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Depression: HELP
Articles by David Watson
Based on 17 articles published since 2010
(Why 17 articles?)

Between 2010 and 2020, David Watson wrote the following 17 articles about Depression.
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Clinical Trial Mode of administration effects in psychopathology assessment: Analyses of gender, age, and education differences in self-rated versus interview-based depression. 2018

Levin-Aspenson, Holly F / Watson, David. ·Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame. ·Psychol Assess · Pubmed #28301195.

ABSTRACT: Respondents may answer sensitive questions differently depending on the mode of assessment (e.g., questionnaire, interview). The possibility of differences in these mode effects across groups is an important assessment consideration given the implications for test-score validity and bias. Although differences in mode effects are highly relevant to issues in clinical assessment, research is limited and generally fails to make use of psychometrically sound methods. The present research argues for greater attention to demographic differences in mode effects with regard to the assessment of psychopathology. Analyses of differences in mode effects in depression assessment are presented for gender, age, and education based on data from 440 community adults. Depression symptom ratings from a structured clinical interview were regressed on a self-report state depression composite score; analyses tested for differences of intercept and slope across gender, age, and education. Neither slope nor intercept differences were found for gender, but intercept differences were obtained for both age and level of education. These results indicate that younger and better educated respondents receive somewhat lower than expected ratings of depression in interviews, given their level of self-rated symptoms. These findings suggest that use of a single mode of assessment over- or underpredicts depression in certain participants. More generally, they demonstrate the value of multimethod assessment of psychopathology and justify further inquiry into mode-effect differences in clinical assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record

2 Article Clinical Utility of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS). 2019

Stasik-O'Brien, Sara M / Brock, Rebecca L / Chmielewski, Michael / Naragon-Gainey, Kristin / Koffel, Erin / McDade-Montez, Elizabeth / O'Hara, Michael W / Watson, David. ·1 Knox College, Galesburg, IL, USA. · 2 University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA. · 3 Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, USA. · 4 The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA. · 5 Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · 6 ETR Associates, Scotts Valley, CA, USA. · 7 University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA. · 8 University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA. ·Assessment · Pubmed #30043620.

ABSTRACT: Depressive and anxiety disorders are severe and disabling conditions that result in substantial cost and global societal burden. Accurate and efficient identification is thus vital to proper diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. The Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS) is a reliable and well-validated measure that provides dimensional assessment of both mood and anxiety disorder symptoms. The current study examined the clinical utility of the IDAS by establishing diagnostic cutoff scores and severity ranges using a large mixed sample (

3 Article National norms for the expanded version of the inventory of depression and anxiety symptoms (IDAS-II). 2018

Nelson, Graham H / O'Hara, Michael W / Watson, David. ·University of Iowa. · University of Notre Dame. ·J Clin Psychol · Pubmed #29327338.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The present study developed normative data for the expanded version of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS-II). The IDAS-II is a self-report measure containing 18 factor-analytically derived scales, each assessing a specific symptom of internalizing disorders, including depression, anxiety disorders, OCD, bipolar disorder, and PTSD. These normative data were used to examine group differences in internalizing symptoms across demographic characteristics. METHOD: A total of 1,836 Mechanical Turk users (47.6% male; mean age = 35.6) completed the IDAS-II; the sample was weighted to be representative of the U.S. population on gender, age, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Percentiles were derived for each of the IDAS-II scales. Age was the demographic characteristic most consistently associated with lower internalizing symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides information on the distribution of specific internalizing symptoms in a large national sample, as well as on how these symptoms are related to demographic characteristics.

4 Article Trait and facet-level predictors of first-onset depressive and anxiety disorders in a community sample of adolescent girls. 2018

Goldstein, Brandon L / Kotov, Roman / Perlman, Greg / Watson, David / Klein, Daniel N. ·Department of Psychology,Stony Brook University,Stony Brook,NY,USA. · Department of Psychiatry,Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY,USA. · Department of Psychology,University of Notre Dame,Notre Dame, IN,USA. ·Psychol Med · Pubmed #28929975.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Individual differences in neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness are associated with, and may predict onset of, internalizing disorders. These general traits can be parsed into facets, but there is a surprising paucity of research on facet risk for internalizing disorders. We examined general traits and facets of neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness in predicting first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders. METHODS: A community sample of 550 adolescent females completed general and facet-level personality measures and diagnostic interviews. Interviews were re-administered 18 months later. RESULTS: First onsets of depressive disorders were predicted by neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Facets predicting first onset of depression included depressivity (neuroticism facet) and lower positive emotionality and sociability (extraversion facets). First onsets of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were predicted by neuroticism, and particularly the facet of anxiousness. First onsets of social phobia were predicted at the facet level by anxiousness. First onsets of specific phobia were predicted by neuroticism, low conscientiousness, and all neuroticism facets. In multivariate analyses, first onsets of depression were uniquely predicted by depressivity, and onsets of GAD and social phobia were uniquely predicted by anxiousness over and above the general trait of neuroticism. CONCLUSIONS: General traits predict first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders. In addition, more specific associations are evident at the facet level. Facets can refine our understanding of the links between personality and psychopathology risk, and provide finer-grained targets for personality-informed interventions.

5 Article What Lies Beyond Neuroticism? An Examination of the Unique Contributions of Social-Cognitive Vulnerabilities to Internalizing Disorders. 2018

Naragon-Gainey, Kristin / Watson, David. ·1 University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA. · 2 University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA. ·Assessment · Pubmed #27411679.

ABSTRACT: Extensive research has identified various social-cognitive vulnerabilities for internalizing disorders. However, few studies have assessed multiple disorders simultaneously, so it is unclear whether these vulnerabilities are transdiagnostic or specific risk factors. Their unique associations with disorders are also uncertain, given that they correlate strongly with neuroticism and one other. Psychiatric outpatients completed self-report and interview measures of six disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, social anxiety, panic, obsessive-compulsive disorder), and personality (the Big Five, neuroticism facets, and four vulnerabilities: anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty, perfectionism, experiential avoidance). All constructs were modeled as latent variables using structural equation modeling. All four vulnerabilities were closely associated with neuroticism, loading on its anxiety facet in factor analyses. Furthermore, after accounting for the contribution of neuroticism facets, intolerance of uncertainty and experiential avoidance were not uniquely associated with any disorders, and perfectionism was only related to obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, anxiety sensitivity accounted for substantial unique variance in several disorders (i.e., depression, social anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and panic). We discuss theoretical and clinical implications of these results.

6 Article Basic dimensions defining mania risk: A structural approach. 2017

Stanton, Kasey / Gruber, June / Watson, David. ·Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame. · Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder. ·Psychol Assess · Pubmed #27254019.

ABSTRACT: Mania is the core criterion for bipolar disorder, a chronic and severe psychiatric illness centrally associated with positive affective disturbance. Many self-report measures have been created to assess symptoms of, and risk for, mania but there are notable disparities in their length, scope, and content. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the structure and correlates of a number of widely used "bipolar-relevant" (BR) measures (e.g., Hypomanic Personality Scale, Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale, General Behavior Inventory, Mood Disorder Questionnaire). Data from a community sample (Study 1, N = 329) and a student sample assessed at two time points (Study 2; Ns = 382 and 308, respectively) provided strong evidence that the BR measures were characterized by both (a) a well-defined common dimension when a single factor was extracted, and (b) a clear structure of Emotional Lability and Activated Positive Affect upon extracting two factors. The general factor showed a relatively nonspecific pattern of associations with personality and psychopathology. In contrast, the Emotional Lability factor showed its strongest relations with neuroticism and depressive symptoms, displaying comparatively weaker relations with measures of extraversion and positive emotionality. Conversely, although Activated Positive Affect also associated positively with depressive symptoms and with neuroticism in some instances, its strongest relations were with measures of extraversion and high arousal positive emotionality. These findings suggest that measures defining Emotional Lability seem to assess mood volatility to a greater extent, whereas measures defining the Activated Positive Affect factor capture an intense, high arousal form of positive emotionality. (PsycINFO Database Record

7 Article An Examination of the Structure and Construct Validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale. 2016

Stanton, Kasey / Watson, David. ·a Department of Psychology , University of Notre Dame. ·J Pers Assess · Pubmed #27050760.

ABSTRACT: The Wender Utah Rating Scale (Ward, Wender, & Reimherr, 1993 ) has been widely used in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research to assess childhood symptoms retrospectively, but little research has examined its factor structure and specificity in predicting ADHD versus other psychopathology. Consequently, this study had 2 goals: (a) to examine the Wender Utah Rating Scale's structure, and (b) to explicate the construct validity of this measure by relating factors from our structural analyses to other ADHD, psychopathology, and personality measures. Structural analyses in an adult community sample (N = 294) yielded a 3-factor structure of aggression (e.g., angry), internalizing distress (e.g., depressed), and academic difficulties (e.g., underachiever). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that these factors failed to display specificity in their associations with ADHD versus other psychopathology. Aggression and internalizing distress associated most strongly with indicators of externalizing (e.g., ill temper, manipulativeness) and internalizing psychopathology (e.g., depression, anxiety), respectively. Academic difficulties associated most strongly with ADHD symptoms, but these relations were relatively weak. Taken together, these findings raise concerns about the Wender Utah Rating Scale's construct validity, although additional longitudinal research is needed to clarify to what extent the Wender Utah Rating Scale validly assesses childhood ADHD symptoms.

8 Article Assessment of postpartum depressive symptoms: the importance of somatic symptoms and irritability. 2015

Williamson, J Austin / O'Hara, Michael W / Stuart, Scott / Hart, Kimberly J / Watson, David. ·University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA j-williamson@uiowa.edu. · University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA. · University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford, IL, USA. · University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA. ·Assessment · Pubmed #25059681.

ABSTRACT: Assessing postpartum depressive symptoms is complicated by the fact that irritability, fatigue, insomnia, and appetite disruptions are also related to normative aspects of the childbearing process. We used multigroup confirmatory factor analysis to compare symptoms in 271 postpartum women with those of 820 non-postpartum women. We found that (a) irritability, insomnia, fatigue, and appetite loss were substantially associated with depressed mood among postpartum women whereas increased appetite was not; (b) irritability, insomnia, fatigue, and appetite changes were as strongly related to depression among postpartum women as they were among non-postpartum women; and (c) after controlling for overall depressed mood, postpartum women reported more irritability, insomnia, and appetite loss than the non-postpartum women. Irritability, fatigue, insomnia, and appetite loss are valid indicators and should be used to measure postpartum depressive symptoms. However, scores on these symptoms should be adjusted downward to account for their higher baseline rates in the postpartum population.

9 Article Personality, Emotions, and the Emotional Disorders. 2014

Watson, David / Naragon-Gainey, Kristin. ·University of Notre Dame. · University at Buffalo The State University of New York. ·Clin Psychol Sci · Pubmed #25815243.

ABSTRACT: We examined symptom-level relations between the

10 Article Consensually defined facets of personality as prospective predictors of change in depression symptoms. 2014

Naragon-Gainey, Kristin / Watson, David. ·University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA kgainey@buffalo.edu. · University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA. ·Assessment · Pubmed #24671734.

ABSTRACT: Depression has robust associations with personality, showing a strong relation with neuroticism and more moderate associations with extraversion and conscientiousness. In addition, each Big Five domain can be decomposed into narrower facets. However, we currently lack consensus as to the contents of Big Five facets, with idiosyncrasies across instruments; moreover, few studies have examined associations with depression. In the current study, community participants completed six omnibus personality inventories; self-reported depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and 5 years later. Exploratory factor analyses suggested three to five facets in each domain, and these facets served as prospective predictors of depression in hierarchical regressions, after accounting for baseline and trait depression. In these analyses, high anger (from neuroticism), low positive emotionality (extraversion), low conventionality (conscientiousness), and low culture (openness to experiences) were significant prospective predictors of depression. Results are discussed in regard to personality structure and assessment, as well as personality-psychopathology associations.

11 Article The brief experiential avoidance questionnaire: development and initial validation. 2014

Gámez, Wakiza / Chmielewski, Michael / Kotov, Roman / Ruggero, Camilo / Suzuki, Nadia / Watson, David. ·University of Iowa. · Department of Psychology, Southern Methodist University. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Stony Brook University. · Department of Psychology, University of North Texas. · Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame. ·Psychol Assess · Pubmed #24059474.

ABSTRACT: The 62-item Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ) was recently developed to assess a broad range of experiential avoidance (EA) content. However, practical clinical and research considerations made a briefer measure of EA desirable. Using items from the original 62-item MEAQ, a 15-item scale was created that tapped content from each of the MEAQ's six dimensions. Items were selected on the basis of their performance in 3 samples: undergraduates (n = 363), psychiatric outpatients (n = 265), and community adults (n = 215). These items were then evaluated using 2 additional samples (314 undergraduates and 201 psychiatric outpatients) and cross-validated in 2 new, independent samples (283 undergraduates and 295 community adults). The resulting measure (Brief Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire; BEAQ) demonstrated good internal consistency. It also exhibited strong convergence with respect to each of the MEAQ's 6 dimensions. The BEAQ demonstrated expected associations with measures of avoidance, psychopathology, and quality of life and was distinguishable from negative affectivity and neuroticism.

12 Article The value of suppressor effects in explicating the construct validity of symptom measures. 2013

Watson, David / Clark, Lee Anna / Chmielewski, Michael / Kotov, Roman. ·Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame. · Department of Psychology, Southern Methodist University. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Stony Brook University. ·Psychol Assess · Pubmed #23795886.

ABSTRACT: Suppressor effects are operating when the addition of a predictor increases the predictive power of another variable. We argue that suppressor effects can play a valuable role in explicating the construct validity of symptom measures by bringing into clearer focus opposing elements that are inherent--but largely hidden--in the measure's overall score. We illustrate this point using theoretically grounded, replicated suppressor effects that have emerged in analyses of the original Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS; Watson et al., 2007) and its expanded 2nd version (IDAS-II; Watson et al., 2012). In Study 1, we demonstrate that the IDAS-II Appetite Gain and Appetite Loss scales contain both (a) a shared distress component that creates a positive correlation between them and (b) a specific symptom component that produces a natural negative association between them (i.e., people who recently have experienced decreased interest in food/loss of appetite are less likely to report a concomitant increase in appetite/weight). In Study 2, we establish that mania scales also contain 2 distinct elements-namely, high energy/positive emotionality and general distress/dysfunction-that oppose each another in many instances. In both studies, we obtained evidence of suppression effects that were highly robust across different types of respondents (e.g., clinical outpatients, community adults, college students) and using both self-report and interview-based measures. These replicable suppressor effects establish that many homogeneous, unidimensional symptom scales actually contain distinguishable components with distinct--at times, even antagonistic--properties.

13 Article Validity of somatic symptoms as indicators of depression in pregnancy. 2013

Nylen, Kimberly J / Williamson, J Austin / O'Hara, Michael W / Watson, David / Engeldinger, Jane. ·Department of Psychology, Idaho State University, 921 S. 8th Avenue, Stop 8112, Pocatello, ID 83209, USA. nylekimb@isu.edu ·Arch Womens Ment Health · Pubmed #23456541.

ABSTRACT: Somatic symptoms (e.g., fatigue, appetite changes, and sleep disruption) are common to both pregnancy and depression. The goal of the present study was to examine the validity of somatic symptoms as indicators of depression during pregnancy. The Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS) was administered to a cross-sectional sample of 255 pregnant women as well as 820 women from five community-based samples, who served as a control group. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the fit of a single-factor model of depression in pregnant and community samples. Multigroup CFA was used to test the invariance of the factor loadings of eight depression-related symptom scales. The fit for a one-factor model was adequate for both the pregnant and community samples. All eight IDAS scales were valuable indicators of depression in the community group; however, Appetite Loss and Appetite Gain were poor indicators of depression among the pregnant women. The factor loadings for Lassitude and Appetite Gain were significantly weaker amongst the pregnant women than community women. The magnitude of the factor loadings for Insomnia and Well Being were significantly greater for the pregnant group. With the exception of appetite disturbance, somatic symptoms, though a common occurrence during pregnancy, are valid indicators of depression during pregnancy. When assessing for prenatal depression, somatic symptoms should not necessarily be dismissed as normative pregnancy experiences.

14 Article Brief scales to detect postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms. 2012

O'Hara, Michael W / Stuart, Scott / Watson, David / Dietz, Patricia M / Farr, Sherry L / D'Angelo, Denise. ·University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. mike-ohara@uiowa.edu ·J Womens Health (Larchmt) · Pubmed #23130750.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Depressive and anxiety disorders in the postpartum period cause significant suffering for women. State public health officials across the country use the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-sponsored Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) to assess health behaviors and conditions, including depression and anxiety, that occur around the time of pregnancy. The purpose of the present study was to validate two to three items that could be included on the PRAMS questionnaire to detect depression and anxiety among postpartum women in a surveillance system. METHODS: A comprehensive set of 16 depression and anxiety items was developed and tested in a final sample of 1077 postpartum women, 353 of whom completed Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) interviews to determine the presence of a major depressive episode (MDE) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Regression analyses reduced candidate items to 5 each for MDE and GAD. Responses were scored on a 5-point scale ranging from never (1) to always (5), and 2 and 3 item combinations of these items were examined for their psychometric properties as indicators of MDE and GAD. RESULTS: Item sets varied in their psychometric properties. The combination of depressed mood, felt hopeless, and slowed down >  9 (out of a possible total of 15) yielded the highest positive predictive value (PPV=60) and estimated MDE prevalence most accurately (24.4% vs. 25.4% true prevalence). The combination of felt panicky, felt restless, and problems sleeping >9 estimated GAD prevalence most accurately (20.2% vs. 15.7% true prevalence) and had high specificity (83%). CONCLUSIONS: Depression and anxiety can be detected using very few items, which makes assessment feasible in surveillance systems, such as PRAMS, and in primary care settings that have severe limits on time for depression and anxiety screening.

15 Article The structure of women's mood in the early postpartum. 2012

Buttner, Melissa M / O'Hara, Michael W / Watson, David. ·University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ·Assessment · Pubmed #22156719.

ABSTRACT: The "postpartum blues" is a mild, predictable mood disturbance occurring within the first several days following childbirth. Previous analyses of the "blues" symptom structure yielded inconclusive findings, making reliable assessment a significant methodological limitation. The current study aimed to explicate the symptom structure of women's mood following childbirth, and to examine psychometric properties of the Daily Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), an adapted version of the Kennerley Blues Questionnaire that included additional items from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Mothers who recently delivered (N = 216) were recruited from a university hospital and asked to complete mood ratings on six consecutive days using the DEQ. Exploratory factor analysis yielded an interpretable two-factor solution identified as Negative Affect and Positive Affect. Scale reliability indices were excellent, with a high level of agreement in factor structure over time. This two-factor model provides reliable assessment of women's mood in the early postpartum, informing the study of reproductive-related mood disorders.

16 Article Racial differences in symptoms of anxiety and depression among three cohorts of students in the southern United States. 2011

Latzman, Robert D / Naifeh, James A / Watson, David / Vaidya, Jatin G / Heiden, Laurie J / Damon, John D / Hight, Terry L / Young, John. ·Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30302-5010, USA. rlatzman@gsu.edu ·Psychiatry · Pubmed #22168294.

ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to extend the literature on mental health disparities in underserved areas by investigating racial differences in symptoms of anxiety and depression in three cohorts of school children in the Southern United States. White and African American students attending elementary, middle, and high school (n = 3,146) were administered a multi-dimensional measure of anxiety and depression. Racial differences were examined using categorical, dimensional, and latent-variable analytic methods. Although effect sizes were small across all levels of analysis, the categorical and dimensional approaches produced different patterns of significant anxiety-related findings. Additionally, confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the dimensional findings were not due to racial differences in the measurement of anxiety. The results of the current investigation suggest that, among school children, race has modest effects on symptoms of anxiety, but not depression. Further, the differential findings observed across analytic approaches reinforce the importance of measurement and methodology when studying psychopathology in children and adolescents.

17 Article Examining the potential influence of diabetes on depression and anxiety symptoms via multiple sample confirmatory factor analysis. 2011

McDade-Montez, Elizabeth A / Watson, David. ·Capitola, CA, USA. liz.mcdade@gmail.com ·Ann Behav Med · Pubmed #21833822.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Assessing and diagnosing depression and anxiety in the presence of diabetes is complicated by overlapping symptoms that, therefore, are etiologically ambiguous (e.g., fatigue, appetite disturbance, autonomic arousal). PURPOSE: The goal of the current study is to test whether overlapping symptoms are affected by the presence of diabetes by comparing structural models of symptoms in adults with and without diabetes. METHODS: Participants include 226 adults with diabetes and 380 healthy adults who completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and health status. The most recent hemoglobin A1c lab result was obtained for diabetes patients. RESULTS: Multiple sample confirmatory factor analyses indicated that overlapping symptoms were strongly related to mood disturbance for adults with and without diabetes, suggesting that symptoms were not substantially influenced by diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that when overlapping symptoms are present in diabetes patients, depression and anxiety should be considered as possible contributors to their presence.