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Depression: HELP
Articles from India
Based on 892 articles published since 2008

These are the 892 published articles about Depression that originated from India during 2008-2019.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Editorial Depression Among Caregivers of Children with Cystic Fibrosis: Causes and Solutions. 2018

Pathania, Amit / Kabra, S K. ·Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India. · Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India. skkabra@hotmail.com. ·Indian J Pediatr · Pubmed #30099690.


2 Editorial Brace up or burnout. 2018

Honavar, Santosh G. ·Editor, Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, Editorial Office: Centre for Sight, Road No 2, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad - 500 034, Telangana, India. ·Indian J Ophthalmol · Pubmed #29582805.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Depression: Why to talk? 2017

Behere, Prakash Balkrishna / Kumar, Kanika / Behere, Aniruddh Prakash. ·Vice-Chancellor, Professor of Psychiatry, D. Y. Patil University, Kolhapur 416 006, Maharashtra, India. · Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha, Maharashtra, India. · Pediatric Psychiatrist, Helen DeVos Children's Hospital, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI, USA. ·Indian J Med Res · Pubmed #28862171.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Editorial (Thematic Selection: Inflammatory and Immune Responses in Depression). 2016

Sharma, Abhay. ·CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Sukhdev Vihar, Mathura Road New Delhi 110025. ·Curr Neuropharmacol · Pubmed #27640516.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Stress: a modifiable factor in the etiology of adolescent depression. 2015

Srivastava, Shruti. ·Department of Psychiatry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, Delhi, India. srivastava_shruti@hotmail.com. ·Indian Pediatr · Pubmed #25848994.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Review Role of inflammation in epilepsy and neurobehavioral comorbidities: Implication for therapy. 2018

Paudel, Yam Nath / Shaikh, Mohd Farooq / Shah, Sadia / Kumari, Yatinesh / Othman, Iekhsan. ·Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia. · Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address: farooq.shaikh@monash.edu. · Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. ·Eur J Pharmacol · Pubmed #30125565.

ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is a devastating condition affecting around 70 million people worldwide. Moreover, the quality of life of people with epilepsy (PWE) is worsened by a series of comorbidities. The neurobehavioral comorbidities discussed herein share a reciprocal and complex relationship with epilepsy, which ultimately complicates the treatment process in PWE. Understanding the mechanistic pathway by which these comorbidities are associated with epilepsy might be instrumental in developing therapeutic interventions. Inflammatory cytokine signaling in the brain regulates important brain functions including neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine function, synaptic plasticity, dopaminergic transmission, the kynurenine pathway, and affects neurogenesis as well as the neural circuitry of moods. In this review, we hypothesize that the complex relationship between epilepsy and its related comorbidities (cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, autism, and schizophrenia) can be unraveled through the inflammatory mechanism that plays a prominent role in all these individual conditions. An ample amount of evidence is available reporting the role of inflammation in epilepsy and all individual comorbid condition but their complex relationship with epilepsy has not yet been explored through the prospective of inflammatory pathway. Our review suggests that epilepsy and its neurobehavioral comorbidities are associated with elevated levels of several key inflammatory markers. This review also sheds light on the mechanistic association between epilepsy and its neurobehavioral comorbidities. Moreover, we analyzed several anti-inflammatory therapies available for epilepsy and its neurobehavioral comorbidities. We suggest, these anti-inflammatory therapies might be a possible intervention and could be a promising strategy for preventing epileptogenesis and its related neurobehavioral comorbidities.

7 Review Epigenetic Drugs for Mood Disorders. 2018

Peedicayil, Jacob / Kumar, Aniket. ·Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Electronic address: jpeedi@cmcvellore.ac.in. · Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. ·Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci · Pubmed #29933949.

ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that changes in epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression are involved in the pathogenesis of mood disorders. Such evidence stems from studies conducted on postmortem brain tissues and peripheral cells or tissues of patients with mood disorders. This article describes and discusses the epigenetic changes in the mood disorders (major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder) found to date. The article also describes and discusses preclinical drug trials of epigenetic drugs for treating mood disorders. In addition, nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials of nutritional drugs with effects on epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression in patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are discussed. Trials of epigenetic drugs and nutritional drugs with epigenetic effects are showing promising results for the treatment of mood disorders. Thus, epigenetic drugs and nutritional drugs with epigenetic effects could be useful in the treatment of patients with these disorders.

8 Review Phytochemistry and pharmacology of anti-depressant medicinal plants: A review. 2018

Martins, Jeanette / S, Brijesh. ·Sunandan Divatia School of Science, NMIMS (Deemed-to-be) University, 3rd Floor, Bhaidas Sabhagriha Building, Bhaktivedanta Swami Marg, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai 400 056, India. Electronic address: jeanette.martins28@gmail.com. · Sunandan Divatia School of Science, NMIMS (Deemed-to-be) University, 3rd Floor, Bhaidas Sabhagriha Building, Bhaktivedanta Swami Marg, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai 400 056, India. Electronic address: brijeshsuku@gmail.com. ·Biomed Pharmacother · Pubmed #29778018.

ABSTRACT: Stress renders an individual to experience mental pressure and exhaustion which brings about feelings of anxiety, depression, anger and/or other negative emotions. Depression affects a person's state of mind, behaviour, health and is often associated with suicide. The use of anti-depressant drugs as therapeutic agents is associated with symptoms such as, delayed onset of action, side-effects, drug-drug and dietary interactions, sexual dysfunction, cardiac toxicity, etc. Thus, there is need to target these issues and improve current treatment options. Medicinal plants have long been used in discovering novel treatment strategies and compounds with promising roles in treating various disease conditions. There has been an increase, worldwide, in the use of medicinal plants and herbs for developing nutraceuticals for treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders. Medicinal plants in their natural forms are valuable as they are rich in various phytochemical compounds. These phytochemical compounds have pharmacological roles in treating various diseases conditions; apart from being widely available in nature and commercially beneficial. The phytochemical compounds in plants are constantly being explored through various experimental studies to determine the molecular basis of how medicinal plants work in relation to drugs and diseases and to develop neutraceuticals for improving conditions. This review summarizes 110 medicinal plants and their phytochemical constituents that have been shown to possess anti-depressant activity. This review also highlights the various mechanisms of anti-depressant action of some of these plants and their plant parts like roots, stem, leaves, flowers, fruit or whole plant; phytochemical compounds showing anti-depressant activity such flavanoids, steroids, saponins, sugars, lectins, alkaloids, etc.; and various anti-depressant screening models used such as tail suspension test, forced swim test, chronic unpredictable stress test, sucrose preference test, monoamine oxidase inhibition assay, learned helplessness test, open field test, hole board test, etc. However, mechanistic evaluation of many of these plants still needs to be investigated and explored.

9 Review Post stroke depression: The sequelae of cerebral stroke. 2018

Das, Jyotirekha / G K, Rajanikant. ·School of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut, 673601, India. · School of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut, 673601, India. Electronic address: rajanikant@nitc.ac.in. ·Neurosci Biobehav Rev · Pubmed #29656030.

ABSTRACT: Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common mental health issue, afflicting around 33% of stroke survivors. PSD has a negative impact on the rehabilitation, recuperation of motor and cognitive deficits following stroke and significantly increases the chances of relapsing neurovascular events. It has been demonstrated that biological and psychological factors have a significant role in PSD. Numerous endeavors have been made to discover the risk factors and predictors of PSD. Screening and diagnosis also have gained attention; however, a suitable tool is yet to be developed. Medications are chosen based on their viability and reaction profile in the patients. Besides pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy treatment is also highly valued by both psychiatrists and stroke patients. Additional research is needed to examine the pathophysiology of PSD. This review attempts to highlight the existing evidence and gaps in the present knowledge of the predictors of PSD, incidence, prevalence, and etiology. Further, it also discusses the screening and diagnostic approaches, therapeutic modalities and management of PSD and the impact of pre-stroke depression on PSD.

10 Review Society and 'good woman': A critical review of gender difference in depression. 2018

Maji, Sucharita. ·Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, UP, India. ·Int J Soc Psychiatry · Pubmed #29600733.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Worldwide, women are found to suffer from depression significantly more than men. This has puzzled the scientists since no biological explanation can completely resolve the matter. METHOD: Extant empirical work has been conducted to solve the mystery of the issue. However, most of the research has pivoted their attention to biology. Therefore, based on the previous literature from the disciplines of medicine, psychology and sociology, the author aimed at looking and reviewing the matter critically. Specifically, the present critical review aims at conceptualising the psychological, social and cultural factors in the context of gender difference in depression. DISCUSSION: The work reveals that psychological variables such as women's unique attachment patterns, relational self-construal, as well as a macro-level issue like power dynamics based on gender, and the skewed division of labour play an important role in gender difference in depression. The work also suggests that focusing solely on biological underpinnings may result in losing the entire scenario; therefore, social and cultural issues that place women in a socially disadvantaged position are equally important.

11 Review Primary Psychiatric Manifestations of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A Case Report and Literature Review. 2018

Reddy, Balaswamy / Das, Soumitra / Guruprasad, Srinivas. ·Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Electronic address: gbalambbs7819@gmail.com. · Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. · Department of Psychiatry, G K Reddy Hospital, Kadapa, AP, India. ·Psychosomatics · Pubmed #29402453.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

12 Review A case report of pregabalin use disorder with co-morbid somatic symptom disorder and depression. 2018

Saini, Romil / Panda, Udit Kumar / Sarkar, Siddharth. ·Department of Psychiatry & National Drug Dependence Treatment Center, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. Electronic address: saini.romil@gmail.com. · Department of Psychiatry & National Drug Dependence Treatment Center, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. Electronic address: uditpanda@gmail.com. · Department of Psychiatry & National Drug Dependence Treatment Center, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. Electronic address: sidsarkar22@gmail.com. ·Asian J Psychiatr · Pubmed #29222986.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

13 Review Sonic hedgehog, Wnt, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor cell signaling pathway crosstalk: potential therapy for depression. 2018

Tayyab, Mohd / Shahi, Mehdi H / Farheen, Shirin / Mariyath, Mubeena P M / Khanam, Nabeela / Castresana, Javier S / Hossain, M Mobarak. ·Interdisciplinary Brain Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. · Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, University of Navarra, Faculty of Sciences, Pamplona, Spain. · Department of Physiology, JNMC, Faculty of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. ·J Neurosci Res · Pubmed #28631844.

ABSTRACT: There are various theories to explain the pathophysiology of depression and support its diagnosis and treatment. The roles of monoamines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Wnt signaling are well researched, but sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and its downstream transcription factor Gli1 are not well studied in depression. Shh signaling plays a fundamental role in embryonic development and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and also involved in the growth of cancer. In this article, we summarize the evidence for the Shh signaling pathway in depression and the potential crosstalk of Shh with Wnt and BDNF. Antidepressants are known to upregulate the adult hippocampal neurogenesis to treat depression. Shh plays an important role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and its downstream signaling components regulate the synthesis of Wnt proteins. Moreover, the expression of Gli1 and Smo is downregulated in depression. BDNF and Wnt signaling are also regulated by various available antidepressants, so there is the possibility that Shh may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Therefore, the crosstalk between the Shh, Wnt, and BDNF signaling pathways is being discussed to identify the potential targets. Specifically, the potential role of the Shh signaling pathway in depression is explored as a new target for better therapies for depression.

14 Review Late-life Depression and Alzheimer Disease: A Potential Synergy of the Underlying Mechanisms. 2018

Leszek, Jerzy / Trypka, Elżbieta / Koutsouraki, Euphrosyni / Michmizos, Dimitrios / Yarla, Nagendra Sastry / Tarasov, Vadim V / Ashraf, Ghulam Md / Aliev, Gjumrakch. ·Department of Psychiatry, Wroclaw Medical University, Pasteura 10, Str.,50-368 Wroclaw, Poland. · Medical School, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece. · Department of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, 530045, India. · Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119991, Moscow, Russian Federation. · King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. · GALLY International Biomedical Research Consulting LLC., 7733 Louis Pasteur Drive, #330, San Antonio, TX, 78229, United States. · School of Health Science and Healthcare Administration, University of Atlanta, E. Johns Crossing, #175, Johns Creek, GA, United States. · Institute of Physiologically Active Compounds Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, 142432, Russian Federation. ·Curr Med Chem · Pubmed #27593962.

ABSTRACT: A number of biological and clinical characteristics typical of late life depression (LLD) have been suggested by recent research findings. The close association of LLD with cognitive impairment is now well documented and evidenced. However, it is still not clear whether it is depression that leads to cognitive decline, and in more severe cases, to dementia. The work presented in this review article suggests that depression and dementia frequently and strongly copresent, even if the causality remains largely opaque.

15 Review Antidepressant Flavonoids and Their Relationship with Oxidative Stress. 2017

Hritcu, Lucian / Ionita, Radu / Postu, Paula Alexandra / Gupta, Girish Kumar / Turkez, Hasan / Lima, Tamires Cardoso / Carvalho, Caroline Uchôa Souza / de Sousa, Damião Pergentino. ·Department of Biology, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I No. 11, 700506 Iasi, Romania. · Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, M. M. College of Pharmacy, Mullana, Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Ambala, Haryana 133203, India. · Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Erzurum Technical University, 25000 Erzurum, Turkey. · Departamento de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE, Brazil. · Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. ·Oxid Med Cell Longev · Pubmed #29410733.

ABSTRACT: Depression is a serious disorder that affects hundreds of millions of people around the world and causes poor quality of life, problem behaviors, and limitations in activities of daily living. Therefore, the search for new therapeutic options is of high interest and growth. Research on the relationship between depression and oxidative stress has shown important biochemical aspects in the development of this disease. Flavonoids are a class of natural products that exhibit several pharmacological properties, including antidepressant-like activity, and affects various physiological and biochemical functions in the body. Studies show the clinical potential of antioxidant flavonoids in treating depressive disorders and strongly suggest that these natural products are interesting prototype compounds in the study of new antidepressant drugs. So, this review will summarize the chemical and pharmacological perspectives related to the discovery of flavonoids with antidepressant activity. The mechanisms of action of these compounds are also discussed, including their actions on oxidative stress relating to depression.

16 Review Postpartum depression in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2017

Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash / Chowdhury, Ranadip / Aslyeh Salehi, ? / Sarkar, Kaushik / Singh, Sunil Kumar / Sinha, Bireshwar / Pawar, Aditya / Rajalakshmi, Aarya Krishnan / Kumar, Amardeep. ·Department of Community Medicine, Room 517, 5th floor, College Building, Department of Community Medicine, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi 110029, India. · Independent Researcher, New Delhi, India. · School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Queensland, Australia. · Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, New Delhi, India. · Department of Community Medicine, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India. · Department of Psychiatry, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, United States of America. · Department of Psychiatry, Patna Medical College, Patna, Bihar, India. ·Bull World Health Organ · Pubmed #29147043.

ABSTRACT: Objective: To provide an estimate of the burden of postpartum depression in Indian mothers and investigate some risk factors for the condition. Methods: We searched PubMed®, Google Scholar and Embase® databases for articles published from year 2000 up to 31 March 2016 on the prevalence of postpartum depression in Indian mothers. The search used subject headings and keywords with no language restrictions. Quality was assessed via the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. We performed the meta-analysis using a random effects model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression was done for heterogeneity and the Egger test was used to assess publication bias. Findings: Thirty-eight studies involving 20 043 women were analysed. Studies had a high degree of heterogeneity ( Conclusion: The review shows a high prevalence of postpartum depression in Indian mothers. More resources need to be allocated for capacity-building in maternal mental health care in India.

17 Review Bipolar disorder in Asia: Illness course and contributing factors. 2017

Subramanian, Karthick / Sarkar, Siddharth / Kattimani, Shivanand. ·Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India. Electronic address: karthick.jipmer@gmail.com. · Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Electronic address: sidsarkar22@gmail.com. · Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India. Electronic address: drshivanand@gmail.com. ·Asian J Psychiatr · Pubmed #29061417.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies analysing the course of Bipolar Disorder (BD) are relatively rare in the Asian context, contributing to the uncertainty regarding the prevalent course patterns and factors influencing such patterns. The current review identifies the regional characteristics of BD course patterns and the associated factors. METHODS: A review of the existing literature was done using 'PubMed' and 'Cochrane' databases which yielded 145 studies including those from all 48 Asian countries. Relevant discussions from the Western literature were incorporated. RESULTS: Regional and cross-national studies reveal a mania-predominant course in BD in Asian countries. Prolonged depressive episodes and comorbid anxiety disorders worsen the course of BD-II. Certain risk factors such as the young age of onset and greater episode frequency are useful predictors of bipolar diatheses. Substance use disorder comorbidity is more prevalent in males whereas depression and suicidal behaviours are more frequent in females with BD. Comorbid anxiety and personality disorders also encumber the illness course. Logistic reasons and ignorance of side-effects were specifically associated with poor adherence. An 'eveningness' chronotype and poor sleep quality were associated with frequent recurrences. Seasonal patterns vary among men and women, especially for depressive episodes. LIMITATIONS: The effects of treatment and childhood BD course features were not discussed. CONCLUSIONS: There are region-specific characteristics in bipolar illness course and factors influencing such course patterns compared to the rest of the World. Future research from Asia shall attempt to study the neurobiological underpinnings of such characteristics and plan appropriate strategies to address the same.

18 Review Antidepressant Exposure During Pregnancy and Risk of Autism in the Offspring, 1: Meta-Review of Meta-Analyses. 2017

Andrade, Chittaranjan. ·Department of Psychopharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India. candrade@psychiatrist.com. ·J Clin Psychiatry · Pubmed #28994903.

ABSTRACT: There are no randomized controlled trials of antidepressant drugs to treat depression, or to prevent relapse into depression, during pregnancy; therefore, the safety of antidepressant drug exposure during pregnancy is based on evidence from case-control or cohort studies. Many of these observational studies, during the past decade, examined the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in exposed offspring. Different studies using different methods and examining different periods of antidepressant exposure before and during pregnancy obtained different results. Studies with adverse outcomes were highlighted in the mass media, whereas those with reassuring outcomes were mostly ignored. Meta-analyses were conducted to reconcile the findings of the different studies and determine the magnitude of the effect size. In the last year or so, at least 6 such meta-analyses examined the effects of antidepressant exposure during pregnancy on the risk of ASD in the offspring. The meta-analyses set different study selection criteria and employed different methods of analysis to address different objectives. The findings across meta-analyses have been reasonably consistent. Antidepressant exposure during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of ASD in the offspring. The risk is decreased after adjusting for confounding variables and is mostly no longer statistically significant after adjusting for maternal mental illness. Additionally, antidepressant exposure is associated with an increased risk of ASD in the offspring even when exposure is limited to the preconception period, when the drugs cannot have a physiological effect on the fetus. These findings suggest that maternal mental illness is an important determinant of the risk of ASD associated with antidepressant exposure during pregnancy.

19 Review Ketamine for Depression, 5: Potential Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Drug Interactions. 2017

Andrade, Chittaranjan. ·Department of Psychopharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India. candrade@psychiatrist.com. ·J Clin Psychiatry · Pubmed #28858450.

ABSTRACT: Ketamine, administered in subanesthetic doses, is gaining recognition as an off-label treatment for severe and even treatment-refractory depression. This article explores potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions of relevance to the use of ketamine in depression. Sparse evidence suggests that ketamine will not induce clinically significant drug interactions except to the extent that these are predictable by its clinical actions. A small body of literature indicates that drugs that induce cytochrome P450 (CYP)2B6 and CYP3A4 will reduce exposure to ketamine and that drugs that inhibit these enzymes will increase exposure to ketamine. Common genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2B6 gene may also be associated with variations in the exposure to ketamine. However, the clinical implications of such variations in exposure have not been sufficiently studied. A very small number of reports and studies suggest that concurrent benzodiazepine medication may diminish the antidepressant benefits of ketamine. Likewise, a small body of literature suggests that drugs (such as lamotrigine) that inhibit glutamatergic signaling may reduce the adverse effects of ketamine; however, it is unknown whether these drugs also diminish the antidepressant effect. Data from clinical trials indicate that most conventional antidepressants can probably be combined with ketamine without compromising efficacy or increasing the adverse effect burden.​.

20 Review Epidemiology of Depression and its Relationship to Diabetes in India. 2017

Poongothai, Subramani / Anjana, Ranjit Mohan / Radha, Shankar / Sundari, Balasundaram Bhavani / Shanthi Rani, Coimbatore Subramanyam / Mohan, Viswanathan. ·Senior Scientist and Head-Clinical Trials Operations, Department of Clinical Trials. · Vice President and Managing Director, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation and Dr. Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. · Psychiatrist, Fortis Malar Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. · Research Fellow. · Senior Scientist and Head, Department of Clinical Epidemiology. · President, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation and Chairman, Dr. Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. ·J Assoc Physicians India · Pubmed #28799308.

ABSTRACT: Depression is one of the most common chronic mental illnesses globally and in India. It has been reported that depression is twice as common in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of both depression and type 2 diabetes are rapidly increasing. This article reviews the prevalence of depression in the general population as well as in patients with type 2 diabetes and its complications with special reference to recent data from India. It also makes a case for screening for depression in diabetes clinics and integrating depression treatment with diabetes care in order to make the treatment more wholistic.

21 Review Concept and Identification of "Soft Bipolarity" in Patients presenting with Depression: Need for Careful Screening by Physicians. 2017

Kuppili, Pooja Patnaik / Yadav, Priyanka / Pattanayak, Raman Deep. ·Senior Resident, Department of Psychiatry, JIPMER, Puducherry. · Senior Resident. · Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, AIIMS, New Delhi. ·J Assoc Physicians India · Pubmed #28792172.

ABSTRACT: The bipolar spectrum is a broader concept, which questions the strict dichotomous categorical division of erstwhile manic-depressive illness into two discrete categories viz. bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, thereby overlooking a wide 'spectrum' of patients which lie 'in between' the two extremes. The presence of underlying bipolar 'spectrum' or 'soft bipolarity' often goes undetected in patients presenting with major depression. This sub-group of patients may not stabilize with indiscriminate use of anti-depressant drugs, and without proper management, it may be associated with continued non-responsive symptoms, increased suicidality and poorer prognosis. There is a need to suspect and identify such cases of soft bipolarity/spectrum by early screening of patients with major depression presenting to medical settings. The review paper covers the current concepts and understanding of bipolar spectrum disorders which is aimed to facilitate early identification, management and referral of cases detected to have soft bipolarity in the general medical settings.

22 Review Free mobile apps on depression for Indian users: A brief overview and critique. 2017

Kumar, Satish / Mehrotra, Seema. ·Department of Clinical Psychology, NIMHANS, Bangalore 560029, India. · Department of Clinical Psychology, NIMHANS, Bangalore 560029, India. Electronic address: drmehrotra_seema@yahoo.com. ·Asian J Psychiatr · Pubmed #28784364.

ABSTRACT: The present study aimed at identifying the nature of mobile apps available to Indian android phone users who might search for free apps to help them deal with depression. The specific objectives were to examine the available interactive self-care apps in terms of guidance provided to users to make decisions regarding use of app, inclusion of elements that encourage professional help-seeking, guidance regarding managing psychological crisis and the range of therapeutic strategies incorporated. Using the search term 'depression', 278 apps were identified in the first step and these spanned a wide range of categories. Information on coping with depression and stand alone screening tools formed the two largest types of free apps. Features of interactive self-care apps (N = 33) were reviewed further and this exercise showed that less than 10% of the apps incorporated explicit delineation of their scope or initial screening for suitability. Guidance regarding managing suicidal crisis were incorporated in only about 12% of the interactive apps. Slightly more than one third of these apps included content aimed at encouraging professional help seeking when needed or an explicit mention of their theoretical or empirical basis. Monitoring moods, thoughts and behaviors were the commonest therapeutic strategies incorporated in these apps, in addition, to a wide range of other strategies such as behavioral activation, identifying and correcting cognitive errors, mindfulness exercises, cultivation of gratitude, and medication management. The challenges for a potential user of these apps are discussed and ways to address the same are highlighted.

23 Review Ketamine for Depression, 4: In What Dose, at What Rate, by What Route, for How Long, and at What Frequency? 2017

Andrade, Chittaranjan. ·Department of Psychopharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India. candrade@psychiatrist.com. ·J Clin Psychiatry · Pubmed #28749092.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Ketamine, administered in subanesthetic doses, is an effective off-label treatment for severe and even treatment-refractory depression; however, despite dozens of studies across nearly 2 decades of research, there is no definitive guidance on matters related to core practice issues. METHODS: This article presents a qualitative review and summary about what is known about ketamine dosing, rate of administration, route of administration, duration of treatment, and frequency of sessions. RESULTS: Ketamine is most commonly administered in the dose of 0.5 mg/kg, but some patients may respond to doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg, and others may require up to 0.75 mg/kg. The ketamine dose is conventionally administered across 40 minutes; however, safety and efficacy have been demonstrated in sessions ranging between 2 and 100 minutes in duration. Bolus administration is safe and effective when the drug is administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Whereas the intravenous route is the most commonly employed, safety and efficacy have been described with other routes of administration, as well; these include oral, sublingual, transmucosal, intranasal, intramuscular, and subcutaneous routes. Patients may receive a single session of treatment or a course of treatment during the acute phase, and treatment may rarely be continued for weeks to years to extend and maintain treatment gains in refractory cases. When so extended, the ideal frequency is perhaps best individualized wherein ketamine is dosed a little before the effect of the previous session is expected to wear off. CONCLUSIONS: There is likely to be a complex interaction between ketamine dose, session duration, route of administration, frequency of administration, and related practice. Until definitive studies comparing different doses, rates of administration, routes of administration, and other considerations are conducted, firm recommendations are not possible. From the point of view of clinical practicability, subcutaneous, intranasal, and oral ketamine warrant further study. If domiciliary treatment is considered, the risk of abuse must be kept in mind.

24 Review Ketamine for Depression, 3: Does Chirality Matter? 2017

Andrade, Chittaranjan. ·Department of Psychopharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India. candrade@psychiatrist.com. ·J Clin Psychiatry · Pubmed #28682536.

ABSTRACT: Ketamine is a racemic mixture of the enantiomers R-ketamine and S-ketamine (esketamine). S-ketamine has greater analgesic and anesthetic effects than R-ketamine and is less likely to cause psychotomimetic and other adverse effects. There is therefore an emerging interest favoring the use of S-ketamine over racemic ketamine when the drug is used for analgesia or anesthesia. This article examines preclinical and clinical literature on the antidepressant properties of S-ketamine. Animal data suggest potential advantages for R-ketamine over S-ketamine. Case reports, case series, and some small randomized controlled trials suggest that single or repeated intravenous infusions (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) or intranasal administrations (28-84 mg) of S-ketamine have antidepressant action in patients with medication-refractory depression and that the observed benefits are similar in magnitude to the antidepressant benefits reported with racemic ketamine. However, there are no direct comparisons between S-ketamine and either R-ketamine or racemic ketamine in depressed patients; therefore, it is not possible to make an informed choice when considering the enantiomers and the racemate for the indication of depression.

25 Review Co-occurring depression and alcohol-use disorders in South-East Asia: A narrative review. 2017

Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh / Gupta, Prashant / Elwadhi, Deeksha. ·National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre and Department of Psychiatry, All Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. · Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, New Delhi, India. ·WHO South East Asia J Public Health · Pubmed #28597860.

ABSTRACT: Depression and alcohol-use disorders frequently co-occur and the presence of one augments the adverse consequences of the other. This article reviews and synthesizes the available literature on depression and alcohol-use disorders from the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region, with respect to epidemiology, screening instruments, interventions and services, and policy. In common with other low- and middle-income settings, data from this region on co-occurring depression and alcohol-use disorders are scarce. The wide variations in language and cultural diversity within the countries of this region further make the identification and management of people with co-occurring depression and alcohol-use disorders a major challenge. A range of interventions for individuals with the two disorders have been studied. However, most of this work has been done in high-income countries, highlighting the need to explore the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of various pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in the WHO South-East Asia Region. Much of this region comprises low-resource settings, with a dearth of trained personnel and resources. Flexible transdiagnostic approaches, delivered by community health workers and integrated into primary health care may be a pragmatic approach. Such services should form part of strengthened national responses to alcohol-related public health problems across the region.