Pick Topic
Review Topic
List Experts
Examine Expert
Save Expert
  Site Guide ··   
Depression: HELP
Articles by Ilya Yaroslavsky
Based on 24 articles published since 2010
(Why 24 articles?)
||||

Between 2010 and 2020, I. Yaroslavsky wrote the following 24 articles about Depression.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Practitioner review: Dysphoria and its regulation in child and adolescent depression. 2014

Kovacs, Maria / Yaroslavsky, Ilya. ·Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. ·J Child Psychol Psychiatry · Pubmed #24256499.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: By emphasizing the importance of emotions, the 'affect revolution' in how human behavior is conceptualized has inspired a new generation of studies on dysphoric experience and its regulation in clinical depression, and novel efforts to characterize the precursors of affective disorders in juveniles at familial risk for depression. METHOD: We review clinical, behavioral, and functional neuroimaging studies of dysphoric experience and its regulation in depressed children and adolescents, and in juvenile offspring of parents with histories of clinical depression. We discuss the implication of the literature in the context of maternal depression. RESULTS: Findings confirm the high rate of clinically significant dysphoria in depressed children and adolescents and reveal notable affective lability in daily life as a function of context and activity. Findings also show that depressed youngsters have problems in attenuating dysphoria. Similarly, never-depressed offspring at familial risk for depression display problems in mood repair and impaired mood repair mechanisms. Brain neuroimaging findings indicate that, overall, depressed, and high-risk youngsters differ from never depressed controls in neural functioning (activation, connectivity) both at rest and in response to emotion triggers. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of depressed youngsters should include questions about reactivity of dysphoric mood to the changing contexts of daily life and about how they manage (respond to) their own sadness and distress. The resultant information may help the clinician to restructure a young patient's day for the better and identify helpful mood repair responses. Evidence of impaired mood repair mechanisms in youngsters at high-risk for depression suggests the need for early intervention. But interventions must consider that many depressed and high-risk children have depressed mothers, who may be constrained in their ability to help offspring's emotion regulation efforts. To optimize treatment response of offspring, mothers of depressed children should therefore be routinely screened for depression and treated, as warranted.

2 Article Cardiac vagal control mediates the relation between past depression and blood pressure several years later among young adults. 2020

Yang, Xiao / Daches, Shimrit / Yaroslavsky, Ilya / George, Charles J / Kovacs, Maria. ·Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. · Department of Psychology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel. · Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. ·Psychophysiology · Pubmed #31985075.

ABSTRACT: Depression has been associated with high blood pressure (BP). However, the mechanisms of the relation between depression and high BP are unclear. We therefore examined whether impaired cardiac vagal control, indexed as low levels of resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), serves as a route from depression to high BP. The sample included 125 subjects with histories of depression (probands), 123 never depressed siblings of probands (high-risk siblings), and 156 controls. Resting RSA was assessed at Time 1 (T1) along with BP when subjects were adolescents (M

3 Article Attentional Disengagement Deficits Predict Brooding, but Not Reflection, Over a One-Year Period. 2019

Allard, Eric S / Yaroslavsky, Ilya. ·Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, United States. ·Front Psychol · Pubmed #31681088.

ABSTRACT: A growing literature suggests that rumination is linked to attentional disengagement deficits in depression. This is particularly the case with brooding, a maladaptive form of rumination. However, research on the potential constructive association between attentional disengagement and self-reflection, a putative adaptive form of rumination, is sparse. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine whether visual attentional disengagement deficits differentially predict dispositional brooding and self-reflection tendencies. Depressed participants (

4 Article Emotion Regulation Among Adolescents With Pediatric Depression As a Function of Anxiety Comorbidity. 2019

Dochnal, Roberta / Vetró, Ágnes / Kiss, Enikö / Baji, Ildikó / Lefkovics, Eszter / Bylsma, Lauren M / Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Rottenberg, Jonathan / Kovacs, Maria / Kapornai, Krisztina. ·Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Pediatrics and Child Health Center, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary. · Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States. · Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, United States. · Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States. ·Front Psychiatry · Pubmed #31649566.

ABSTRACT:

5 Article The persistence of hedonically-based mood repair among young offspring at high- and low-risk for depression. 2019

Daches, Shimrit / Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Kovacs, Maria. ·Department of Psychology, Bar-Ilan University , Ramat Gan , Israel. · Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University , Cleveland , OH , USA. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine , Pittsburgh , PA , USA. ·Cogn Emot · Pubmed #31482752.

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine whether offspring at high and low familial risk for depression differ in the immediate and more lasting behavioural and physiological effects of hedonically-based mood repair. Participants (9- to 22-year olds) included never-depressed offspring at high familial depression risk (high-risk,

6 Article Can't look Away: Attention control deficits predict Rumination, depression symptoms and depressive affect in daily Life. 2019

Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Allard, Eric S / Sanchez-Lopez, Alvaro. ·Department of Psychology, 2121 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44115. Electronic address: i.yaroslavsky@csuohio.edu. · Department of Psychology, 2121 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44115. Electronic address: e.s.allard@csuohio.edu. · Department of Personality, Evaluation and Psychological Treatment, 28223, Madrid, Spain. ·J Affect Disord · Pubmed #30699848.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rumination and a reduced capacity to disengage attention as appropriate to context (attention control deficits) have each been implicated in the etiology and maintenance of depressive disorders. However, it remains unclear whether rumination is a mechanism by which attention control deficits predict depression, and whether these relations are observed outside of laboratory settings. We tested whether rumination mediates the effects of attention control deficits marked by slow disengagement from negative-valenced stimuli (sad faces) and fast disengagement from positive-valenced stimuli (happy faces) on depression symptoms and depressive affects in the daily lives of adults with various depression histories. METHOD: Forty-six participants (n = 23 with histories of Major Depressive Disorder) completed a clinical evaluation, an eye-tracking task that indexed attention control, and a 7-day Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) follow-up during which Negative (NA) and Positive Affect (PA) were measured at times of peak distress that occurred in the hour preceding each EMA prompt. RESULTS: Delayed disengagement from sad faces predicted elevated depression and NA levels, and low PA levels, independent of depression histories. Rumination mediated the effects of delayed disengagement from sad, and rapid disengagement from happy, faces on depression and NA levels. Effects of disengagement on rumination were maintained independent of depression levels. LIMITATIONS: Our sample size limited the detection of small statistical effects, and we could not clarify temporal relationships between attention control deficits and rumination. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that attention inflexibility and rumination persist independent of depressive states and should be targets of clinical intervention.

7 Article Non-response to sad mood induction: implications for emotion research. 2018

Rottenberg, Jonathan / Kovacs, Maria / Yaroslavsky, Ilya. ·a Department of Psychology , University of South Florida , Tampa , FL , USA. · b Department of Psychiatry , University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine , Pittsburgh , PA , USA. · c Department of Psychology , Cleveland State University , Cleveland , OH , USA. ·Cogn Emot · Pubmed #28466682.

ABSTRACT: Experimental induction of sad mood states is a mainstay of laboratory research on affect and cognition, mood regulation, and mood disorders. Typically, the success of such mood manipulations is reported as a statistically significant pre- to post-induction change in the self-rated intensity of the target affect. The present commentary was motivated by an unexpected finding in one of our studies concerning the response rate to a well-validated sad mood induction. Using the customary statistical approach, we found a significant mean increase in self-rated sadness intensity with a moderate effect size, verifying the "success" of the mood induction. However, that "success" masked that, between one-fifth and about one-third of our samples (adolescents who had histories of childhood-onset major depressive disorder and healthy controls) reported absolutely no sadness in response to the mood induction procedure. We consider implications of our experience for emotion research by (1) commenting upon the typically overlooked phenomenon of nonresponse, (2) suggesting changes in reporting practices regarding mood induction success, and (3) outlining future directions to help scientists determine why some subjects do not respond to experimental mood induction.

8 Article Childhood adversity predicts reduced physiological flexibility during the processing of negative affect among adolescents with major depression histories. 2017

Daches, Shimrit / Kovacs, Maria / George, Charles J / Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Kiss, Eniko / Vetró, Ágnes / Dochnal, Roberta / Benák, István / Baji, Ildikó / Halas, Kitti / Makai, Attila / Kapornai, Krisztina / Rottenberg, Jonathan. ·Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address: dachess@pitt.edu. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. · Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, USA. · Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary. · Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA. ·Int J Psychophysiol · Pubmed #28911874.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adversity during early development has been shown to have enduring negative physiological consequences. In turn, atypical physiological functioning has been associated with maladaptive processing of negative affect, including its regulation. The present study therefore explored whether exposure to adverse life events in childhood predicted maladaptive (less flexible) parasympathetic nervous system functioning during the processing of negative affect among adolescents with depression histories. METHODS: An initially clinic-referred, pediatric sample (N=189) was assessed at two time points. At Time 1, when subjects were 10.17years old (SD=1.42), on average, and were depressed, parents reported on adverse life events the offspring experienced up to that point. At Time 2, when subjects were 17.18years old (SD=1.28), and were remitted from depression, parents again reported on adverse life events in their offspring's lives for the interim period. At time 2, subjects' parasympathetic nervous system functioning (quantified as respiratory sinus arrhythmia) also was assessed at rest, during sad mood induction, and during instructed mood repair. RESULTS: Extent of adverse life events experienced by T1 (but not events occurring between T1 and T2) predicted less flexible RSA functioning 7years later during the processing of negative affect. Adolescents with more extensive early life adversities exhibited less vagal withdrawal following negative mood induction and tended to show less physiological recovery following mood repair. CONCLUSIONS: Early adversities appear to be associated with less flexible physiological regulatory control during negative affect experience, when measured later in development. Stress-related autonomic dysfunction in vulnerable youths may contribute to the unfavorable clinical prognosis associated with juvenile-onset depression.

9 Article Positive autobiographical memory deficits in youth with depression histories and their never-depressed siblings. 2017

Begovic, Ena / Panaite, Vanessa / Bylsma, Lauren M / George, Charles / Kovacs, Maria / Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Baji, Ildikó / Benák, István / Dochnal, Roberta / Kiss, Enikő / Vetró, Ágnes / Kapornai, Krisztina / Rottenberg, Jonathan. ·Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. · University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. · Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. · Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Szeged, Hungary. ·Br J Clin Psychol · Pubmed #28543280.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Impaired positive autobiographical memory (AM) is closely linked to emotional disorders. AM impairments are often found in depressed adults and may be related to the difficulties such persons have in regulating their dysphoric mood. By contrast, less is known about AM disturbances among adolescents, or about the functional relationship of AM disturbances to early-onset depression. DESIGN: A high-risk family design served to compare four groups of youth who differed in depression histories and familial depression risk. METHODS: Thirty-one currently depressed probands, 185 remitted probands, 204 never-depressed siblings of probands, and 180 healthy control youth were induced into a negative mood prior to recalling positive AMs via a novel memory elicitation procedure. Several positive AM characteristics were assessed. RESULTS: Relative to control youth, unaffected siblings and probands exhibited consistently impaired positive AMs. Moreover, we also found some evidence that probands were more impaired than siblings, who were in turn more impaired than controls, consistent with a gradient effect. CONCLUSIONS: Positive AM disturbances may not only precede the onset of depression in vulnerable youth, but also continue to persist after remission of a depressive episode. Clinical and basic research implications of the findings are discussed. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Positive AM impairments may be trait-like, persist in the euthymic phase of depression, and may serve as a risk marker for early-onset depression among vulnerable adolescents. Disturbances in positive AM may negatively impact the mood-regulatory functions of positive memory recall and contribute to persistent sadness and anhedonia, which are core features of depression. Our sample of currently depressed youth was relatively small, tempering our conclusions. Although we collected data on some important covariates (e.g., socioeconomic status), we lacked information on other relevant variables such as youths' executive functioning or IQ.

10 Article Positive Affectivity is Dampened in Youths with Histories of Major Depression and Their Never-Depressed Adolescent Siblings. 2016

Kovacs, Maria / Bylsma, Lauren M / Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Rottenberg, Jonathan / George, Charles J / Kiss, Enikő / Halas, Kitti / Benák, István / Baji, Ildiko / Vetro, Ágnes / Kapornai, Krisztina. ·University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Pittsburgh, PA. · Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH. · University of South Florida, Tampa, FL. · University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh PA. · Szeged University, Szeged, Hungary. ·Clin Psychol Sci · Pubmed #27747139.

ABSTRACT: While hedonic capacity is diminished during clinical depression, it is unclear whether that deficit constitutes a risk factor and/or persists after depression episodes remit. To examine these issues, adolescents with current/past major depression (probands; n=218), never depressed biological siblings of probands (n=207), and emotionally-well controls (n=183) were exposed to several positively valenced probes. Across baseline and hedonic probe conditions, controls consistently reported higher levels of positive affect than high-risk siblings, and siblings reported higher levels of positive affect than probands (remitted and depressed probands' reports were similar). Extent of positive affect across the protocol predicted adolescents' self-reports of social support network and parental reports of offspring's use of various adaptive mood repair responses in daily life. Attenuated hedonic responding among youths remitted from depression offers partial support for anhedonia as a trait, while its presence among never depressed high-risk siblings argues for anhedonia as a potential diathesis for clinical depression.

11 Article Maladaptive mood repair, atypical respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and risk of a recurrent major depressive episode among adolescents with prior major depression. 2016

Kovacs, M / Yaroslavsky, I / Rottenberg, J / George, C J / Kiss, E / Halas, K / Dochnal, R / Benák, I / Baji, I / Vetró, A / Makai, A / Kapornai, K. ·University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine,Pittsburgh, PA,USA. · Cleveland State University,OH,USA. · University of South Florida,FL,USA. · University of Pittsburgh Medical Center,PA,USA. · Szeged University,Hungary. ·Psychol Med · Pubmed #27198823.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Because depressive illness is recurrent, recurrence prevention should be a mainstay for reducing its burden on society. One way to reach this goal is to identify malleable risk factors. The ability to attenuate sadness/dysphoria (mood repair) and parasympathetic nervous system functioning, indexed as respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), are impaired during depression and after it has remitted. The present study therefore tested the hypothesis that these two constructs also may mirror risk factors for a recurrent major depressive episode (MDE). METHOD: At time 1 (T1), 178 adolescents, whose last MDE had remitted, and their parents, reported on depression and mood repair; youths' RSA at rest and in response to sad mood induction also were assessed. MDE recurrence was monitored until time 2 (T2) up to 2 years later. Mood repair at T1 (modeled as a latent construct), and resting RSA and RSA response to sadness induction (RSA profile), served to predict onset of first recurrent MDE by T2. RESULTS: Consistent with expectations, maladaptive mood repair predicted recurrent MDE, above and beyond T1 depression symptoms. Further, atypical RSA profiles at T1 were associated with high levels of maladaptive mood repair, which, in turn, predicted increased risk of recurrent MDE. Thus, maladaptive mood repair mediated the effects of atypical RSA on risk of MDE recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: This study documented that a combination of behavioral and physiological risk factors predicted MDE recurrence in a previously clinically referred sample of adolescents with depression histories. Because mood repair and RSA are malleable, both could be targeted for modification to reduce the risk of recurrent depression in youths.

12 Article Parasympathetic nervous system activity predicts mood repair use and its effectiveness among adolescents with and without histories of major depression. 2016

Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Rottenberg, Jonathan / Bylsma, Lauren M / Jennings, J Richard / George, Charles / Baji, Ildikó / Benák, István / Dochnal, Roberta / Halas, Kitti / Kapornai, Krisztina / Kiss, Enikő / Makai, Attila / Varga, Hedvig / Vetró, Ágnes / Kovacs, Maria. ·Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University. · Department of Psychology, University of South Florida. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Szeged. ·J Abnorm Psychol · Pubmed #26950752.

ABSTRACT: Depressive disorders that onset in the juvenile years have been linked to far-reaching adverse consequences, making it imperative to elucidate key mechanisms and contributory factors. Excessive use of regulatory responses that exacerbate sadness (maladaptive mood repair) or insufficient use of regulatory responses that reduce it (adaptive mood repair) may reflect behavioral mechanisms of depression risk. Cardiac vagal control, indexed by patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), has received attention as a putative physiological risk factor for depression. Although mood repair and RSA are related, the nature of this relationship is not well characterized in the context of depression risk. Therefore, we tested alternative models of the relationships between RSA patterns (at rest and in response to a sad film), trait mood repair, and the effectiveness of a mood repair response in the laboratory (state mood repair) among adolescents with depression histories (n = 210) and emotionally healthy peers (n = 161). In our data, a mediation model best explained the association between the key constructs: Adolescents with normative RSA patterns exhibited lower levels of depression and trait maladaptive mood repair, and benefited more from instructed (state) mood repair in the laboratory. By contrast, adolescents with atypical RSA patterns exhibited higher levels of depression and dispositional maladaptive mood repair, which, in turn, mediated the relations of RSA patterns and depression symptoms. Atypical RSA patterns also predicted reduced benefits from laboratory mood repair.

13 Article Familiality of mood repair responses among youth with and without histories of depression. 2016

Bylsma, Lauren M / Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Rottenberg, Jonathan / Kiss, Enikő / Kapornai, Krisztina / Halas, Kitti / Dochnal, Roberta / Lefkovics, Eszter / Baji, Ildikό / Vetrό, Ágnes / Kovacs, Maria. ·a Department of Psychiatry , University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh , PA , USA. · b Department of Psychology , Cleveland State University , Cleveland , OH , USA. · c Department of Psychology , University of South Florida , Tampa , FL USA. · d Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry , Szeged University , Szeged , Hungary. ·Cogn Emot · Pubmed #25849259.

ABSTRACT: Affect regulation skills develop in the context of the family environment, wherein youths are influenced by their parents', and possibly their siblings', regulatory responses and styles. Regulatory responses to sadness (mood repair) that exacerbate or prolong dysphoria (maladaptive mood repair) may represent one way in which depression is transmitted within families. We examined self-reported adaptive and maladaptive mood repair responses across cognitive, social and behavioural domains in Hungarian 11- to 19-year-old youth and their parents. Offspring included 214 probands with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorder, 200 never depressed siblings and 161 control peers. Probands reported the most problematic mood repair responses, with siblings reporting more modest differences from controls. Mood repair responses of parents and their offspring, as well as within sib-pairs, were related, although results differed as a function of the regulatory response domain. Results demonstrate familiality of maladaptive and adaptive mood repair responses in multiple samples. These familial associations suggest that relationships with parents and siblings within families may impact the development of affect regulation in youth.

14 Article Juvenile onset depression alters cardiac autonomic balance in response to psychological and physical challenges. 2015

Bylsma, Lauren M / Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Rottenberg, Jonathan / Jennings, J Richard / George, Charles J / Kiss, Enikő / Kapornai, Krisztina / Halas, Kitti / Dochnal, Roberta / Lefkovics, Eszter / Benák, István / Baji, Ildikó / Vetró, Ágnes / Kovacs, Maria. ·University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States. Electronic address: BylsmaL@pitt.edu. · Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, United States. · University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States. · University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States. · University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary. ·Biol Psychol · Pubmed #26225465.

ABSTRACT: Cardiac autonomic balance (CAB) indexes the ratio of parasympathetic to sympathetic activation (Berntson, Norman, Hawkley, & Cacioppo, 2008), and is believed to reflect overall autonomic flexibility in the face of environmental challenges. However, CAB has not been examined in depression. We examined changes in CAB and other physiological variables in 179 youth with a history of juvenile onset depression (JOD) and 161 healthy controls, in response to two psychological (unsolvable puzzle, sad film) and two physical (handgrip, and forehead cold pressor) challenges. In repeated measures analyses, controls showed expected reductions in CAB for both the handgrip and unsolvable puzzle, reflecting a shift to sympathetic relative to parasympathetic activation. By contrast, JOD youth showed increased CAB from baseline for both tasks (p's<.05). No effects were found for the forehead cold pressor or sad film tasks, suggesting that CAB differences may arise under conditions requiring greater attentional control or sustained effort.

15 Article Reward learning in pediatric depression and anxiety: preliminary findings in a high-risk sample. 2015

Morris, Bethany H / Bylsma, Lauren M / Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Kovacs, Maria / Rottenberg, Jonathan. ·Department of Psychology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ·Depress Anxiety · Pubmed #25826304.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reward learning has been postulated as a critical component of hedonic functioning that predicts depression risk. Reward learning deficits have been established in adults with current depressive disorders, but no prior studies have examined the relationship of reward learning and depression in children. The present study investigated reward learning as a function of familial depression risk and current diagnostic status in a pediatric sample. METHOD: The sample included 204 children of parents with a history of depression (n = 86 high-risk offspring) or parents with no history of major mental disorder (n = 118 low-risk offspring). Semistructured clinical interviews were used to establish current mental diagnoses in the children. A modified signal detection task was used for assessing reward learning. We tested whether reward learning was impaired in high-risk offspring relative to low-risk offspring. We also tested whether reward learning was impaired in children with current disorders known to blunt hedonic function (depression, social phobia, PTSD, GAD, n = 13) compared to children with no disorders and to a psychiatric comparison group with ADHD. RESULTS: High- and low-risk youth did not differ in reward learning. However, youth with current anhedonic disorders (depression, social phobia, PTSD, GAD) exhibited blunted reward learning relative to nondisordered youth and those with ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are a first demonstration that reward learning deficits are present among youth with disorders known to blunt anhedonic function and that these deficits have some degree of diagnostic specificity. We advocate for future studies to replicate and extend these preliminary findings.

16 Article Mood repair via attention refocusing or recall of positive autobiographical memories by adolescents with pediatric-onset major depression. 2015

Kovacs, Maria / Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Rottenberg, Jonathan / George, Charles J / Baji, Ildikó / Benák, István / Dochnal, Roberta / Halas, Kitti / Kiss, Enikő / Vetró, Ágnes / Kapornai, Krisztina. ·Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. · Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, USA. · Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA. · University of Szeged Medical School, Szeged, Hungary. ·J Child Psychol Psychiatry · Pubmed #25557229.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Impaired emotion regulation is increasingly recognized as a core feature of depressive disorders. Indeed, currently and previously depressed adults both report greater problems in attenuating sadness (mood repair) in daily life than healthy controls. In contrast, studies of various strategies to attenuate sad affect have mostly found that currently or previously depressed adults and controls were similarly successful at mood repair in the laboratory. But few studies have examined mood repair among depression-prone youths or the effects of trait characteristics on mood repair outcomes in the laboratory. METHODS: Adolescents, whose first episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) had onset at age 9, on average (probands), and were either in remission or depressed, and control peers, watched a sad film clip. Then, they were instructed to engage in refocusing attention (distraction) or recalling happy memories. Using affect ratings provided by the youths, we tested two developmentally informed hypotheses about whether the subject groups would be similarly able to attenuate sadness via the two mood repair strategies. We also explored if self-reported habitual (trait) mood repair influenced laboratory performance. RESULTS: Contrary to expectations, attention refocusing and recall of happy memories led to comparable mood benefits across subjects. Control adolescents reported significantly greater reductions in sadness than did depressed (Cohen's d = .48) or remitted (Cohen's d = .32) probands, regardless of mood repair strategy, while currently depressed probands remained the saddest after mood repair. Habitual mood repair styles moderated the effects of instructed (state) mood repair in the laboratory. CONCLUSIONS: Whether depressed or in remission, adolescents with MDD histories are not as efficient at mood repair in the laboratory as controls. But proband-control group differences in mood repair outcomes were modest in scope, suggesting that the abilities that subserve affect regulation have been preserved in probands to some degree. Further information about the nature of mood repair problems among youths with depression histories would help to better understand the clinical course of MDD and to design personalized interventions for depression.

17 Article Enhancing depression screening to identify college students at risk for persistent depressive symptoms. 2015

Hill, Ryan M / Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Pettit, Jeremy W. ·Department of Psychology, Florida International University, United States. Electronic address: rhill004@fiu.edu. · Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University, United States. · Department of Psychology, Florida International University, United States. ·J Affect Disord · Pubmed #25437632.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms in college students are prevalent and are associated with considerable academic impairment. Many universities have implemented depressive symptom screening programs and the number of students identified as in need of services following screening greatly exceeds available mental health resources. The present study sought to refine depressive symptom screening programs by identifying predictors of a persistent course of depressive symptoms and developing cut-scores for accurately identifying students who will experience a persistent symptom course. METHOD: Students (n=262) who reported elevated depressive symptoms both an initial screening and baseline assessment (n=150) were invited to participate in telephone-based follow-up assessments 4, 8, and 12 months post-baseline. RESULTS: Two depressive symptom courses were identified: a persistently elevated depressive symptoms course and a decreasing depressive symptoms course. Baseline social disconnection and negative feedback-seeking both significantly predicted membership in the persistently elevated depressive symptoms course. Cut-scores that robustly discriminated between the two symptom courses were identified. LIMITATIONS: The present sample was predominantly female and Hispanic; the four-month spacing of assessments may have resulted in a failure to identify individuals who experience brief, yet impairing, recurrent depressive episodes. CONCLUSION: These findings can inform approaches to identifying college students most in need of mental health services for depressive symptoms based on the presence of social disconnection and/or negative feedback-seeking. Screening cut-points on social disconnection and negative feedback-seeking measures can reduce the number of cases identified as needing mental health services while retaining the majority of cases who will experience a persistent depressive symptom course.

18 Article Atypical patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia index an endophenotype for depression. 2014

Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Rottenberg, Jonathan / Kovacs, Maria. ·Cleveland State University. · University of South Florida. · University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. ·Dev Psychopathol · Pubmed #25422965.

ABSTRACT: Can atypical patterns of parasympathetic nervous system activity serve as endophenotypes for depression? Using respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as an index of parasympathetic nervous system function, we examined this question in two studies: one involving mothers with and without depression histories and their offspring (at high and low risk for depression, respectively), and a further study of adolescent sibling pairs concordant and discordant for major depression. In both studies, subjects were exposed to sad mood induction; subjects' RSA was monitored during rest periods and in response to the mood induction. We used Gottesman and Gould's (2003) criteria for an endophenotype and a priori defined "atypical" and "normative" RSA patterns (combinations of resting RSA and RSA reactivity). We found that atypical RSA patterns (a) predicted current depressive episodes and remission status among women with histories of juvenile onset depression and healthy controls, (b) predicted longitudinal trajectories of depressive symptoms among high- and low-risk young offspring, (c) were concordant across mothers and their juvenile offspring, (d) were more prevalent among never-depressed youth at high risk for depression than their low-risk peers, and (e) were more concordant across adolescent sibling pairs in which both versus only one had a history of major depression. Thus, the results support atypical RSA patterns as an endophenotype for depression. Possible mechanisms by which RSA patterns increase depression risk and their genetic contributors are discussed.

19 Article The association between major depressive disorder in childhood and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescence. 2014

Rottenberg, Jonathan / Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Carney, Robert M / Freedland, Kenneth E / George, Charles J / Baji, Ildikó / Dochnal, Roberta / Gádoros, Júlia / Halas, Kitti / Kapornai, Krisztina / Kiss, Eniko / Osváth, Viola / Varga, Hedvig / Vetró, Agnes / Kovacs, Maria. ·Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave, PCD 4118G, Tampa, FL 33620-7200. Rottenberg@usf.edu. ·Psychosom Med · Pubmed #24470130.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Depression in adults is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is unclear, however, when the association between clinical depression and cardiac risk factors develops or how early in life this association can be detected. METHODS: In an ongoing study of pediatric depression, we compared CVD risk factors including smoking, obesity, physical activity level, sedentary behavior, and parental history of CVD across three samples of adolescents: probands with established histories of childhood-onset major depressive disorder (n = 210), never-depressed siblings of probands (n = 195), and controls with no history of any major psychiatric disorder (n = 161). RESULTS: When assessed during adolescence, 85% of the probands were not in a major depressive episode. Nevertheless, at that assessment, probands had a higher prevalence of regular smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 12.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.36-36.12) and were less physically active than controls (OR = 0.59, CI = 0.43-0.81) and siblings (OR = 0.70, CI = 0.52-0.94) and had a higher rate of obesity than did controls (OR = 3.67, CI = 1.42-9.52). Parents of probands reported high rates of CVD (significantly higher than did parents of controls), including myocardial infarction and CVD-related hospitalization (ORs = 1.62-4.36, CIs = 1.03-15.40). Differences in CVD risk factors between probands and controls were independent of parental CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Major depression in childhood is associated with an unfavorable CVD risk profile in adolescence, and risks for pediatric depression and CVD may coincide in families. Effective prevention and treatment of childhood depression may be a means to reduce the incidence of adult CVD.

20 Article Combinations of resting RSA and RSA reactivity impact maladaptive mood repair and depression symptoms. 2013

Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Bylsma, Lauren M / Rottenberg, Jonathan / Kovacs, Maria. ·University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Childhood Depression Research Studies, 4415 Fifth Avenue, Webster Hall Suite 134, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States. Electronic address: yaroslav@pitt.edu. ·Biol Psychol · Pubmed #23827087.

ABSTRACT: We examined whether the combined indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest (resting RSA) and in response to a sad film (RSA reactivity) predict effective and ineffective responses to reduce sadness (adaptive vs. maladaptive mood repair) in women with histories of juvenile-onset depression (n=74) and no history of major mental disorders (n=75). Structural equation models were used to estimate latent resting RSA, depression, and adaptive and maladaptive mood repair and to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated that combinations of resting RSA+RSA reactivity (RSA patterns) predicted maladaptive mood repair, which in turn, mediated the effects of RSA pattern on depression. Further, RSA patterns moderated the depressogenic effects of maladaptive mood repair. RSA patterns were unrelated to adaptive mood repair. Our findings suggest that mood repair is one mechanism through which physiological vulnerabilities adversely affect mental health.

21 Article The utility of combining RSA indices in depression prediction. 2013

Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Rottenberg, Jonathan / Kovacs, Maria. ·Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. yaroslav@pitt.edu ·J Abnorm Psychol · Pubmed #23713496.

ABSTRACT: Depression is associated with protracted despondent mood, blunted emotional reactivity, and dysregulated parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. PNS activity is commonly indexed via cardiac output, using indictors of its level (resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) or fluctuations (RSA reactivity). RSA reactivity can reflect increased or decreased PNS cardiac output (RSA augmentation and RSA withdrawal, respectively). Because a single index of a dynamic physiological system may be inadequate to characterize interindividual differences, we investigated whether the interaction of RSA reactivity and resting RSA is a better predictor of depression. Adult probands with childhood-onset depressive disorder histories (n = 113) and controls with no history of major mental disorders (n = 93) completed a psychophysiology protocol involving assessment of RSA at multiple rest periods and while watching a sad film. When examined independently, resting RSA and RSA reactivity were unrelated to depression, but their interaction predicted latent depression levels and proband status. In the context of high resting RSA, RSA withdrawal from the sad film predicted the lowest levels of depressive symptoms (irrespective of depression histories) and the greatest likelihood of having had no history of major mental disorder (irrespective of current distress). Our findings highlight the utility of combining indices of physiological responses in studying depression; combinations of RSA indices should be given future consideration as reflecting depression endophenotypes.

22 Article Factor structure of measures of anxiety and depression symptoms in African American youth. 2013

Brown, Ruth C / Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Quinoy, Alexis M / Friedman, Allan D / Brookman, Richard R / Southam-Gerow, Michael A. ·Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, 800 E. Leigh St. Suite 100, Office 135C, Richmond, VA 23219, USA. brownrc3@vcu.edu ·Child Psychiatry Hum Dev · Pubmed #23224837.

ABSTRACT: Previous research has suggested that the factor structure of anxiety measures is different in African American samples compared to majority population samples. However, these findings may be due to misuse of analytic methods rather than meaningful differences in the underlying presentation of anxiety. To address this, we examined the factor structure of two measures of child anxiety: the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children in a sample of 229 African American youth. Contrary to previous research, confirmatory factor analyses yielded good fit for the original factor structures of both measures. These results suggest that the underlying factor structure of these measures may not be significantly different for African American and majority population youth as previously thought. The effect of data analytic procedures on subsequent conclusions and theory is discussed and recommendations are made.

23 Article Heterogeneous trajectories of depressive symptoms: adolescent predictors and adult outcomes. 2013

Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Pettit, Jeremy W / Lewinsohn, Peter M / Seeley, John R / Roberts, Robert E. ·University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. ·J Affect Disord · Pubmed #22963892.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms display heterogeneous trajectories across adolescence and early adulthood. Identifying risk and protective factors for distinct trajectory groups, and their respective outcomes, may provide insight into the etiological underpinnings of different symptom courses and inform the targets and timing of intervention. METHODS: A school-based sample of 719 adolescents completed four diagnostic evaluations and up to 7 annually mailed questionnaires assessing psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial risk and protective factors. Parental history of psychiatric disorder was assessed. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to identify latent depressive symptom trajectories from mid-adolescence through age 30, as well as their predictors in mid-adolescence and adult outcomes. RESULTS: A three class model consisting of high stable (32%), moderate decreasing (44%), and low decreasing (24%) depressive symptom trajectories emerged as the preferred solution. Demographic, psychosocial, and psychiatric characteristics differentiated the low and high symptom classes, and provided support for interpersonal models of depression chronicity. Members of the moderate and high symptom classes evidenced the worst psychosocial and psychiatric outcomes by age 30, with members of the high symptom class showing the greatest levels of impairment. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional measurement and floor effects of several predictor variables may have obscured the relations between those predictors and trajectory class membership. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that prevention and intervention strategies may specifically target young women and those who experience poor interpersonal functioning in an effort to alter the course of depressive symptoms through early adulthood.

24 Article The incremental validity of borderline personality disorder relative to major depressive disorder for suicidal ideation and deliberate self-harm in adolescents. 2012

Sharp, Carla / Green, Kelly L / Yaroslavsky, Ilya / Venta, Amanda / Zanarini, Mary C / Pettit, Jeremy. ·Department of Psychology, University of Houston, 126 Heyne Building, Houston, TX 77024, USA. csharp2@uh.edu ·J Pers Disord · Pubmed #23281677.

ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the relation between suicide-related behaviors and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in adolescent samples. The current study investigated the incremental validity of BPD relative to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) for suicide-related behaviors in a psychiatric sample of adolescents at the cross-sectional level of analysis. The sample included N = 156 consecutive admissions (55.1% female; M age = 15.47; SD = 1.41), to the adolescent treatment program of an inpatient treatment facility. Of the sample 19.2% (n = 30) met criteria for BPD on the Child Interview for DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder and 39.1% (n = 61) met criteria for MDD on the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Results showed that BPD conferred additional risk for suicidal ideation and deliberate self-harm. Our findings support the clinical impression that BPD should be evaluated in inpatient samples of adolescents either through intake interviews or more structured assessments.