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Depression: HELP
Articles from Kentucky
Based on 357 articles published since 2008
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These are the 357 published articles about Depression that originated from Kentucky during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15
1 Editorial Deaths of Despair: Why? What to Do? 2017

Scutchfield, F Douglas / Keck, C William. ·F. Douglas Scutchfield is the Bosomworth professor emeritus in the College of Public Health and College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington. C. William Keck is professor emeritus in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown. ·Am J Public Health · Pubmed #28902554.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Doc, my asthma (depression) has gotten me down (wheezing). 2008

Mannino, David M. ·Lexington, KY. Electronic address: dmannino@uky.edu. ·Chest · Pubmed #19059954.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Review Overview of executive functions in mood and depressive disorders: A review of the literature. 2018

Walters, Melanie / Hines-Martin, Vicki. ·Indiana Wesleyan University, School of Nursing, 4201 South Washington Street, Marion, IN 46953, United States; University of Louisville, School of Nursing, 555 South Floyd St., Louisville, KY 40202, United States. Electronic address: mgwalt02@louisville.edu. · University of Louisville, School of Nursing, 555 South Floyd St., Louisville, KY 40202, United States. ·Arch Psychiatr Nurs · Pubmed #30029757.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Review Computer-Assisted Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Depression in Primary Care: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 2018

Wells, Michael J / Owen, Jesse J / McCray, Laura W / Bishop, Laura B / Eells, Tracy D / Brown, Gregory K / Richards, Derek / Thase, Michael E / Wright, Jesse H. ·Department of Family and Geriatric Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, USA. · Department of Counseling Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208. jesse.owen@du.edu. · Department of Counseling Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA. · Family Medicine Residency Program, University of Vermont Medical Center, Burlington, Vermont, USA. · Internal Medicine and Pediatrics Residency Program, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, USA. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, USA. · Clinical Psychology in Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. · E-mental Health Research Group, School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. · SilverCloud Health, Dublin, Ireland. · Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. · Corporal Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. ·Prim Care Companion CNS Disord · Pubmed #29570963.

ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine evidence for the effectiveness of computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy (CCBT) for depression in primary care and assess the impact of therapist-supported CCBT versus self-guided CCBT. Methods: A search for randomized studies of CCBT compared to control groups for treating depression in primary care settings was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus. We extracted the following information from the studies that met inclusion criteria: mean depression rating scale scores before and after treatment, number of patients, type of control group and CCBT program, therapist support time and method of support, and treatment completion rate. Meta-analyses compared differences between posttreatment mean scores in each condition, as well as mean scores at follow-up. Study quality and possible bias also were assessed. Results: Eight studies of CCBT for depression in primary care met inclusion criteria. The overall effect size was g = 0.258, indicating a small but significant advantage for CCBT over control conditions. Therapist support was provided in 4 of the 8 studies. The effect size for therapist-supported CCBT was g = 0.372-a moderate effect. However, the effect size for self-guided CCBT was g = 0.038, indicating little effect. Conclusions: Implementation of therapist-supported CCBT in primary care settings could enhance treatment efficiency, reduce cost, and improve access to effective treatment for depression. However, evidence to date suggests that self-guided CCBT offers no benefits over usual primary care.

5 Review Effectiveness of Interventions for Caregivers of People With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Major Neurocognitive Disorders: A Systematic Review. 2017

Piersol, Catherine Verrier / Canton, Kerry / Connor, Susan E / Giller, Ilana / Lipman, Stacy / Sager, Suzanne. ·Catherine Verrier Piersol, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA, is Associate Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, and Director, Jefferson Elder Care, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA; catherine.v.piersol@jefferson.edu. · Kerry Canton, MS, OTR/L, is Occupational Therapist, Beaumont Hospital, Taylor, MI. At the time of the systematic review, she was Student, Entry-Level Master's Program in Occupational Therapy, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA. · Susan E. Connor, OTD, OTR/L, CCHP, is Occupational Therapist, Rutgers University Correctional Health Care, Newark, NJ. At the time of the systematic review, she was Student, Postprofessional Doctoral Program in Occupational Therapy, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA. · Ilana Giller, OTD, OTR/L, is Occupational Therapist, Ellicott City Healthcare Center, Ellicott City, MD. At the time of the systematic review, she was Student, Occupational Therapy Doctoral Program, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA. · Stacy Lipman, OTD, OTR/L, is Occupational Therapist, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC. At the time of the systematic review, she was Student, Postprofessional Doctoral Program in Occupational Therapy, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA. · Suzanne Sager, MS, OTR/L, is Occupational Therapist, Exceptional Rehab, Lexington, KY. At the time of the systematic review, she was Student, Entry-Level BSMS Program in Occupational Therapy, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA. ·Am J Occup Ther · Pubmed #28809652.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The goal of the evidence review was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders that facilitate the ability to maintain participation in the caregiver role. METHOD: Scientific literature published in English between January 2006 and April 2014 was reviewed. Databases included MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, OTseeker, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. RESULTS: Of 2,476 records screened, 43 studies met inclusion criteria. Strong evidence shows that multicomponent psychoeducational interventions improve caregiver quality of life (QOL), confidence, and self-efficacy and reduce burden; cognitive reframing reduces caregiver anxiety, depression, and stress; communication skills training improves caregiver skill and QOL in persons with dementia; mindfulness-based training improves caregiver mental health and reduces stress and burden; and professionally led support groups enhance caregiver QOL. CONCLUSION: Strong evidence exists for a spectrum of caregiver interventions. Translation of effective interventions into practice and evaluation of sustainability is necessary.

6 Review Depression in Older Adults: A Treatable Medical Condition. 2017

Casey, David A. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Geriatric Psychiatry Program, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 401 East Chestnut Street, Suite 610, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. Electronic address: dacase01@exchange.louisville.edu. ·Prim Care · Pubmed #28797375.

ABSTRACT: Depression is not a normal part of the aging process. Depression in older adults is a treatable medical condition; a variety of psychotherapeutic options are available. Electroconvulsive therapy is a useful treatment. Older patients must be viewed in their medical, functional, and social context for effective management. Cognition must be assessed along with mood in the older patient with depression.

7 Review Effects of cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in heart failure patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2017

Jeyanantham, Kishaan / Kotecha, Dipak / Thanki, Devsaagar / Dekker, Rebecca / Lane, Deirdre A. ·The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. · University of Birmingham Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, City Hospital, Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust, Dudley Road, Birmingham, B18 7QH, UK. · Monash University Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics, Melbourne, Australia. · University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. · University of Birmingham Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, City Hospital, Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust, Dudley Road, Birmingham, B18 7QH, UK. deirdrelane@nhs.net. · Aalborg Thrombosis Research Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. deirdrelane@nhs.net. ·Heart Fail Rev · Pubmed #28733911.

ABSTRACT: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on depression, quality of life, hospitalisations and mortality in heart failure patients. The search strategy was developed for Ovid MEDLINE and modified accordingly to search the following bibliographic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL and CINAHL. Databases were searched from inception to 6 March 2016 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies that used CBT in heart failure patients with depression or depressive symptoms. Six studies were identified: 5 RCTs and 1 observational study, comprising 320 participants with predominantly NYHA classes II-III, who were mostly male, with mean age ranging from 55 to 66 years. Compared to usual care, CBT was associated with a greater improvement in depression scores both initially after CBT sessions (standardised mean difference -0.34, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.08, p = 0.01) and at 3 months follow-up (standardised mean difference -0.32, 95% CI -0.59 to -0.04, p = 0.03). Greater improvement in quality of life scores was evident for the CBT group initially after CBT sessions, but with no difference at 3 months. Hospital admissions and mortality were similar, regardless of treatment group. CBT may be more effective than usual care at improving depression scores and quality of life for heart failure patients initially following CBT and for depression at 3 months. Larger and more robust RCTs are needed to evaluate the long-term clinical effects of CBT in heart failure patients.

8 Review Processes Linking Religious Involvement and Telomere Length. 2017

Hill, Terrence D / Vaghela, Preeti / Ellison, Christopher G / Rote, Sunshine. ·a School of Sociology , The University of Arizona , Tucson , Arizona , USA. · b Department of Sociology , Florida State University , Tallahassee , Florida , USA. · c Department of Sociology , University of Texas at San Antonio , San Antonio , Texas , USA. · d Kent School of Social Work , University of Louisville , Louisville , Kentucky , USA. ·Biodemography Soc Biol · Pubmed #28521619.

ABSTRACT: Although numerous studies suggest that religious involvement is associated with better health and longer life expectancies, it is unclear whether these general patterns extend to cellular aging. The mechanisms linking indicators of religious involvement with indicators of cellular aging are also undefined. We employed longitudinal data from the 2004 and 2008 Health and Retirement Study, a national probability sample of Americans aged 50 and older, to test whether average telomere length varied according to level of religious attendance. We also tested several potential mechanisms. Our results showed that respondents who attended religious services more frequently in 2004 also exhibited fewer stressful events, lower rates of smoking, fewer symptoms of depression, and lower levels of C-reactive protein in 2008. Respondents who increased their level of attendance from 2004 to 2008 also exhibited lower rates of smoking in 2008. Although religious attendance was not directly associated with telomere length, our mediation analyses revealed significant indirect effects through depression and smoking, but not stressful events or C-reactive protein. We conclude that religious attendance may promote telomere length indirectly by reducing symptoms of depression and the risk of smoking. There was no evidence to support stressful events or C-reactive protein as mechanisms of religious attendance.

9 Review Use of Computer and Mobile Technologies in the Treatment of Depression. 2017

Callan, Judith A / Wright, Jesse / Siegle, Greg J / Howland, Robert H / Kepler, Britney B. ·University of Pittsburgh, School of Nursing, 3500 Victoria Street, 419B Victoria Building, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. Electronic address: callanja@pitt.edu. · University of Louisville Psychiatric Group, 401 E. Chestnut Street, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. Electronic address: jwright@iglou.com. · Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2593, USA. Electronic address: gsiegle@pitt.edu. · Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address: howlandrh@upmc.edu. · University of Pittsburgh, 3500 Victoria Street, Pittsburgh, PA 152611, USA. Electronic address: bbk8@pitt.edu. ·Arch Psychiatr Nurs · Pubmed #28499574.

ABSTRACT: Major depression (MDD) is a common and disabling disorder. Research has shown that most people with MDD receive either no treatment or inadequate treatment. Computer and mobile technologies may offer solutions for the delivery of therapies to untreated or inadequately treated individuals with MDD. The authors review currently available technologies and research aimed at relieving symptoms of MDD. These technologies include computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy (CCBT), web-based self-help, Internet self-help support groups, mobile psychotherapeutic interventions (i.e., mobile applications or apps), technology enhanced exercise, and biosensing technology.

10 Review Systematic Review of Occupational Therapy and Adult Cancer Rehabilitation: Part 2. Impact of Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation and Psychosocial, Sexuality, and Return-to-Work Interventions. 2017

Hunter, Elizabeth G / Gibson, Robert W / Arbesman, Marian / D'Amico, Mariana. ·Elizabeth G. Hunter, PhD, OTR/L, is Assistant Professor, Graduate Center for Gerontology, University of Kentucky, Lexington; eghunt2@uky.edu. · Robert W. Gibson, PhD, MS, OTR/L, FAOTA, is Professor and Director of Research, Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta. · Marian Arbesman, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA, is Consultant, Evidence-Based Practice Project, American Occupational Therapy Association, Bethesda, MD; President, ArbesIdeas, Inc., Williamsville, NY; and Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Research and Leadership, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC. · Mariana D'Amico, EdD, OTR/L, BCP, FAOTA, is Associate Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL. ·Am J Occup Ther · Pubmed #28218586.

ABSTRACT: This article is the second part of a systematic review of evidence for the effectiveness of cancer rehabilitation interventions within the scope of occupational therapy that address the activity and participation needs of adult cancer survivors. This article focuses on the use of multidisciplinary rehabilitation and interventions that address psychosocial outcomes, sexuality, and return to work. Strong evidence indicates that multidisciplinary rehabilitation benefits cancer survivors and that psychosocial strategies can reduce anxiety and depression. Moderate evidence indicates that interventions can support survivors in returning to the level of sexuality desired and help with return to work. Part 1 of the review also appears in this issue.

11 Review Systematic Review of Occupational Therapy and Adult Cancer Rehabilitation: Part 1. Impact of Physical Activity and Symptom Management Interventions. 2017

Hunter, Elizabeth G / Gibson, Robert W / Arbesman, Marian / D'Amico, Mariana. ·Elizabeth G. Hunter, PhD, OTR/L, is Assistant Professor, Graduate Center for Gerontology, University of Kentucky, Lexington; eghunt2@uky.edu. · Robert W. Gibson, PhD, MS, OTR/L, FAOTA, is Professor and Director of Research, Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA. · Marian Arbesman, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA, is Consultant, Evidence-Based Practice Project, American Occupational Therapy Association, Bethesda, MD; President, ArbesIdeas, Inc., Williamsville, NY; and Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Research and Leadership, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC. · Mariana D'Amico, EdD, OTR/L, BCP, FAOTA, is Associate Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL. ·Am J Occup Ther · Pubmed #28218585.

ABSTRACT: This article is the first part of a systematic review of evidence for the effectiveness of cancer rehabilitation interventions within the scope of occupational therapy that address the activity and participation needs of adult cancer survivors. This article focuses on the importance of physical activity and symptom management. Strong evidence supports the use of exercise for cancer-related fatigue and indicates that lymphedema is not exacerbated by exercise. Moderate evidence supports the use of yoga to relieve anxiety and depression and indicates that exercise as a whole may contribute to a return to precancer levels of sexual activity. The results of this review support inclusion of occupational therapy in cancer rehabilitation and reveal a significant need for more research to explore ways occupational therapy can positively influence the outcomes of cancer survivors. Part 2 of the review also appears in this issue.

12 Review Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment-Refractory Depression. 2016

Narang, Puneet / Retzlaff, Amber / Brar, Kanwarjeet / Lippmann, Steven. ·From the University of Minnesota Regions Hospital, Minneapolis-St Paul, the University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis-St Paul, and the University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky. ·South Med J · Pubmed #27812714.

ABSTRACT: Depression has a high lifetime prevalence and recurrence rate, with more than one-third of affected patients experiencing treatment-refractory depression. These individuals should benefit from additional treatment options such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), a research-grade intervention. DBS is being investigated for its efficacy in treatment-refractory cases. We reviewed the English-language literature published between the years 2010 and 2015 regarding the utility of DBS for patients with treatment-refractory depression. The literature review revealed that most DBS research is open label, with few large randomized, placebo-controlled trials to confirm results. Long-term response rates with DBS were between 40% and 70%, with clinical effects depending on location of electrode placement. Improvement was documented to last for months to years. Although DBS is potentially efficacious and a relatively safe option for patients with treatment resistance, it is invasive, costly, and still considered experimental. Understanding of the neurobiology of depression, the mechanism of DBS action, and biomarkers that may predict patient response remains obscure. Future research should contain careful design, including homogenous inclusion criteria and characterization of pretreatment patient mood, somatic complaints, and cognition; consistent outcome measures; monitoring of depressive symptoms at different brain-positioning targets across an adequate time course; and records of stimulus parameters.

13 Review Psychological Aspects of Heart Failure. 2016

Moser, Debra K / Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia / Biddle, Martha J / Chung, Misook Lee / Dekker, Rebecca L / Hammash, Muna H / Mudd-Martin, Gia / Alhurani, Abdullah S / Lennie, Terry A. ·Professor and Linda C. Gill Chair of Nursing, University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, 315 CON, Lexington, KY, 40536-0232, USA. dmoser@uky.edu. · University of Michigan, School of Nursing, 400 North Ingalls, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-5482, USA. · University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, 315 CON Building, Lexington, KY, 40536-0232, USA. · University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, 529 CON, Lexington, KY, 40536-0232, USA. · University of Louisville, College of Nursing, Louisville, Kentucky, USA. · University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, 533 CON, Lexington, KY, 40536-0232, USA. · The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. · University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, 521 CON, Lexington, KY, 40536-0232, USA. ·Curr Cardiol Rep · Pubmed #27796856.

ABSTRACT: Psychological conditions such as depression can have a greater impact on morbidity and mortality outcomes than traditional risk factors for these outcomes. Despite their importance, it is rare for clinicians to assess patients for these conditions and rarer still for them to consistently and adequately manage them. Illumination of the phenomena of comorbid psychological conditions in heart failure may increase awareness of the problem, resulting in improved assessment and management.

14 Review Pharmacogenomics in Psychiatric Practice. 2016

El-Mallakh, Rif S / Roberts, R Jeannie / El-Mallakh, Peggy L / Findlay, Lillian Jan / Reynolds, Kristen K. ·Mood Disorders Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville HealthCare OutPatient Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 401 East Chestnut Street, Suite 610, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. Electronic address: rselma01@louisville.edu. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville HealthCare OutPatient Center, University of Louisville Hospital, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 401 East Chestnut Street, Suite 610, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. · Graduate Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Program, University of Kentucky College of Nursing, University of Kentucky, 547 College of Nursing Building, Lexington, KY 40536-0232, USA. · PGXL Laboratories, Department of Pathology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, University of Louisville, 201 East Jefferson Street, Suite 309, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. ·Clin Lab Med · Pubmed #27514465.

ABSTRACT: Pharmacogenomic testing in psychiatry is becoming an established clinical procedure. Several vendors provide clinical interpretation of combinatorial pharmacogenomic testing of gene variants that have documented predictive implications regarding either pharmacologic response or adverse effects in depression and other psychiatric conditions. Such gene profiles have demonstrated improvements in outcome in depression, and reduction of cost of care of patients with inadequate clinical response. Additionally, several new gene variants are being studied to predict specific response in individuals. Many of these genes have demonstrated a role in the pathophysiology of depression or specific depressive symptoms. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art application of psychiatric pharmacogenomics.

15 Review Private prayer associations with depression, anxiety and other health conditions: an analytical review of clinical studies. 2016

Anderson, James W / Nunnelley, Paige A. ·a Department of Medicine , University of Kentucky , Lexington , KY , USA. · b Nursing Service , Centennial Medical Center , Nashville , TN , USA. ·Postgrad Med · Pubmed #27452045.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To critically analyze appropriate clinical studies to assess the relationship between health conditions and the frequency of private prayer. Private prayer is defined as individuals praying for themselves. METHODS: Using PubMed and other search engines, we identified over 300 articles reporting relationships between prayer and health conditions. We identified 41 observational clinical studies that evaluated the relationship between private prayer and health conditions. Prayer scores of 5 to 1 were assigned to studies, with 5 being private prayer for health and 1 being prayer in combination with meditation or Bible study. Frequency scores ranged from 3 to 1 with 3 being twice daily or more and 0 when frequency was not assessed. Studies were ranked from 8 to 1 based on the sum of Prayer and Frequency Scores. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies had Prayer-Frequency scores of 5 to 8, indicating that they evaluated private prayer (praying for one's own health) of suitable frequency in association with health conditions. Nine of 11 studies indicated that private prayer was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of depression (P value, <0.01). Optimism as well as coping were significantly improved by prayer in four studies (P value, P < 0.01). In 10 studies of mental health conditions-including anxiety and confusion-there was a significant benefit associated with prayer (P < 0.01), In the reviewed studies, prayer did not have a significant effect on physical health or blood pressure. CONCLUSION: The reported observational studies suggest that frequent private prayer is associated with a significant benefit for depression, optimism, coping, and other mental health conditions such as anxiety. Controlled clinical trials are required to critically assess the associations of private prayer and health conditions.

16 Review Antipsychotics as antidepressants. 2016

Roberts, Rona Jeannie / Lohano, Kavita K / El-Mallakh, Rif S. ·Mood Disorders Research Program, Depression Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA. ·Asia Pac Psychiatry · Pubmed #25963405.

ABSTRACT: Three second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) agents have received FDA approval for adjunctive treatment, to antidepressant, of major depressive disorder: quetiapine, aripiprazole, and olanzapine. Additionally, quetiapine and lurasidone have been approved for the treatment of bipolar depression. There are data suggesting that quetiapine is effective for major depressive disorder as monotherapy. These agents are effective for depression only at subantipsychotic doses. Receptor profiles predict that all SGA will have anxiolytic effects as subantipsychotic doses but that all will be dysphorogenic at full antipsychotic doses (i.e., produce a depression-like clinical picture). The antidepressant effect appears to be unique to some agents, with direct evidence of insignificant antidepressant action for ziprasidone. Three general principles can guide the use of antipsychotics as antidepressants: (i) All SGAs may have anxiolytic effects; (ii) full antipsychotic doses are dysphorogenic, and therefore, subantipsychotic doses are to be used; and (iii) SGAs do not have a general antidepressant effect, rather, this appears to be unique to quetiapine and aripiprazole, and possibly lurasidone.

17 Review Pharmacology Update on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Major Depression. 2015

Weatherspoon, Deborah / Weatherspoon, Christopher A / Abbott, Brianna. ·Core Faculty Leadership and Management Specialty College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing Graduate Program, Walden University, Washington Avenue South, Suite 900 Minneapolis, MN 55401, USA. Electronic address: Deborah.Weatherspoon@Waldenu.edu. · Veteran Affairs, Tennessee Valley Health System, Fort Campbell, KY, USA; Contributing Faculty College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing Graduate Program, Walden University, Washington Avenue South, Suite 900 Minneapolis, MN 55401, USA. · College of Health Science, Bethel University, 325 Cherry Avenue, McKenzie, TN 38201, USA. ·Nurs Clin North Am · Pubmed #26596663.

ABSTRACT: This article presents a brief review and summarizes current therapies for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, major depression, and rheumatoid arthritis. One new pharmaceutical agent is highlighted for each of the topics.

18 Review Cognition and Depression Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Globus Pallidus Pars Internus in Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis. 2015

Combs, Hannah L / Folley, Bradley S / Berry, David T R / Segerstrom, Suzanne C / Han, Dong Y / Anderson-Mooney, Amelia J / Walls, Brittany D / van Horne, Craig. ·Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 111C Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY, 40506, USA. Hannah.combs@uky.edu. · Norton Neuroscience Institute, Louisville, KY, USA. bradley.folley@nortonhealthcare.org. · Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. bradley.folley@nortonhealthcare.org. · Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 111C Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY, 40506, USA. dtrb85@gmail.com. · Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 111C Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY, 40506, USA. segerstrom@uky.edu. · Department of Neurology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. d.han@uky.edu. · Department of Neurology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. Amelia.anderson@uky.edu. · Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 111C Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY, 40506, USA. Brittany.walls@uky.edu. · Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. craigvanhorne@uky.edu. ·Neuropsychol Rev · Pubmed #26459361.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Individuals experience predominantly extrapyramidal symptoms including resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait abnormalities, cognitive impairment, depression, and neurobehavioral concerns. Cognitive impairments associated with PD are diverse, including difficulty with attention, processing speed, executive functioning, memory recall, visuospatial functions, word-retrieval, and naming. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus internus (GPi) is FDA approved and has been shown to be effective in reducing motor symptoms of PD. Studies have found that stimulating STN and GPi are equally effective at improving motor symptoms and dyskinesias; however, there has been discrepancy as to whether the cognitive, behavioral, and mood symptoms are affected differently between the two targets. The present study used random-effects meta-analytic models along with a novel p-curve analytic procedure to compare the potential cognitive and emotional impairments associated with STN-DBS in the current literature to those associated with GPi-DBS. Forty-one articles were reviewed with an aggregated sample size of 1622 patients. Following STN-DBS, small declines were found in psychomotor speed, memory, attention, executive functions, and overall cognition; and moderate declines were found in both semantic and phonemic fluency. However, GPi-DBS resulted in fewer neurocognitive declines than STN-DBS (small declines in attention and small-moderate declines in verbal fluency). With regards to its effect on depression symptomatology, both GPi-DBS and STN-DBS resulted in lower levels of depressive symptoms post-surgery. From a neurocognitive standpoint, both GPi-DBS and STN-DBS produce subtle cognitive declines but appears to be relatively well tolerated.

19 Review A combined analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates an association between bipolar disorder and tobacco smoking behaviors in adults. 2015

Jackson, James G / Diaz, Francisco J / Lopez, Lucelly / de Leon, Jose. ·College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY. · Department of Biostatistics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA. · School of Health Sciences, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellin, Colombia. · Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. · Psychiatry and Neurosciences Research Group (CTS-549), Institute of Neurosciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. · Biomedical Research Centre in Mental Health Net (CIBERSAM), Santiago Apóstol Hospital, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain. ·Bipolar Disord · Pubmed #26238269.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Worldwide studies were combined to examine two hypotheses: (i) bipolar disorder is associated with smoking behaviors, compared with the general population; and (ii) smoking behavior prevalences in bipolar disorder are intermediate between those in major depressive disorder and those in schizophrenia. METHODS: Combined analyses used 56 articles on adults obtained from a PubMed search or the senior author's article collection. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) compared current smoking, heavy smoking among current smokers, smoking cessation in ever smokers, and ever smoking in bipolar disorder versus control groups. RESULTS: The combined OR was 3.5 (CI: 3.39-3.54) in 51 current smoking studies of bipolar disorder versus the general population from 16 countries. More limited data provided an OR = 0.34 (CI: 0.31-0.37) for smoking cessation and an OR = 3.6 (CI: 3.30-3.80) for ever smoking. The combined OR was 0.76 (CI: 0.74-0.79) for current smoking in bipolar disorder versus schizophrenia in 20 studies from ten countries. Ever smoking may be lower in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia (OR = 0.83, CI: 0.75-0.91). The OR was 2.05 (CI: 2.00-2.10) for current smoking in bipolar disorder versus major depression in 18 studies from seven countries. Ever smoking may be higher (OR = 1.5, CI: 1.40-1.70) and smoking cessation lower (OR = 0.51, CI: 0.45-0.59) in bipolar disorder than in major depression. CONCLUSIONS: Increased current smoking in bipolar disorder versus the general population reflected increased ever smoking (initiation) and decreased smoking cessation. Smoking behavior frequencies in bipolar disorder may be between those in depressive disorder and schizophrenia, with schizophrenia showing the highest severity level.

20 Review α2 Adrenergic Receptor Trafficking as a Therapeutic Target in Antidepressant Drug Action. 2015

Cottingham, Christopher / Ferryman, Craig J / Wang, Qin. ·Department of Biology and Chemistry, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky, USA. Electronic address: c.cottingham@moreheadstate.edu. · Department of Biology and Chemistry, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky, USA. · Department of Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. Electronic address: qinwang@uab.edu. ·Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci · Pubmed #26055060.

ABSTRACT: Antidepressant drugs remain poorly understood, especially with respect to pharmacological mechanisms of action. This lack of knowledge results from the extreme complexity inherent to psychopharmacology, as well as to a corresponding lack of knowledge regarding depressive disorder pathophysiology. While the final analysis is likely to be multifactorial and heterogeneous, compelling evidence exists for upregulation of brain α2 adrenergic receptors (ARs) in depressed patients. This evidence has sparked a line of research into actions of a particular antidepressant drug class, the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), as direct ligands at α(2A)ARs. Our findings, as outlined herein, demonstrate that TCAs function as arrestin-biased ligands at α(2A)ARs. Importantly, TCA-induced α(2A)AR/arrestin recruitment leads to receptor endocytosis and downregulation of α(2A)AR expression with prolonged exposure. These findings represent a novel mechanism linking α(2)AR trafficking with antidepressant pharmacology.

21 Review Evidence supporting a link between dental amalgams and chronic illness, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and suicide. 2014

Kern, Janet K / Geier, David A / Bjørklund, Geir / King, Paul G / Homme, Kristin G / Haley, Boyd E / Sykes, Lisa K / Geier, Mark R. ·Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, MD, USA. · Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, Mo i Rana, Norway. · CoMeD, Inc., Silver Spring, MD, USA. · International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology, ChampionsGate, FL, USA. · University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. ·Neuro Endocrinol Lett · Pubmed #25617876.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for a relationship between mercury (Hg) exposure from dental amalgams and certain idiopathic chronic illnesses--chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), fibromyalgia (FM), depression, anxiety, and suicide. Dental amalgam is a commonly used dental restorative material that contains approximately 50% elemental mercury (Hg0) by weight and releases Hg0 vapor. Studies have shown that chronic Hg exposure from various sources including dental amalgams is associated with numerous health complaints, including fatigue, anxiety, and depression--and these are among the main symptoms that are associated with CFS and FM. In addition, several studies have shown that the removal of amalgams is associated with improvement in these symptoms. Although the issue of amalgam safety is still under debate, the preponderance of evidence suggests that Hg exposure from dental amalgams may cause or contribute to many chronic conditions. Thus, consideration of Hg toxicity may be central to the effective clinical investigation of many chronic illnesses, particularly those involving fatigue and depression.

22 Review Perfectionism in pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders. 2014

Affrunti, Nicholas W / Woodruff-Borden, Janet. ·The University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA, nwaffr01@louisville.edu. ·Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev · Pubmed #24481881.

ABSTRACT: Although perfectionism has been identified as a factor in many psychiatric disorders across the life span, it is relatively understudied in pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders. Furthermore, there exists little cohesion among previous research, restricting the conclusions that can be made across studies. In this review, research associating perfectionism with pediatric anxiety and depression is examined and a framework is presented synthesizing research to date. We focus on detailing the current understanding of how perfectionism develops and interacts with other developmental features characteristic of anxiety and depression in children and potential pathways that result in anxiety and depressive disorders. This includes: how perfectionism is measured in children, comparisons with relevant adult literature, the development of perfectionism in children and adolescents, mediators and moderators of the link between perfectionism and anxiety and depression, and the role of perfectionism in treatment and prevention of these disorders. We also present research detailing perfectionism across cultures. Findings from these studies are beginning to implicate perfectionism as an underlying process that may contribute broadly to the development of anxiety and depression in a pediatric population. Throughout the review, difficulties, limitations, and gaps in the current understanding are presented while offering suggestions for future research.

23 Review Patient perspectives about depressive symptoms in heart failure: a review of the qualitative literature. 2014

Dekker, Rebecca L. ·Rebecca L. Dekker, PhD, APRN Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington. ·J Cardiovasc Nurs · Pubmed #23151836.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Scientists have systematically established the prevalence and the consequences of depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure (HF). However, a comprehensive understanding of patient perspectives about depressive symptoms, in combination with HF, has not been published. A patient-centered approach may support the design of interventions that are effective and acceptable to patients with HF and depressive symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review qualitative findings about patient perspectives of contributing factors, associated symptoms, consequences, and self-care strategies used for depressive symptoms in HF. METHODS: Qualitative studies were included if they were published between 2000 and 2012, if they were in English, and if they described emotional components about living with HF. Three electronic databases were searched using the key words heart failure, qualitative, and depression or psychosocial or stress or emotional. RESULTS: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Patients with HF reported that financial stressors, overall poor health, past traumatic life experiences, and negative thinking contributed to depressive symptoms. The patients described cognitive-affective symptoms of depression and anxiety but not somatic symptoms of depression. Perceived consequences of depressive symptoms included hopelessness, despair, impaired social relationships, and a decreased ability to engage in HF self-care. Recommended management strategies consisted of enhanced social support and cognitive strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms in patients with HF were associated with a number of contributing factors, including those not specifically related to their disease, and serious consequences that reduced their self-care ability. Nonpharmacological management approaches to depressive symptoms that include improved social support or cognitive interventions may be effective and acceptable strategies.

24 Review Depression as a risk factor for breast cancer: investigating methodological limitations in the literature. 2012

Pössel, Patrick / Adams, Erica / Valentine, Jeffrey C. ·Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, University of Louisville, 2301 S. Third Street, Louisville, KY 40292, USA. patrick.possel@louisville.edu ·Cancer Causes Control · Pubmed #22706674.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: A relationship between depression and the development of breast cancer has not been convincingly shown in the research conducted over the past three decades. METHODS: In an effort to better understand the conflicting results, a review was conducted focusing on the methodological problems associated with this literature, including time frame between the assessment of depression and the diagnosis of breast cancer and the use of somatic items in measuring depression. Fifteen breast cancer prospective studies were reviewed. RESULTS: While twelve of the studies found positive associations between depression and breast cancer development, three studies found negative associations. With regard to the predictive associations between depression and breast cancer incidence, the findings revealed that (a) studies using a longer time frame found a stronger association than studies using a shorter time frame and (b) studies utilizing depression measures that did not contain somatic items found a smaller association than studies utilizing depression measures that did contain these items. CONCLUSIONS: Future studies should ensure that sufficient periods of time between the measurement of depression and the assessment of cancer and avoid measuring depression using somatic items.

25 Review Studies of long-term use of antidepressants: how should the data from them be interpreted? 2012

El-Mallakh, Rif S / Briscoe, Brian. ·Mood Disorders Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA. rselma01@louisville.edu ·CNS Drugs · Pubmed #22296314.

ABSTRACT: Depression is a recurrent illness in which afflicted individuals have an increased risk for recurrence as a function of a greater number of previous episodes. Consequently, prevention of future episodes is central to improving the prognosis. The current recommendation is to use antidepressants over prolonged periods of time to prevent further episodes of depression. However, the database for this practice is limited and can be interpreted in multiple ways. Review of the relevant literature was performed. MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched from inception to 5 September 2011 for randomized, placebo-controlled trials of at least 18 months duration. After treatment of an acute depressive episode, antidepressants clearly prevent relapse back into the same depressive episode. This is demonstrated by an adequate number of randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, 1-year continuation trials. The ability of antidepressants to prevent recurrence of future episodes is less clear. Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trials of 18 months or longer are infrequent - 18 studies were identified. While nearly all show that antidepressant continuation is superior to placebo in preventing resurgence of depressive symptoms, nearly all of the difference occurs in the first 6 months after randomization. This pattern strongly suggests that the apparent superiority of antidepressants may be due to (i) their ability to prevent recurrence, (ii) antidepressant withdrawal (characterized by depressive symptoms) in patients switched to placebo or (iii) a combination of these phenomena.

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