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Depression: HELP
Articles from Ireland
Based on 890 articles published since 2009
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These are the 890 published articles about Depression that originated from Ireland during 2009-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline Thyroid hormones treatment for subclinical hypothyroidism: a clinical practice guideline. 2019

Bekkering, G E / Agoritsas, T / Lytvyn, L / Heen, A F / Feller, M / Moutzouri, E / Abdulazeem, H / Aertgeerts, B / Beecher, D / Brito, J P / Farhoumand, P D / Singh Ospina, N / Rodondi, N / van Driel, M / Wallace, E / Snel, M / Okwen, P M / Siemieniuk, R / Vandvik, P O / Kuijpers, T / Vermandere, M. ·Academic Centre for General Practice, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Belgium trudy.bekkering@kuleuven.be. · Belgian Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Cochrane Belgium. · Division of General Internal Medicine and Division of Clinical Epidemiology, University. · Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada. · Department of Medicine, Innlandet Hospital Trust-division, Gjøvik, Norway. · Institute of Primary Health Care (BIHAM), University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. · Department of General Internal Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. · Munich, Germany. · Academic Centre for General Practice, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Belgium. · Milan, Italy. · Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit in Endocrinology (KER_Endo), Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. · Division General Internal Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland. · Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. · Primary Care Clinical Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane Qld 4029, Australia. · HRB Centre for Primary Care Research and Department of General Practice, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), Dublin, Ireland. · Department of Endocrinology/General Internal Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. · Effective Basic Services (eBASE), Bamenda, Cameroon. · Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. · Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. · Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. · Dutch College of General Practitioners, Utrecht, Netherlands. ·BMJ · Pubmed #31088853.

ABSTRACT: CLINICAL QUESTION: What are the benefits and harms of thyroid hormones for adults with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH)? This guideline was triggered by a recent systematic review of randomised controlled trials, which could alter practice. CURRENT PRACTICE: Current guidelines tend to recommend thyroid hormones for adults with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels >10 mIU/L and for people with lower TSH values who are young, symptomatic, or have specific indications for prescribing. RECOMMENDATION: The guideline panel issues a strong recommendation against thyroid hormones in adults with SCH (elevated TSH levels and normal free T4 (thyroxine) levels). It does not apply to women who are trying to become pregnant or patients with TSH >20 mIU/L. It may not apply to patients with severe symptoms or young adults (such as those ≤30 years old). HOW THIS GUIDELINE WAS CREATED: A guideline panel including patients, clinicians, and methodologists produced this recommendation in adherence with standards for trustworthy guidelines using the GRADE approach. THE EVIDENCE: The systematic review included 21 trials with 2192 participants. For adults with SCH, thyroid hormones consistently demonstrate no clinically relevant benefits for quality of life or thyroid related symptoms, including depressive symptoms, fatigue, and body mass index (moderate to high quality evidence). Thyroid hormones may have little or no effect on cardiovascular events or mortality (low quality evidence), but harms were measured in only one trial with few events at two years' follow-up. UNDERSTANDING THE RECOMMENDATION: The panel concluded that almost all adults with SCH would not benefit from treatment with thyroid hormones. Other factors in the strong recommendation include the burden of lifelong management and uncertainty on potential harms. Instead, clinicians should monitor the progression or resolution of the thyroid dysfunction in these adults. Recommendations are made actionable for clinicians and their patients through visual overviews. These provide the relative and absolute benefits and harms of thyroid hormones in multilayered evidence summaries and decision aids available in MAGIC (https://app.magicapp.org/) to support shared decisions and adaptation of this guideline.

2 Editorial From molecules to mind: mechanisms of action of electroconvulsive therapy. 2018

Ryan, K M / McLoughlin, D M. ·Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. · Department of Psychiatry, St. Patrick's University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. ·Acta Psychiatr Scand · Pubmed #30295935.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Editorial: Mental Health Challenges in Elite Sport: Balancing Risk with Reward. 2017

MacIntyre, Tadhg E / Jones, Marc / Brewer, Britton W / Van Raalte, Judy / O'Shea, Deirdre / McCarthy, Paul J. ·Health Research Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. · Centre for Sport, Health and Exercise Research, Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom. · Department of Psychology, Springfield College, Springfield, IL, United States. · Department of Personnel and Employment Relations, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. · School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom. ·Front Psychol · Pubmed #29118734.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Immunomodulation of enteric neural function in irritable bowel syndrome. 2015

O'Malley, Dervla. ·Dervla O'Malley, Department of Physiology and Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. ·World J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #26139983.

ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterised by symptoms such as bloating, altered bowel habit and visceral pain. It's generally accepted that miscommunication between the brain and gut underlies the changes in motility, absorpto-secretory function and pain sensitivity associated with IBS. However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusive. Anecdotally, IBS patients have noted that periods of stress can result in symptom flares and many patients exhibit co-morbid stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, in addition to psychosocial stressors, infection-related stress has also been linked with the initiation, persistence and severity of symptom flares. Indeed, prior gastrointestinal infection is one of the strongest predictors of developing IBS. Despite a lack of overt morphological inflammation, the importance of immune factors in the pathophysiology of IBS is gaining acceptance. Subtle changes in the numbers of mucosal immune cell infiltrates and elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reproducibly demonstrated in IBS populations. Moreover, these immune mediators directly affect neural signalling. An exciting new area of research is the role of luminal microbiota in the modulation of neuro-immune signalling, resulting in local changes in gastrointestinal function and alterations in central neural functioning. Progress in this area has begun to unravel some of the complexities of neuroimmune and neuroendocrine interactions and how these molecular exchanges contribute to GI dysfunction.

5 Review Nutritional psychiatry: Towards improving mental health by what you eat. 2019

Adan, Roger A H / van der Beek, Eline M / Buitelaar, Jan K / Cryan, John F / Hebebrand, Johannes / Higgs, Suzanne / Schellekens, Harriet / Dickson, Suzanne L. ·Department of Translational Neurosciences, University Medical Center Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG Utrecht, the Netherlands; Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Medicinaregatan 11, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: r.a.h.adan@umcutrecht.nl. · Danone Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands. · Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. · Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience and APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Ireland. · Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany. · Suzanne Higgs School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. · Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Medicinaregatan 11, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: suzanne.dickson@gu.se. ·Eur Neuropsychopharmacol · Pubmed #31735529.

ABSTRACT: Does it matter what we eat for our mental health? Accumulating data suggests that this may indeed be the case and that diet and nutrition are not only critical for human physiology and body composition, but also have significant effects on mood and mental wellbeing. While the determining factors of mental health are complex, increasing evidence indicates a strong association between a poor diet and the exacerbation of mood disorders, including anxiety and depression, as well as other neuropsychiatric conditions. There are common beliefs about the health effects of certain foods that are not supported by solid evidence and the scientific evidence demonstrating the unequivocal link between nutrition and mental health is only beginning to emerge. Current epidemiological data on nutrition and mental health do not provide information about causality or underlying mechanisms. Future studies should focus on elucidating mechanism. Randomized controlled trials should be of high quality, adequately powered and geared towards the advancement of knowledge from population-based observations towards personalized nutrition. Here, we provide an overview of the emerging field of nutritional psychiatry, exploring the scientific evidence exemplifying the importance of a well-balanced diet for mental health. We conclude that an experimental medicine approach and a mechanistic understanding is required to provide solid evidence on which future policies on diet and nutrition for mental health can be based.

6 Review Does perceived overweight increase risk of depressive symptoms and suicidality beyond objective weight status? A systematic review and meta-analysis. 2019

Haynes, Ashleigh / Kersbergen, Inge / Sutin, Angelina / Daly, Michael / Robinson, Eric. ·Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address: Ashleigh.haynes@cancervic.org.au. · School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, UK. · Florida State University College of Medicine, United States of America. · Department of Psychology, Maynooth University, Co. Kildare, Ireland; UCD Geary Institute, University College Dublin, Ireland. · Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. ·Clin Psychol Rev · Pubmed #31715442.

ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with a significant disease burden, but whether recognising as opposed to failing to recognise personal overweight is beneficial or detrimental to mental health is unclear. Here we examine the associations between perceived overweight and depressive symptoms and suicidality. A systematic search of three electronic databases yielded 10,398 unique records, from which 32 studies (110 observations) were eligible for inclusion. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for each outcome using random effects meta-analyses and potential publication bias was examined. Perceived overweight was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (OR: 1.42, CI: 1.31, 1.54 p <.0001, N >128,585) and suicidality (OR: 1.41, CI: 1.28, 1.56, p <.0001, N = 133,576) in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The association between perceived overweight and poorer mental health was observed irrespective of study origin, participant age (children vs. adults), gender, and whether or not a person was objectively overweight. The pooled statistical relationship between objective weight status and poorer mental health was attenuated to non-significance when perceived overweight was accounted for, suggesting that the detrimental effect of overweight on mental health is largely dependent on whether or not a person identifies as overweight.

7 Review The future of rodent models in depression research. 2019

Gururajan, Anand / Reif, Andreas / Cryan, John F / Slattery, David A. ·Lambert Initiative for Cannabinoid Therapeutics, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Brain & Mind Centre, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · School of Psychology, Faculty of Science, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany. · Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. · APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. · Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany. david.slattery@kgu.de. ·Nat Rev Neurosci · Pubmed #31578460.

ABSTRACT: Currently, over 300 million people worldwide have depression, and the socioeconomic burden of this debilitating disorder is anticipated to increase markedly over the coming decades against a background of increasing global turmoil. Despite this impending crisis, we are still waiting for improved therapeutic options for this disorder to emerge, which has led to increasing criticism of the role and value of preclinical models of depression. In this Review, we examine this landscape, focusing firstly on issues related to the terminology used in this context and the myriad of preclinical approaches to modelling and assaying aspects of depression in rodents. We discuss the importance of sex as a biological variable and the controversial idea of intergenerational and transgenerational transmission of depressive-like traits. We then examine the technical strategies available to dissect these models and review emerging evidence for putative druggable disease mechanisms. Finally, we propose a brief framework for future research that makes optimal use of these models and will, we hope, accelerate the discovery of improved antidepressants.

8 Review Neurological and psychiatric adverse effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment in ADHD: A map of the current evidence. 2019

Krinzinger, Helga / Hall, Charlotte L / Groom, Madeleine J / Ansari, Mohammed T / Banaschewski, Tobias / Buitelaar, Jan K / Carucci, Sara / Coghill, David / Danckaerts, Marina / Dittmann, Ralf W / Falissard, Bruno / Garas, Peter / Inglis, Sarah K / Kovshoff, Hanna / Kochhar, Puja / McCarthy, Suzanne / Nagy, Peter / Neubert, Antje / Roberts, Samantha / Sayal, Kapil / Sonuga-Barke, Edmund / Wong, Ian C K / Xia, Jun / Zuddas, Alessandro / Hollis, Chris / Konrad, Kerstin / Liddle, Elizabeth B / Anonymous1361609. ·Section Child Neuropsychology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Germany. · Division of Psychiatry & Applied Psychology, School of Medicine, Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, UK. · School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Canada. · Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Central Institute of Mental Health, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany. · Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Centre, & Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. · Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Biomedical Science, University of Cagliari & "A. Cao" Pediatric Hospital, Brotzu Hospital Trust, Cagliari, Italy. · Departments of Paediatrics and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia; Division of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK. · Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Psychiatric Center, Leuven, KU, Belgium; Department of Neurosciences, University Psychiatric Center, Leuven, KU, Belgium. · Paediatric Psychopharmacology, Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany. · University Paris-Sud, Univ. Paris-Descartes, AP-HP, INSERM U1178, Paris, France. · Semmelweis University, Károly Rácz School of PhD Studies, Mental Health Sciences Phd School, Budapest, Hungary. · Tayside Clinical Trials Unit, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK. · School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. · School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. · Vadaskert Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Hospital, Budapest, Hungary. · Department of Paediatrics and Adolescents Medicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany. · Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, UK. · Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK; Department of Experimental Clinical & Health Psychology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. · Centre for Paediatric Pharmacy Research, Research Department of Practice and Policy, UCL School of Pharmacy, London, UK; Centre for Safe Medication Practice and Research, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong. · The Nottingham Ningbo GRADE Center, Nottingham China Health Institute, The University of Nottingham Ningbo, China. · Division of Psychiatry & Applied Psychology, School of Medicine, Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, UK; National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) MindTech MedTech Cooperative, Nottingham, UK; NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham, UK. · Section Child Neuropsychology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Germany; JARA-BRAIN Institute II, Molecular Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH and RWTH Aachen University, Germany. · Division of Psychiatry & Applied Psychology, School of Medicine, Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, UK. Electronic address: Elizabeth.Liddle@nottingham.ac.uk. ·Neurosci Biobehav Rev · Pubmed #31545988.

ABSTRACT: Methylphenidate (MPH), the most common medication for children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in many countries, is often prescribed for long periods of time. Any long-term psychotropic treatment in childhood raises concerns about possible adverse neurological and psychiatric outcomes. We aimed to map current evidence regarding neurological and psychiatric outcomes, adverse or beneficial, of long-term MPH (> 1 year) treatment in ADHD. We coded studies using a "traffic light" system: Green: safe/favours MPH; Amber: warrants caution; Red: not safe/not well-tolerated. Un-categorisable study findings were coded as "Unclear". Although some evidence suggests an elevated risk of psychosis and tics, case reports describe remission on discontinuation. Several studies suggest that long-term MPH may reduce depression and suicide in ADHD. Evidence suggests caution in specific groups including pre-school children, those with tics, and adolescents at risk for substance misuse. We identified a need for more studies that make use of large longitudinal databases, focus on specific neuropsychiatric outcomes, and compare outcomes from long-term MPH treatment with outcomes following shorter or no pharmacological intervention.

9 Review Cardiovascular Health of Retired Field-Based Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 2019

McHugh, Cliodhna / Hind, Karen / Davey, Daniel / Wilson, Fiona. ·Discipline of Physiotherapy, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James's Hospital, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. · Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Durham University, Durham, UK. · University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. ·Orthop J Sports Med · Pubmed #31457065.

ABSTRACT: Background: Retirement from elite sport participation is associated with decreased physical activity, depression, obesity, and ischemic heart disease. Although engagement in physical activity through sport is recognized as cardioprotective, an estimated one-quarter of deaths in American football players are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), predominately in players classified as obese. Purpose: To systematically investigate the cardiovascular health profile of retired field-based athletes. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: This review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines and preregistered with PROSPERO. Four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and Web of Science) were systematically searched from inception to October 2018 using MeSH terms and keywords. Inclusion criteria were retired field-based athletes, age >18 years, and at least 1 CVD risk factor according to the European Society of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. Review articles were not included. Control groups were not required for inclusion, but when available, an analysis was included. Eligible articles were extracted using Covidence. Methodological quality was assessed independently by 2 reviewers using the AXIS tool. The accuracy of individual study estimates was analyzed using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: This review yielded 13 studies. A total of 4350 male retired field-based athletes from 2 sports (football and soccer; age range, 42.2-66 years) were included. Eight studies compared retired athletes with control groups. Retired athletes had elevated systolic blood pressure in 4 of 6 studies; approximately 50% of studies found greater high-density lipoprotein, approximately 80% found lower triglyceride levels, and all studies found greater low-density lipoprotein for retired athletes compared with controls. The prevalence and severity of coronary artery calcium and carotid artery plaque were similar to controls. Retired linemen had double the prevalence of cardiometabolic syndrome compared with nonlinemen. Conclusion: The overall findings were mixed. Inconsistencies in the reporting of CVD risk factors and methodological biases reduced the study quality. Retired athletes had a comparable CVD risk profile with the general population. Retired athletes with an elevated body mass index had an increased prevalence and severity of risk factors. Significant gaps remain in understanding the long-term cardiovascular effects of elite athleticism.

10 Review Adjustment Disorder and Suicidal Behaviours Presenting in the General Medical Setting: A Systematic Review. 2019

Fegan, Joanne / Doherty, Anne M. ·Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Galway, H91 YR71 Galway, Ireland. · Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Galway, H91 YR71 Galway, Ireland. annedohertyemail@gmail.com. ·Int J Environ Res Public Health · Pubmed #31426568.

ABSTRACT:

11 Review Neurobiology of resilience in depression: immune and vascular insights from human and animal studies. 2019

Dudek, Katarzyna A / Dion-Albert, Laurence / Kaufmann, Fernanda Neutzling / Tuck, Ellen / Lebel, Manon / Menard, Caroline. ·Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine and CERVO Brain Research Center, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, Canada. · Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. ·Eur J Neurosci · Pubmed #31421056.

ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic and recurrent psychiatric condition characterized by depressed mood, social isolation and anhedonia. It will affect 20% of individuals with considerable economic impacts. Unfortunately, 30-50% of depressed individuals are resistant to current antidepressant treatments. MDD is twice as prevalent in women and associated symptoms are different. Depression's main environmental risk factor is chronic stress, and women report higher levels of stress in daily life. However, not every stressed individual becomes depressed, highlighting the need to identify biological determinants of stress vulnerability but also resilience. Based on a reverse translational approach, rodent models of depression were developed to study the mechanisms underlying susceptibility vs resilience. Indeed, a subpopulation of animals can display coping mechanisms and a set of biological alterations leading to stress resilience. The aetiology of MDD is multifactorial and involves several physiological systems. Exacerbation of endocrine and immune responses from both innate and adaptive systems are observed in depressed individuals and mice exhibiting depression-like behaviours. Increasing attention has been given to neurovascular health since higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is found in MDD patients and inflammatory conditions are associated with depression, treatment resistance and relapse. Here, we provide an overview of endocrine, immune and vascular changes associated with stress vulnerability vs. resilience in rodents and when available, in humans. Lack of treatment efficacy suggests that neuron-centric treatments do not address important causal biological factors and better understanding of stress-induced adaptations, including sex differences, could contribute to develop novel therapeutic strategies including personalized medicine approaches.

12 Review Mood and Microbes: Gut to Brain Communication in Depression. 2019

Kelly, John R / Keane, Veronica O' / Cryan, John F / Clarke, Gerard / Dinan, Timothy G. ·Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin and Tallaght Hospital, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Tallaght University Hospital, Dublin 24, Ireland. · APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Room 2,33, 2nd Floor, Western Gateway Building, Cork, Ireland. · APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Science, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, College Road, Cork, Ireland. · APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Science, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, College Road, Cork, Ireland. Electronic address: t.dinan@ucc.ie. ·Gastroenterol Clin North Am · Pubmed #31383278.

ABSTRACT: The gut microbiota, acting via the gut-brain axis, modulates key neurobiological systems that are dysregulated in stress-related disorders. Preclinical studies show that the gut microbiota exerts an influence over neuroimmune and neuroendocrine signaling pathways, in addition to epigenetic modification, neurogenesis, and neurotransmission. In humans, preliminary evidence suggests that the gut microbiota profile is altered in depression. The full impact of microbiota-based treatments, at different neurodevelopmental time points, has yet to be fully explored. The integration of the gut microbiota, as a mediator, in the complex trajectory of depression, may enhance the possibility of personalized precision psychiatry.

13 Review The gut microbiome in psychiatry: A primer for clinicians. 2019

Van Ameringen, Michael / Turna, Jasmine / Patterson, Beth / Pipe, Amy / Mao, Randi Q / Anglin, Rebecca / Surette, Michael G. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. · MacAnxiety Research Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. · Neuroscience Graduate Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. · School of Medicine, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. · Farncombe Family Digestive Health Researcth Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. · Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. ·Depress Anxiety · Pubmed #31356715.

ABSTRACT: Research in the past decade has shown that variations in the gut microbiome may influence behavior, and vice versa. As such, interest in the role of the gut microbiome in psychiatric conditions has drawn immense interest. This is evidenced by the recent surge in published studies examining microbial dysbiosis in clinical psychiatric populations, particularly autism spectrum disorder and depression. However, critical examination of these studies reveals methodological flaws in design and execution, suggesting that they may not be held to the same standards as other bodies of clinical research. Given the complex nature of the gut microbiome, this narrative review attempts to clarify concepts critical to effectively examine its potential role in psychopathology to appropriately inform mental health researchers. More specifically, the numerous variables known to affect the gut microbiome are discussed, including inflammation, diet, weight, and medications. A comprehensive review of the extant microbiome literature in clinical psychiatric populations is also provided, in addition to clinical implications and suggestions for future directions of research. Although there is a clear need for additional studies to elucidate the gut microbiome's role in psychiatric disorders, there is an even greater need for well-designed, appropriately controlled studies to truly impact the field.

14 Review Psychotropic Drugs for the Management of Chronic Pain and Itch. 2019

Belinskaia, Daria A / Belinskaia, Mariia A / Barygin, Oleg I / Vanchakova, Nina P / Shestakova, Natalia N. ·Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Torez 44, St. Petersburg 194223, Russia. d_belinskaya@mail.ru. · International Centre for Neurotherapeutics, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland. belinskaya88@gmail.com. · Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Torez 44, St. Petersburg 194223, Russia. oleg_barygin@mail.ru. · Department of Pedagogy and Psychology, Faculty of Postgraduate Education, First Pavlov State Medical University, L'va Tolstogo str. 6-8, St. Petersburg 197022, Russia. vanchakova@spb-gmu.ru. · Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Torez 44, St. Petersburg 194223, Russia. n_shestakova@list.ru. ·Pharmaceuticals (Basel) · Pubmed #31238561.

ABSTRACT: Clinical observations have shown that patients with chronic neuropathic pain or itch exhibit symptoms of increased anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. Such patients need corrective therapy with antidepressants, antipsychotics or anticonvulsants. It is known that some psychotropic drugs are also effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain and pruritus syndromes due to interaction with the secondary molecular targets. Our own clinical studies have identified antipruritic and/or analgesic efficacy of the following compounds: tianeptine (atypical tricyclic antidepressant), citalopram (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), mianserin (tetracyclic antidepressant), carbamazepine (anticonvulsant), trazodone (serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor), and chlorprothixene (antipsychotic). Venlafaxine (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) is known to have an analgesic effect too. The mechanism of such effect of these drugs is not fully understood. Herein we review and correlate the literature data on analgesic/antipruritic activity with pharmacological profile of these compounds.

15 Review Longitudinal associations between depression and diabetes complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2019

Nouwen, A / Adriaanse, M C / van Dam, K / Iversen, M M / Viechtbauer, W / Peyrot, M / Caramlau, I / Kokoszka, A / Kanc, K / de Groot, M / Nefs, G / Pouwer, F / Anonymous411596. ·Middlesex University, London, UK. · Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway. · Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. · Loyola University Maryland, Baltimore, USA. · Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. · Medical University of Warsaw, Poland. · Jazindiabetes (Diabetes & Me), Private Diabetes Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia. · Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA. · Tilburg University, The Netherlands. · Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Diabeter, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. · University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. · STENO Diabetes Center Odense, Odense, Denmark. · School of Psychology, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia. ·Diabet Med · Pubmed #31215077.

ABSTRACT: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies assessing the bi-directional association between depression and diabetes macrovascular and microvascular complications. Embase, Medline and PsycINFO databases were searched from inception through 27 November 2017. A total of 4592 abstracts were screened for eligibility. Meta-analyses used multilevel random/mixed-effects models. Quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Twenty-two studies were included in the systematic review. Sixteen studies examined the relationship between baseline depression and incident diabetes complications, of which nine studies involving over one million participants were suitable for meta-analysis. Depression was associated with an increased risk of incident macrovascular (HR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.30-1.47) and microvascular disease (HR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.25-1.41). Six studies examined the association between baseline diabetes complications and subsequent depression, of which two studies involving over 230 000 participants were suitable for meta-analysis. The results showed that diabetes complications increased the risk of incident depressive disorder (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.07-1.21). The quality analysis showed increased risk of bias notably in the representativeness of selected cohorts and ascertainment of exposure and outcome. Depression in people with diabetes is associated with an increased risk of incident macrovascular and microvascular complications. The relationship between depression and diabetes complications appears bi-directional. However, the risk of developing diabetes complications in depressed people is higher than the risk of developing depression in people with diabetes complications. The underlying mechanisms warrant further research.

16 Review Anxiety in fathers in the perinatal period: A systematic review. 2019

Philpott, Lloyd Frank / Savage, Eileen / FitzGerald, Serena / Leahy-Warren, Patricia. ·School of Nursing and Midwifery, Brookfield Health Sciences Complex, University College Cork, Cork T12AK54, Ireland. Electronic address: lloyd.philpott@ucc.ie. · School of Nursing and Midwifery, Brookfield Health Sciences Complex, University College Cork, Cork T12AK54, Ireland. Electronic address: e.savage@ucc.ie. · School of Nursing and, Midwifery, Brookfield Health Sciences Complex, University College Cork, Cork T12AK54, Ireland. Electronic address: serena.fitzgerald@ucc.ie. · School of Nursing and Midwifery, Brookfield Health Sciences Complex, University College Cork, Cork T12AK54, Ireland. Electronic address: Leahy@ucc.ie. ·Midwifery · Pubmed #31176080.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: fatherhood in the perinatal period can be a time of great excitement, happiness and joy. However, a growing body of literature indicates that fathers are at risk for elevated levels of anxiety symptoms during the perinatal period. PURPOSE: the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the prevalence and levels of anxiety in fathers during the perinatal period, identify the risk factors and impact of anxiety, and establish if there are effective interventions that reduce father's anxiety. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: A systematic review protocol was developed and registered with PROSPERO (reference number: CRD42017073760). The review was guided by the PRISMA reporting process. Electronic databases Medline, CINAHL, Embase, the Cochrane Library, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, and Psychology were searched to identify eligible studies. Studies that researched fathers during the perinatal period were included if anxiety was the primary focus of the research or was an outcome or dependent variable. Data were extracted and presented in narrative form including tables and figures. FINDINGS: Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Findings from these studies indicate that fathers experience anxiety in the perinatal period, particularly at the time of birth. Anxiety increased from the antenatal period to the time of birth, with a decrease in anxiety from the time of birth to the later postnatal period. The prevalence of anxiety ranged between 3.4% and 25.0% during the antenatal period and 2.4% and 51.0% during the postnatal period. Factors contributing to anxiety included lower education levels, lower income levels, lower co-parenting support, lower social support, work-family conflict, a partner' anxiety and depression, and being present during a previous birth. Anxiety had a negative impact on fathers' mental health, physical health, social relationships and parenting skills. Anxiety contributed to stress, depression, fatigue and lower paternal self-efficacy. Five studies reported on interventions to reduce anxiety and all the studies found that anxiety significantly decreased following the intervention. KEY CONCLUSION: Fathers experience increased anxiety from the antenatal period to the time of birth, with a decrease in anxiety from the time of birth to the later postnatal period. Anxiety during the perinatal period that can impact negatively on fathers physical and mental health, and social relationships.

17 Review The gut microbiome and pharmacology: a prescription for therapeutic targeting of the gut-brain axis. 2019

Leprun, Pauline M B / Clarke, Gerard. ·Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; University of Rennes 1, Rennes, France. · Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; INFANT Research Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. Electronic address: g.clarke@ucc.ie. ·Curr Opin Pharmacol · Pubmed #31082716.

ABSTRACT: New frontiers for host-microbe interactions continue to emerge as our knowledge of the adult gut microbiome in health and disease is continually supplemented and improved. Alterations in the gut microbiota composition in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are now linked to symptom severity while population-based evidence linking gut microbiome signatures to depression is an important new landmark. The effects of drugs on gut microbiome composition are also becoming clearer. Meanwhile, preclinical studies have delineated the influence of the gut microbiome at a structural and activity level in distinct brain regions. Bacterial metabolites, such as tryptamine, can activate specific receptors to impact gastrointestinal motility. These recent studies bring into focus the future implications for therapeutic targeting of the microbiome-gut-brain axis.

18 Review A systematic review investigating if genetic or epigenetic markers are associated with postnatal depression. 2019

Elwood, Judith / Murray, Elaine / Bell, Aleeca / Sinclair, Marlene / Kernohan, W George / Stockdale, Janine. ·Centre for Maternal, Fetal and Infant Research Ulster University, Shore Road, Co. Antrim, N. Ireland BT370Q, United Kingdom. Electronic address: elwood-j1@ulster.ac.uk. · Northern Ireland Centre for Stratified Medicine, Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Ulster University, United Kingdom. · Department of Women, Children and Family Health Science, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Nursing, United States. · Centre for Maternal, Fetal and Infant Research Ulster University, Shore Road, Co. Antrim, N. Ireland BT370Q, United Kingdom. · Managing Chronic Illness Research Centre, Institute of Nursing and Health Research, Ulster University, United Kingdom. · School of Nursing and Midwifery, Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom. ·J Affect Disord · Pubmed #31029013.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Postnatal depression (PND) is common, affects the health of the mother, the development of the infant and places a large financial burden on services. Genetic and epigenetic biomarkers for PND could potentially improve the accuracy of current antenatal screening approaches. The aim of this systematic review is to report on the evidence for an association between genetic or epigenetic factors and postnatal depression. METHOD: A systematic search of five databases (Medline, EMBASE, PILOT, PsychINFO and SCOPUS) was carried out using the following (MeSh) terms and keywords: postpartum, depression, postnatal depression, genetics, genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics. Inclusion criteria were applied and quality of studies was assessed using guidelines from the HuGE Review Handbook (Little and Higgins, 2006). RESULTS: Following removal of duplicate articles, 543 remained; of these 37 met the inclusion criteria. Positive associations have been reported between PND and polymorphisms in the HMNC1, COMT, MAOT, PRKCB, ESR1, SLC6A4 genes in the presence of stressful life events, the BDNF gene when the postnatal period occurs during autumn and winter months and the OXT and OXTR genes in the presence of childhood adversity experienced by the mother. Epigenetic interactions with genotype, estrogen, and childhood adversity were identified that are predictive of PND. LIMITATIONS: The number of studies investigating some of the markers was small and grey literature was not included. CONCLUSION: This review highlights the importance of examining the interaction between epigenetic, genetic, hormonal and environmental factors in order to fully understand the risk factors for PND and to improve the accuracy of current antenatal and early postnatal screening procedures. Women susceptible to PND appear to have heightened epigenetic sensitivity to the physiological changes of childbirth or to environmental factors conferred by genotype.

19 Review A literature review of the psychological status of asylum-seeking children: implications for nursing practice. 2019

Flood, Ciara / Coyne, Imelda. ·Staff Nurse, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin. · Professor in Children's Nursing and Co-Director of Trinity Research in Childhood Centre, Ireland. ·Br J Nurs · Pubmed #30969872.

ABSTRACT: Europe is in the midst of a large-scale migration crisis, which has implications for healthcare provision for asylum-seeking children and families. The authors set out to identify the psychological status of asylum-seeking children and highlight their needs. A search of three electronic databases was carried out, resulting in 15 studies. Data show that asylum-seeking children appear to experience many mental health difficulties, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, self-harm, sleep disturbance and behavioural difficulties. The daily living situation includes a range of psychological stressors, such as lack of space and control; fear of deportation; feelings of inadequacy and hopelessness; poor parental mental health; lack of recreational facilities; communication issues; and financial worries. Since many asylum-seeking children have experienced past trauma, hospitalisation and healthcare encounters may trigger traumatic memories and cause further distress. Awareness of the psychological impact of the situation on children and families may help nurses to provide empathetic, sensitive and culturally competent care.

20 Review Gut microbes and depression: Still waiting for Godot. 2019

Dinan, Timothy G / Cryan, John F. ·APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. Electronic address: t.dinan@ucc.ie. · APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. ·Brain Behav Immun · Pubmed #30771453.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

21 Review Claudin-5: gatekeeper of neurological function. 2019

Greene, Chris / Hanley, Nicole / Campbell, Matthew. ·Trinity College Dublin, Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Dublin 2, Ireland. · Trinity College Dublin, Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Dublin 2, Ireland. matthew.campbell@tcd.ie. ·Fluids Barriers CNS · Pubmed #30691500.

ABSTRACT: Tight junction proteins of the blood-brain barrier are vital for maintaining integrity of endothelial cells lining brain blood vessels. The presence of these protein complexes in the space between endothelial cells creates a dynamic, highly regulated and restrictive microenvironment that is vital for neural homeostasis. By limiting paracellular diffusion of material between blood and brain, tight junction proteins provide a protective barrier preventing the passage of unwanted and potentially damaging material. Simultaneously, this protective barrier hinders the therapeutic effectiveness of central nervous system acting drugs with over 95% of small molecule therapeutics unable to bypass the blood-brain barrier. At the blood-brain barrier, claudin-5 is the most enriched tight junction protein and its dysfunction has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, neuroinflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis as well as psychiatric disorders including depression and schizophrenia. By regulating levels of claudin-5, it is possible to abrogate disease symptoms in many of these disorders. This review will give an overview of the blood-brain barrier and the role of tight junction complexes in maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity before focusing on the role of claudin-5 and its regulation in homeostatic and pathological conditions. We will also summarise therapeutic strategies to restore integrity of cerebral vessels by targeting tight junction protein complexes.

22 Review Potentially modifiable determinants of malnutrition in older adults: A systematic review. 2019

O'Keeffe, M / Kelly, M / O'Herlihy, E / O'Toole, P W / Kearney, P M / Timmons, S / O'Shea, E / Stanton, C / Hickson, M / Rolland, Y / Sulmont Rossé, C / Issanchou, S / Maitre, I / Stelmach-Mardas, M / Nagel, G / Flechtner-Mors, M / Wolters, M / Hebestreit, A / De Groot, L C P G M / van de Rest, O / Teh, R / Peyron, M A / Dardevet, D / Papet, I / Schindler, K / Streicher, M / Torbahn, G / Kiesswetter, E / Visser, M / Volkert, D / O'Connor, E M / Anonymous3401590. ·Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. · School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre Microbiome Irelan, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. · School of Public Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. · Centre for Gerontology and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. · Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre Microbiome Irelan, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. · Institute of Health & Community, University of Plymouth, England, UK. · Gérontopôle de Toulouse, Institut du Vieillissement, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Toulouse (CHU Toulouse), UMR INSERM 1027, University of ToulouseIII, Toulouse, France. · Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, AgroSup Dijon, CNRS, INRA, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, F-21000 Dijon, France. · GRAPPE USC 1422 INRA, Ecole supérieure d'Agricultures (ESA), Univ. Bretagne Loire, Angers, France. · German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany; Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland. · Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany. · Division of Sports and Rehabilitation Medicine, Medical Center, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany. · Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Bremen, Germany. · Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands. · Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. · Université Clermont Auvergne, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Unité de Nutrition Humaine (UNH), Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine (CRNH), Auvergne, 63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France. · Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. · Institute for Biomedicine of Aging, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nürnberg, Germany. · Department of Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre Microbiome Irelan, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Health Research Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. Electronic address: eibhlis.oconnor@ul.ie. ·Clin Nutr · Pubmed #30685297.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Malnutrition in older adults results in significant personal, social, and economic burden. To combat this complex, multifactorial issue, evidence-based knowledge is needed on the modifiable determinants of malnutrition. Systematic reviews of prospective studies are lacking in this area; therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the modifiable determinants of malnutrition in older adults. METHODS: A systematic approach was taken to conduct this review. Eight databases were searched. Prospective cohort studies with participants of a mean age of 65 years or over were included. Studies were required to measure at least one determinant at baseline and malnutrition as outcome at follow-up. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool. Pooling of data in a meta-analysis was not possible therefore the findings of each study were synthesized narratively. A descriptive synthesis of studies was used to present results due the heterogeneity of population source and setting, definitions of determinants and outcomes. Consistency of findings was assessed using the schema: strong evidence, moderate evidence, low evidence, and conflicting evidence. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies were included in the final review. Thirty potentially modifiable determinants across seven domains (oral, psychosocial, medication and care, health, physical function, lifestyle, eating) were included. The majority of studies had a high risk of bias and were of a low quality. There is moderate evidence that hospitalisation, eating dependency, poor self-perceived health, poor physical function and poor appetite are determinants of malnutrition. Moderate evidence suggests that chewing difficulties, mouth pain, gum issues co-morbidity, visual and hearing impairments, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity levels, complaints about taste of food and specific nutrient intake are not determinants of malnutrition. There is low evidence that loss of interest in life, access to meals and wheels, and modified texture diets are determinants of malnutrition. Furthermore, there is low evidence that psychological distress, anxiety, loneliness, access to transport and wellbeing, hunger and thirst are not determinants of malnutrition. There appears to be conflicting evidence that dental status, swallowing, cognitive function, depression, residential status, medication intake and/or polypharmacy, constipation, periodontal disease are determinants of malnutrition. CONCLUSION: There are multiple potentially modifiable determinants of malnutrition however strong robust evidence is lacking for the majority of determinants. Better prospective cohort studies are required. With an increasingly ageing population, targeting modifiable factors will be crucial to the effective treatment and prevention of malnutrition.

23 Review Regulation of P2X7 receptor expression and function in the brain. 2019

Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M / Smith, Jonathon / Nicke, Annette / Engel, Tobias. ·Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; Discipline of Physiology, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address: jimeneze@tcd.ie. · Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; FutureNeuro Research Centre, Dublin, Ireland. · Walther Straub Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80336, Munich, Germany. ·Brain Res Bull · Pubmed #30593878.

ABSTRACT: Because of its prominent role in driving inflammatory processes, the ATP-gated purinergic P2X7 receptor has attracted much attention over the past decade as a potential therapeutic target for numerous human conditions, particularly diseases of the central nervous system, including neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease), psychiatric disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and depression) and the neurological disease, epilepsy. Evidence stems from studies using experimental models and patient tissue showing changes in P2X7 expression and function under pathological conditions and beneficial effects provided by P2X7 antagonism. Apart from promoting neuroinflammation, P2X7, however, also impacts on other pathological processes in the brain, including cell death, hyperexcitability, changes in neurotransmitter release and neurogenesis. Reports also suggest a role for P2X7 in the maintenance of blood-brain-barrier integrity. It therefore comes as no surprise that the regulation of P2X7 expression and function is complex, providing tight control on P2X7 activation. Much progress has been made in understanding how P2X7 is regulated during physiological and pathological conditions and what the consequences are of pathological P2X7 expression and function. Regulatory mechanisms altering P2X7 expression include transcriptional and post-translational regulation including nucleotide polymorphisms, promoter regulation via DNA methylation, transcription factors (e.g. Sp1 and HIF-1α), the generation of different splice variants and receptor phosphorylation, glycosylation and palmitoylation. Finally, more recently, reports have also shown P2X7-targeting by microRNAs, blocking P2X7 translation into functional proteins. The present review provides a broad overview of what is known to-date about the complex regulation of P2X7 expression with a particular emphasis on the brain and how each of these regulatory mechanisms impacts on receptor function and pathology.

24 Review Multicomponent Frailty Assessment Tools for Older People with Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review. 2019

Sutton, Jennifer L / Gould, Rebecca L / Coulson, Mark C / Ward, Emma V / Butler, Aine M / Smith, Megan / Lavelle, Grace / Rosa, Amy / Langridge, Margaret / Howard, Robert J. ·King's College London, Department of Old Age Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, London, UK. · Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UK. · Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Middlesex University, London, UK. · Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. · Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. · Mental Health of Older Adults and Dementia Clinical Academic Group, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. ·J Am Geriatr Soc · Pubmed #30589075.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To review evidence evaluating the use of multicomponent frailty assessment tools in assessing frailty in older adults with psychiatric disorders. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify all multicomponent frailty assessment tools (ie, a tool that assesses two or more indicators of frailty). The items of each frailty assessment tool were compared with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders to assess construct overlap. Studies conducted in community, inpatient, and outpatient clinical settings were considered for inclusion. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 60 years or older. RESULTS: A total of 5639 records were identified following the removal of duplicates, from which 95 studies were included for review. Of the 48 multicomponent frailty assessment tools identified, no tool had been developed for, or validated in, older adult populations with a psychiatric disorder. Overall, 20 of 48 frailty assessment tools contained a psychological assessment domain, with 17 of 48 tools citing the presence of depressed mood and/or anxiety as a frailty indicator. Common areas of construct overlap in frailty assessment tools and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria included weight loss (29 of 48) and fatigue (21 of 48). CONCLUSIONS: Significant construct overlap exists between the indicators of frailty as conceptualized in existing frailty assessment tools and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for common psychiatric disorders including major depressive episode and generalized anxiety disorder that has the potential to confound frailty assessment results. Further research is necessary to establish a reliable and valid tool to assess frailty in this population. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:1085-1095, 2019.

25 Review Feeding melancholic microbes: MyNewGut recommendations on diet and mood. 2019

Dinan, Timothy G / Stanton, Catherine / Long-Smith, Caitriona / Kennedy, Paul / Cryan, John F / Cowan, Caitlin S M / Cenit, María Carmen / van der Kamp, Jan-Willem / Sanz, Yolanda. ·APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Ireland; Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science, University College Cork, Ireland. Electronic address: t.dinan@ucc.ie. · APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Ireland; Teagasc, Moorepark, Ireland. · APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Ireland. · APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Ireland; Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Ireland. · Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA), National Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Valencia, Spain. · TNO Food and Nutrition, Zeist, Netherlands. ·Clin Nutr · Pubmed #30497694.

ABSTRACT: Depression is a highly prevalent disorder which exerts a major economic impact in all European countries. The brain-gut-microbiota axis has been described as a new paradigm for advancing understanding and treatment of the disorder. There is now over-whelming evidence to support the fact that gut microbes have a major impact on central neurochemistry and behaviour, especially stress related disorders such as depression. Recent studies indicate that patients with depression have a gut dysbiosis. The reason for this dysbiosis is uncertain. Over recent decades, dietary patterns in Europe and elsewhere have undergone major compositional changes, with increased intakes of red meat, high fat foods, and refined sugars. Individuals who consume a Mediterranean diet have lower rates of depression and a recent study suggests that a Mediterranean diet may have antidepressant properties. Assuming this to be the case, which components of the Mediterranean diet mediate the effects? Highly levels of polyphenols or polyunsaturated fatty acids are obvious candidates. We in the MyNewGut consortium recommend that patients with depression or vulnerability to depression should be encouraged to enhance a plant-based diet with a high content of grains/fibres and fish.

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