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Depression: HELP
Articles from Scotland
Based on 888 articles published since 2010

These are the 888 published articles about Depression that originated from Scotland during 2010-2020.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: A revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. 2015

Cleare, Anthony / Pariante, C M / Young, A H / Anderson, I M / Christmas, D / Cowen, P J / Dickens, C / Ferrier, I N / Geddes, J / Gilbody, S / Haddad, P M / Katona, C / Lewis, G / Malizia, A / McAllister-Williams, R H / Ramchandani, P / Scott, J / Taylor, D / Uher, R / Anonymous40830. ·Professor of Psychopharmacology & Affective Disorders, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Centre for Affective Disorders, London, UK anthony.cleare@kcl.ac.uk. · Professor of Biological Psychiatry, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Centre for Affective Disorders, London, UK. · Professor of Psychiatry and Chair of Mood Disorders, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Centre for Affective Disorders, London, UK. · Professor and Honorary Consultant Psychiatrist, University of Manchester Department of Psychiatry, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. · Consultant Psychiatrist, Advanced Interventions Service, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, UK. · Professor of Psychopharmacology, Psychopharmacology Research Unit, Neurosciences Building, University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK. · Professor of Psychological Medicine, University of Exeter Medical School and Devon Partnership Trust, Exeter, UK. · Professor of Psychiatry, Honorary Consultant Psychiatrist, School of Neurology, Neurobiology & Psychiatry, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. · Head, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK. · Director of the Mental Health and Addictions Research Group (MHARG), The Hull York Medical School, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK. · Consultant Psychiatrist, Cromwell House, Greater Manchester West Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, UK. · Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UK. · Consultant in Neuropsychopharmacology and Neuromodulation, North Bristol NHS Trust, Rosa Burden Centre, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK. · Reader in Clinical Psychopharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. · Reader in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Centre for Mental Health, Imperial College London, London, UK. · Professor of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. · Professor of Psychopharmacology, King's College London, London, UK. · Associate Professor, Canada Research Chair in Early Interventions, Dalhousie University, Department of Psychiatry, Halifax, NS, Canada. ·J Psychopharmacol · Pubmed #25969470.

ABSTRACT: A revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants was undertaken in order to incorporate new evidence and to update the recommendations where appropriate. A consensus meeting involving experts in depressive disorders and their management was held in September 2012. Key areas in treating depression were reviewed and the strength of evidence and clinical implications were considered. The guidelines were then revised after extensive feedback from participants and interested parties. A literature review is provided which identifies the quality of evidence upon which the recommendations are made. These guidelines cover the nature and detection of depressive disorders, acute treatment with antidepressant drugs, choice of drug versus alternative treatment, practical issues in prescribing and management, next-step treatment, relapse prevention, treatment of relapse and stopping treatment. Significant changes since the last guidelines were published in 2008 include the availability of new antidepressant treatment options, improved evidence supporting certain augmentation strategies (drug and non-drug), management of potential long-term side effects, updated guidance for prescribing in elderly and adolescent populations and updated guidance for optimal prescribing. Suggestions for future research priorities are also made.

2 Editorial Which first-line antidepressant? 2019

Kendrick, Tony / Taylor, David / Johnson, Chris F. ·Primary Care and Population Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton. · Maudsley Hospital, and Professor of Psychopharmacology, King's College London, London. · NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde Pharmacy & Prescribing Support Unit, Pharmacy Services, NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde, Glasgow. ·Br J Gen Pract · Pubmed #30819733.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Editorial: is cirrhosis depressing? 2019

Argent, Vikki / Smyth, Roger Simon. ·Department of Psychological Medicine, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. ·Aliment Pharmacol Ther · Pubmed #30746770.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Do Depression and Stressful Events Cause Premature Aging? 2018

McIntosh, Andrew M / Relton, Caroline. ·From the Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, U.K.; and the School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Clifton, U.K. ·Am J Psychiatry · Pubmed #30064249.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Editorial: Mental Health Challenges in Elite Sport: Balancing Risk with Reward. 2017

MacIntyre, Tadhg E / Jones, Marc / Brewer, Britton W / Van Raalte, Judy / O'Shea, Deirdre / McCarthy, Paul J. ·Health Research Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. · Centre for Sport, Health and Exercise Research, Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom. · Department of Psychology, Springfield College, Springfield, IL, United States. · Department of Personnel and Employment Relations, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. · School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom. ·Front Psychol · Pubmed #29118734.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Updating neuropathology and neuropharmacology of monoaminergic systems. 2016

Ramsay, Rona R / De Deurwaerdère, Philippe / Di Giovanni, Giuseppe. ·Biomedical Sciences Research Centre, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK. · Institut of Neurodegenerative Disease, UMR CNRS 5293, Bordeaux cedex, France. · Neuroscience Division, School of Bioscience, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. · Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Malta, Msida, Malta. ·Br J Pharmacol · Pubmed #27302283.

ABSTRACT: LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Updating Neuropathology and Neuropharmacology of Monoaminergic Systems. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v173.13/issuetoc.

7 Editorial Depression Phenotype, Inflammation, and the Brain: Implications for Future Research. 2016

Krishnadas, Rajeev / Harrison, Neil A. ·From the Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology (Krishnadas), University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom · and Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre (Harrison), Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom. ·Psychosom Med · Pubmed #27128110.

ABSTRACT: Inflammation is implicated in the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Human neuroimaging techniques are increasingly used to characterize the neural circuitry mediating actions of inflammation on mood, motivation, and cognition and its relationship to MDD. In this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, Byrne and colleagues report the first systematic review of these studies. The systematic review provides a much-needed synthesis of current research findings and highlights the role of cortical and subcortical brain structure and function. In this accompanying commentary, we highlight further points of particular relevance to future studies, including the potential advantages of functional phenotype models rather than the emphasis on mutually exclusive diagnostic categories in describing MDD and other psychiatric disorders. Novel imaging techniques will further enhance possibilities to clarify the link between inflammation and depression. New research challenges are described regarding the relationships between behavioral phenotype, brain structure and function, and peripheral inflammation.

8 Editorial Comorbidity of depression and anxiety disorders in patients with hypertension. 2016

Graham, Nicholas / Smith, Daniel J. ·Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK. ·J Hypertens · Pubmed #26818922.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Editorial Reliever Inhaler Overuse, Asthma Symptoms, and Depression. 2015

Thomson, Neil C. ·Institute of Infection, Immunity & Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Electronic address: neil.thomson@glasgow.ac.uk. ·J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract · Pubmed #26553619.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Editorial Risk of intracranial haemorrhage linked to co-treatment with antidepressants and NSAIDs. 2015

Mercer, Stewart W / Payne, Rupert A / Nicholl, Barbara I / Morrison, Jill. ·General Practice and Primary Care, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 9LX, UK stewart.mercer@glasgow.ac.uk. · Primary Care Unit, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0SR, UK. · General Practice and Primary Care, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 9LX, UK. ·BMJ · Pubmed #26173949.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

11 Editorial Editor's reply. 2015

Chien, P. ·Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, UK. ·BJOG · Pubmed #25702558.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

12 Editorial Poststroke depression and 5-HTTLPR. 2014

Queirazza, Filippo / Cavanagh, Jonathan. ·IHW, University of Glasgow, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, UK. ·J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry · Pubmed #23715919.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

13 Editorial Towards clinically useful neuroimaging in psychiatric practice. 2013

Cooper, Deborah / Limet, Natalie / McClung, Ian / Lawrie, Stephen M. ·Deborah Cooper, MB ChB, MRCPsych, General Adult Psychiatry; Natalie Limet, MB ChB, MRCPsych, Ian McClung, MB ChB, MRCPsych, Old Age Psychiatry; Stephen M. Lawrie, MD(Hons), FRCPsych, University Division of Psychiatry, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, UK. ·Br J Psychiatry · Pubmed #24085734.

ABSTRACT: When psychiatrists see a patient, they consider a diagnosis, estimate a prognosis and treat accordingly, but very few of these decisions are informed by objective tests. Recent advances in neuroimaging data analysis have shown that brain scans can make powerful diagnostic and prognostic predictions in patients with psychosis and depression.

14 Review Pathoetiology and pathophysiology of borderline personality: Role of prenatal factors, gut microbiome, mu- and kappa-opioid receptors in amygdala-PFC interactions. 2020

Anderson, George. ·CRC Scotland & London, Eccleston Square, London, UK. Electronic address: anderson.george@rocketmail.com. ·Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry · Pubmed #31689444.

ABSTRACT: The pathoetiology and pathophysiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) have been relatively under-explored. Consequently, no targetted pharmaceutical treatments or preventative interventions are available. The current article reviews the available data on the biological underpinnings of BPD, highlighting a role for early developmental processes, including prenatal stress and maternal dysbiosis, in BPD pathoetiology. Such factors are proposed to drive alterations in the infant's gut microbiome, in turn modulating amygdala development and the amygdala's two-way interactions with other brain regions. Alterations in opioidergic activity, including variations in the ratio of the mu-and kappa-opioid receptors seem a significant aspect of BPD pathophysiology, contributing to its comorbidities with depression, anxiety, impulsivity and addiction. Stress and dysphoria are commonly experienced in people classed with BPD. A growing body of data, across a host of medical conditions, indicate that stress and mood dysregulation may be intimately associated with gut dysbiosis and increased gut permeability, coupled to heightened levels of oxidative stress and immune-inflammatory activity. It urgently requires investigation as to the relevance of such gut changes in the course of BPD symptomatology. Accumulating data indicates that BPD symptom exacerbations may be linked to cyclical variations in estrogen, in turn decreasing serotonin and local melatonin synthesis, and thereby overlapping with the pathophysiology of migraine and endometriosis, which also have a heightened association with BPD. Future research directions and treatment implications are indicated.

15 Review Mindfulness-based interventions for mental well-being among people with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. 2019

Simpson, Robert / Simpson, Sharon / Ramparsad, Nitish / Lawrence, Margaret / Booth, Jo / Mercer, Stewart W. ·Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK Robert.Simpson@glasgow.ac.uk. · Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. · Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. · School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK. · General Practice and Primary Care, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. ·J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry · Pubmed #31196913.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Impairment of mental well-being (anxiety, depression, stress) is common among people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Treatment options are limited, particularly for anxiety. The aim of this study was to update our previous systematic review (2014) and evaluate via meta-analysis the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for improving mental well-being in PwMS. METHODS: Systematic searches for eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were carried out in seven major databases (November 2017, July 2018), using medical subject headings and key words. Studies were screened, data extracted, quality appraised and analysed by two independent reviewers, using predefined criteria. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. Mental well-being was the primary outcome. Random effects model meta-analysis was performed, with effect size reported as standardised mean difference (SMD). RESULTS: Twelve RCTs including 744 PwMS were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review, eight had data extractable for meta-analysis; n=635. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, comorbidity and disability were inconsistently reported. MBIs varied from manualised to tailored versions, lasting 6-9 weeks, delivered individually and via groups, both in person and online. Overall SMD for mental well-being (eight studies) was 0.40 (0.28-0.53), p<0.01, I CONCLUSIONS: MBIs are effective at improving mental well-being in PwMS. More research is needed regarding optimal delivery method, cost-effectiveness and comparative-effectiveness. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018093171.

16 Review Rodent models of social stress and neuronal plasticity: Relevance to depressive-like disorders. 2019

Patel, Deepika / Kas, Martien J / Chattarji, Sumantra / Buwalda, Bauke. ·Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands; National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore 560065, India. · Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands. · National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore 560065, India; Centre for Brain Development and Repair, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Bangalore 560065, India; Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, Deanery of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, 15 George Square, Edinburgh EH89XD, UK. · Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: b.buwalda@rug.nl. ·Behav Brain Res · Pubmed #31022420.

ABSTRACT: Exposure to severe or persistent social stress may lead to the development of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. These mood disorders are associated with structural alterations of neural architecture in limbic brain regions that control emotion, mood and cognition. Structural remodeling may either be a sign of successful adaptation, or of failure to do so. In neuropsychiatric disorders like depression structural remodeling involves apoptosis, reduced neurogenesis, and structural remodeling of neuronal dendrites which most likely reflects the latter. Here we review key findings from animal models of psychosocial stress that have been used to gain insights into the relation between stress-related behavioral disorders like depression and structural plasticity. Specifically, we focus on models having a high face validity like social defeat stress in the resident-intruder paradigm and chronic stress of social subordination in social housing conditions. Moderate to severe social stress appears to stimulate plasticity and neuronal growth in regions of the amygdala, whereas the effects in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex tend to be opposite. A major focus of the current review is to characterize social stress induced structural changes in these brain regions, aiming to provide insight in pathways and factors that underlie behavioral effects of stress and depression.

17 Review Uncovering the Genetic Architecture of Major Depression. 2019

McIntosh, Andrew M / Sullivan, Patrick F / Lewis, Cathryn M. ·Division of Psychiatry, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address: andrew.mcintosh@ed.ac.uk. · Departments of Genetics and Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. · Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, King's College London, London, UK; Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, London UK. ·Neuron · Pubmed #30946830.

ABSTRACT: There have been several recent studies addressing the genetic architecture of depression. This review serves to take stock of what is known now about the genetics of depression, how it has increased our knowledge and understanding of its mechanisms, and how the information and knowledge can be leveraged to improve the care of people affected. We identify four priorities for how the field of MD genetics research may move forward in future years, namely by increasing the sample sizes available for genome-wide association studies (GWASs), greater inclusion of diverse ancestries and low-income countries, the closer integration of psychiatric genetics with electronic medical records, and the development of the neuroscience toolkit for polygenic disorders.

18 Review Prevalence of depression among Iranian patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2019

Jamshidi, Tayebeh / Ghanei Gheshlagh, Reza / Ebtekar, Fariba / Dalvand, Sahar / Vahedian Azimi, Amir / Kurdi, Amanj. ·Psychiatric Nursing Department, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Clinical Care Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran, Ghanei@muk.ac.ir. · Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran, Ghanei@muk.ac.ir. · Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran. · Department of epidemiology and Biostatistics, school of Public health, Tehran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Trauma Research Center, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Science, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. ·Open Access Rheumatol · Pubmed #30863193.

ABSTRACT: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are prone to depression due to several factors related to their RA, including chronic and persistent pain, functional disability, economic constraints, and the side effects of RA medication. Previous Iranian studies showed conflicting and inconclusive findings regarding the prevalence of depression among RA patients. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the true prevalence of depression in Iranian patients with RA. Search for eligible articles was performed using the keywords of depression, depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, major depressive disorder, RA, and Iran, and their possible combinations in the following databases: Scientific Information Database, MagIran, Web of Science/ISI, PubMed, and Scopus. The search was restricted to articles published in Persian and English languages. The meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model, and the data were analyzed using the STATA software version 12. Overall, six articles were selected; the overall prevalence of depression among the Iranian patients with RA was 65.58% (95% CI: 56.53%-74.62%). There were no significant relationships between the prevalence of depression and articles' methodological quality and year of publication, participants' age, sample size, and duration of disease. More than half of RA patients suffer from depression. The overlap between the physical symptoms of RA and depression in this group of patients makes it difficult to correctly diagnose depression; therefore, initiative and efforts are required to improve the identification of early depression symptoms in RA patients in order to effectively manage their depression.

19 Review Assessment and treatment of depression associated with dementia. 2019

Hughes, Lloyd D / Murphy, Fionnghuala / Findlay, David J. ·GP Registrar, Lomond Practice, NHS Fife, Glenrothes KY6 1HL. · Core Trainee in Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Stobhill Hospital, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Glasgow. · Consultant in Old Age Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Stratheden Hospital, NHS Fife, Cupar. ·Br J Hosp Med (Lond) · Pubmed #30860908.

ABSTRACT: Depression is a frequent diagnosis for people with dementia, with between 25% and 42% of such patients receiving antidepressants. The diagnosis can be challenging to make, and this patient group is more vulnerable to side effects of commonly used medications. This article outlines the diagnostic considerations and therapeutic approaches for managing depression in people with dementia.

20 Review Rheumatoid arthritis and depression: an inflammatory perspective. 2019

Nerurkar, Louis / Siebert, Stefan / McInnes, Iain B / Cavanagh, Jonathan. ·Institute of Infection, Immunity, and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. · Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. Electronic address: jonathan.cavanagh@glasgow.ac.uk. ·Lancet Psychiatry · Pubmed #30366684.

ABSTRACT: The coexistence of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases with depression has long been recognised. Data that illustrate the intimate associations between peripheral and brain immune responses raise the possibility of shared pathophysiological mechanisms. These associations include the negative effects of proinflammatory cytokines on monoaminergic neurotransmission, neurotrophic factors, and measures of synaptic plasticity. The evidence supporting this association is accumulating and includes findings from clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapy, indicating that these interventions can provide benefits to mental health independent of improvements in physical disease scores. In this Review, we assess this evidence in relation to rheumatoid arthritis and depression, with a focus on innate immune and molecular responses to inflammation, and discuss the challenges of assessing causation in this population, acknowledging the difficulty of assessing the confounding and contributory effects of pain and fatigue. We also discuss how future clinical and preclinical research might improve diagnosis of depression in people with rheumatoid arthritis and shed light on mechanisms that could be substrates for therapeutic interventions.

21 Review The Role of the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E (eIF4E) in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. 2018

Amorim, Inês S / Lach, Gilliard / Gkogkas, Christos G. ·Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. · The Patrick Wild Centre, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. ·Front Genet · Pubmed #30532767.

ABSTRACT: Protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells is a complex, multi-step and tightly regulated process. Translation initiation, the rate limiting step in protein synthesis, is dependent on the activity of eukaryotic translation Initiation Factor 4E (eIF4E). eIF4E is the cap-binding protein which, in synergy with proteins such as the helicase eIF4A and the scaffolding protein eIF4G, binds to mRNA, allowing the recruitment of ribosomes and translation initiation. The function of eIF4E is tightly regulated in cells under normal physiological conditions and can be controlled by post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, and by the binding of inhibitory proteins, including eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BPs) and CYFIP1. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of eIF4E in normal or aberrant function of the nervous system. In this mini-review, we will highlight the role of eIF4E function and regulation in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.

22 Review Common Environmental Factors May Underpin the Comorbidity Between Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Mood Disorders Via Activated Nitro-oxidative Pathways. 2018

Roomruangwong, Chutima / Simeonova, Denitsa S / Stoyanov, Drozdstoy S / Anderson, George / Carvalho, Andre / Maes, Michael. ·Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. · Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. · CRC, London and Scotland, United Kingdom. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. · Centre for Addiction & Mental Health (CAMH), Toronto, ON, Canada. · Impact Strategic Center, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia. ·Curr Top Med Chem · Pubmed #30430941.

ABSTRACT: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) commonly co-occurs with mood disorders, especially Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD), which are accompanied by activated neuro-immune and neuro-oxidative pathways. The aim of this narrative review is to review the phenomenological similarities and dissimilarities and the shared pathways between GAD and mood disorders. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for articles published in English from 1980 to present. GAD and mood disorders, either MDD or BD, show some phenomenological overlaps and a high degree of comorbidity, especially between GAD and MDD. Both GAD and mood disorders are also frequently comorbid with other anxiety disorders, substance use disorders and medical conditions, including cardio- vascular disorder (CVD). Mood disorders have a worse prognosis when GAD is present. GAD and mood disorders are associated with female sex and may partly share genetic variants of risk. Moreover, both GAD and mood disorders frequently share similar environmental risks factors including Early Life Time Trauma (ELT) and Psychological Stressors in Adulthood (PSA). Increased nitro-oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation coupled to lowered lipid-associated antioxidant defenses are evident in GAD, MDD and type I bipolar patients. Patients with comorbid GAD and MDD show significantly higher nitro- oxidative biomarkers as compared with patients presenting with either GAD or MDD as well as patients with BD with or without co-occurring GAD. Activated immune-inflammatory processes characterized by increased levels of CRP and pro-inflammatory cytokines are other shared pathways that underpin GAD and mood disorders. Moreover, these pathways may explain comorbidities with medical disorders including CVD. Aberrations in HPA-axis, GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, NMDA and mu opioid-receptors and neuroimaging fields have yielded more inconsistent findings. In conclusion, here we propose a new model explaining GAD and the comorbidity between GAD and mood disorders. Common triggers such as ELT/PSA may underpin GAD and its comorbidity with mood disorders via activated neuro-oxidative, neuro-nitrosative and neuro-immune pathways.

23 Review Review of the prevalence of postnatal depression across cultures. 2018

Arifin, Siti Roshaidai Mohd / Cheyne, Helen / Maxwell, Margaret. ·Department of Special Care Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. · Nursing, Midwifery and Allied Health Professional (NMAHP) Research Unit, University of Stirling Scotland, United Kingdom. ·AIMS Public Health · Pubmed #30280116.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review was to examine articles related to recent epidemiological evidence of the prevalence of maternal postnatal depression (PND) across different countries and cultures and to identify specific epidemiological studies that have been carried out exclusively in Malaysia on the prevalence of maternal PND. The review was undertaken in two stages, an initial review and an updated review. At both stages systematic literature searches of online databases were performed to identify articles on the prevalence of maternal PND. A total of 124 articles concerning research conducted in more than 50 countries were included in the final analysis. There were wide variations in the screening instruments and diagnostic tools used although the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was the most common instrument applied to identify PND. The prevalence of maternal PND ranged from 4.0% to 63.9%, with Japan and America recording the lowest and highest rates, respectively. Within continents, a wide variation in reported prevalence was also found. The reported rates of maternal PND in Malaysia were much higher than that previously documented with a range of 6.8-27.3%. This review indicated that the widely cited prevalence of maternal PND of 10-15% underestimates rates of PND worldwide. The reasons for this variability may not be fully explained by review methods. Future studies should evaluate the nature of women's PND experiences across cultures to explain these wide variations.

24 Review Family and Support Networks Following Critical Illness. 2018

Haines, Kimberley J / Quasim, Tara / McPeake, Joanne. ·Department of Physiotherapy, Western Health, Sunshine Hospital, 176 Furlong Road, St Albans, Melbourne, Victoria 3021, Australia; Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, Monash University, 553 St Kilda Road, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia. Electronic address: Kimberley.haines@wh.org.au. · Glasgow Royal Infirmary, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, 84 Castle Street, Glasgow G4 0SF, Scotland; School of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. ·Crit Care Clin · Pubmed #30223998.

ABSTRACT: Research highlights the psychosocial impact of critical illness on family who typically adopt a caregiver role to the survivor. We review evidence on informal caregiver psychosocial outcomes and interventional studies designed to improve them. We argue informal caregivers have distinct and complex needs that differ from patients. Interventional studies ought to be designed for this cohort with careful attention paid to the timing of interventions. We consider the influence of social isolation on recovery and discuss service improvement approaches to build social support networks to enhance recovery, where caregivers and survivors are involved in the design of aftercare programs.

25 Review Self-compassion and Psychological Distress in Adolescents-a Meta-analysis. 2018

Marsh, Imogen C / Chan, Stella W Y / MacBeth, Angus. ·Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, School of Health in Social Science, University of Edinburgh, Rm 3.06A, Doorway 6, Medical Quad, Teviot Place, Edinburgh, EH8 9AG UK. · 0000 0004 1936 7988 · grid.4305.2 ·Mindfulness (N Y) · Pubmed #30100930.

ABSTRACT: Research indicates that self-compassion is relevant to adolescents' psychological well-being, and may inform the development of mental health and well-being interventions for youth. This meta-analysis synthesises the existing literature to estimate the magnitude of effect for the association between self-compassion and psychological distress in adolescents. Our search identified 19 relevant studies of adolescents (10-19 years;