: Overall, patients with epilepsy who reported higher GASE scores were less likely to achieve 1-year seizure freedom and more likely to be on more antiseizure medications, experience more side effects from medication, endorse more depression and anxiety symptoms, and have increased self-reported seizure-related disability. The identified determinants of global, self-rated epilepsy severity can aid the design of appropriate interventions and support services for patients with severe epilepsy.

14 Article Correlates of disability related to seizures in persons with epilepsy. 2015

Sajobi, Tolulope T / Jette, Nathalie / Fiest, Kirsten M / Patten, Scott B / Engbers, Jordan D T / Lowerison, Mark W / Wiebe, Samuel. ·Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. · Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. · Clinical Research Unit, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. · Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. · Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ·Epilepsia · Pubmed #26230669.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Seizure-related disability is an important contributor to health-related quality of life in persons with epilepsy. Yet, there is little information on patient-centered reports of seizure-related disability, as most studies focus on specific constructs of health-related disability, rather than epilepsy. We investigated how patients rate their own disability and how these ratings correlate with various clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 250 adults with epilepsy consecutively enrolled in the Neurological Disease and Depression Study (NEEDs), we obtained a broad range of clinical and patient-reported measures, including patients' ratings of seizure-related disability and epilepsy severity using self-completed, single-item, 7-point response global assessment scales. Spearman's correlation, multiple linear regression, and mediation analyses were used to examine the association between seizure-related disability scores and clinical and demographic characteristics of persons with epilepsy. RESULTS: The mean age and duration of epilepsy was 39.8 and 16.7 years, respectively. About 29.5% of the patients reported their seizures as "not at all disabling," whereas 5.8% of the patients reported them as "extremely disabling." Age, seizure freedom at 1 year, anxiety, and epilepsy severity were identified as statistically significant predictors of disability scores. The indirect effects of age and seizure freedom, attributable to mediation through epilepsy severity, accounted for 25.0% and 30.3% of the total effects of these determinants on seizure-related disability, respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: Measuring seizure-related disability has heuristic value and it has important correlates and mediators that can be targeted for intervention in practice. Addressing modifiable factors associated with disability (e.g., seizure freedom and anxiety) could have a significant impact on decreasing the burden of disability in people with epilepsy.