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Ehrlichiosis HELP
Based on 889 articles published since 2010
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These are the 889 published articles about Ehrlichiosis that originated from Worldwide during 2010-2020.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline Diagnosis and Management of Tickborne Rickettsial Diseases: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Other Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses, Ehrlichioses, and Anaplasmosis - United States. 2016

Biggs, Holly M / Behravesh, Casey Barton / Bradley, Kristy K / Dahlgren, F Scott / Drexler, Naomi A / Dumler, J Stephen / Folk, Scott M / Kato, Cecilia Y / Lash, R Ryan / Levin, Michael L / Massung, Robert F / Nadelman, Robert B / Nicholson, William L / Paddock, Christopher D / Pritt, Bobbi S / Traeger, Marc S. ·National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia. ·MMWR Recomm Rep · Pubmed #27172113.

ABSTRACT: Tickborne rickettsial diseases continue to cause severe illness and death in otherwise healthy adults and children, despite the availability of low-cost, effective antibacterial therapy. Recognition early in the clinical course is critical because this is the period when antibacterial therapy is most effective. Early signs and symptoms of these illnesses are nonspecific or mimic other illnesses, which can make diagnosis challenging. Previously undescribed tickborne rickettsial diseases continue to be recognized, and since 2004, three additional agents have been described as causes of human disease in the United States: Rickettsia parkeri, Ehrlichia muris-like agent, and Rickettsia species 364D. This report updates the 2006 CDC recommendations on the diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases in the United States and includes information on the practical aspects of epidemiology, clinical assessment, treatment, laboratory diagnosis, and prevention of tickborne rickettsial diseases. The CDC Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, in consultation with external clinical and academic specialists and public health professionals, developed this report to assist health care providers and public health professionals to 1) recognize key epidemiologic features and clinical manifestations of tickborne rickettsial diseases, 2) recognize that doxycycline is the treatment of choice for suspected tickborne rickettsial diseases in adults and children, 3) understand that early empiric antibacterial therapy can prevent severe disease and death, 4) request the appropriate confirmatory diagnostic tests and understand their usefulness and limitations, and 5) report probable and confirmed cases of tickborne rickettsial diseases to public health authorities.

2 Editorial Perspectives on the pathogenesis and treatment of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis). 2015

Harrus, Shimon. ·Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 7610000, Israel. Electronic address: shimon.harrus@mail.huji.ac.il. ·Vet J · Pubmed #25957922.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Anaplasma phagocytophilum surface protein AipA mediates invasion of mammalian host cells. 2014

Seidman, David / Ojogun, Nore / Walker, Naomi J / Mastronunzio, Juliana / Kahlon, Amandeep / Hebert, Kathryn S / Karandashova, Sophia / Miller, Daniel P / Tegels, Brittney K / Marconi, Richard T / Fikrig, Erol / Borjesson, Dori L / Carlyon, Jason A. ·Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia, USA. ·Cell Microbiol · Pubmed #24612118.

ABSTRACT: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals, is a tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacterium that mediates its own uptake into neutrophils and non-phagocytic cells. Invasins of obligate intracellular pathogens are attractive targets for protecting against or curing infection because blocking the internalization step prevents survival of these organisms. The complement of A. phagocytophilum invasins is incompletely defined. Here, we report the significance of a novel A. phagocytophilum invasion protein, AipA. A. phagocytophilum induced aipA expression during transmission feeding of infected ticks on mice. The bacterium upregulated aipA transcription when it transitioned from its non-infectious reticulate cell morphotype to its infectious dense-cored morphotype during infection of HL-60 cells. AipA localized to the bacterial surface and was expressed during in vivo infection. Of the AipA regions predicted to be surface-exposed, only residues 1 to 87 (AipA1-87 ) were found to be essential for host cell invasion. Recombinant AipA1-87 protein bound to and competitively inhibited A. phagocytophilum infection of mammalian cells. Antiserum specific for AipA1-87 , but not other AipA regions, antagonized infection. Additional blocking experiments using peptide-specific antisera narrowed down the AipA invasion domain to residues 9 to 21. An antisera combination targeting AipA1-87 together with two other A. phagocytophilum invasins, OmpA and Asp14, nearly abolished infection of host cells. This study identifies AipA as an A. phagocytophilum surface protein that is critical for infection, demarcates its invasion domain, and establishes a rationale for targeting multiple invasins to protect against granulocytic anaplasmosis.

4 Editorial Diagnosis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis: development of advanced techniques to combat a global disease. 2011

Rikihisa, Yasuko. · ·Vet J · Pubmed #20580578.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Review [Effectivity of diagnostic methods for the detection of human and canine monocytic ehrlichiosis]. 2019

Franco-Zetina, Manuel / Adame-Gallegos, Jaime / Dzul-Rosado, Karla. ·Centro de Investigaciones Regionales "Dr. Hideyo Noguchi", Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, México. · Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, México. ·Rev Chilena Infectol · Pubmed #31859807.

ABSTRACT: Ehrlichiosis is a disease transmitted by tick's bite that affect dogs and humans caused by the species Ehrlichia canis and E. chaffeensis, respectively. These bacteria are obligated intracellular gram negatives, with a cocoid to pleomorph aspect and can infect monocytes and trigger symptoms such as high fever, anorexia, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhages, anemia, and some serious problems such as splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and meningitis. There are several diagnostic tests for ehrlichiosis such as the hematological ones that evaluate the morphology of the monocytes in search of morulae; serological tests that includes the search of anti-Ehrlichia antibodies, although they might be limited due to cross reaction with other species. In other hand, the culture of Ehrlichia species is an effective method to obtain antigens and even develop indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA). The polymerase chain reaction offers a definitive diagnosis associated to the use of genus-specific and species-specific primers, as well as its increased sensibility and specificity, compared to the others methods. Thus, in this review, we will discuss various methods applied to the diagnosis of this disease, as well as the advantages and disadvantages that these present.

6 Review Emerging Roles of Autophagy and Inflammasome in Ehrlichiosis. 2019

Tominello, Tyler R / Oliveira, Edson R A / Hussain, Shah S / Elfert, Amr / Wells, Jakob / Golden, Brandon / Ismail, Nahed. ·Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States. · Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States. ·Front Immunol · Pubmed #31134081.

ABSTRACT: Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is a potentially life-threatening tick-borne rickettsial disease (TBRD) caused by the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria,

7 Review A review on the occurrence of companion vector-borne diseases in pet animals in Latin America. 2019

Maggi, Ricardo G / Krämer, Friederike. ·Department of Clinical Sciences and the Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA. rgmaggi@ncsu.edu. · Institute of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany. ·Parasit Vectors · Pubmed #30917860.

ABSTRACT: Companion vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are an important threat for pet life, but may also have an impact on human health, due to their often zoonotic character. The importance and awareness of CVBDs continuously increased during the last years. However, information on their occurrence is often limited in several parts of the world, which are often especially affected. Latin America (LATAM), a region with large biodiversity, is one of these regions, where information on CVBDs for pet owners, veterinarians, medical doctors and health workers is often obsolete, limited or non-existent. In the present review, a comprehensive literature search for CVBDs in companion animals (dogs and cats) was performed for several countries in Central America (Belize, Caribbean Islands, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico) as well as in South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana (British Guyana), Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela) regarding the occurrence of the following parasitic and bacterial diseases: babesiosis, heartworm disease, subcutaneous dirofilariosis, hepatozoonosis, leishmaniosis, trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, ehrlichiosis, mycoplasmosis and rickettsiosis. An overview on the specific diseases, followed by a short summary on their occurrence per country is given. Additionally, a tabular listing on positive or non-reported occurrence is presented. None of the countries is completely free from CVBDs. The data presented in the review confirm a wide distribution of the CVBDs in focus in LATAM. This wide occurrence and the fact that most of the CVBDs can have a quite severe clinical outcome and their diagnostic as well as therapeutic options in the region are often difficult to access and to afford, demands a strong call for the prevention of pathogen transmission by the use of ectoparasiticidal and anti-feeding products as well as by performing behavioural changes.

8 Review An update on the treatment of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis). 2019

Mylonakis, Mathios E / Harrus, Shimon / Breitschwerdt, Edward B. ·Companion Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 11 Stavrou Voutyra st., Thessaloniki 54627, Greece. Electronic address: mmylonak@vet.auth.gr. · Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel. · Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory, Comparative Medicine Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University (NCSU-CVM),1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607 USA. ·Vet J · Pubmed #30902188.

ABSTRACT: Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by Ehrlichia canis, a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium, is a tick-borne disease of worldwide distribution. Experimentally, the course of E. canis infection can be sequentially divided into acute, subclinical and chronic phases, although distinction of these phases is challenging in the clinical setting. Spontaneous clinical recovery of acutely infected dogs is common; however, dogs at this stage require medical treatment in order to hasten their clinical recovery, and to prevent clinical exacerbation or death. An unpredictable proportion of subclinically infected dogs will eventually develop the chronic, severe form of ehrlichiosis, characterized by aplastic pancytopenia and high mortality. The aims of antimicrobial treatment in CME include the achievement of clinical remission, resolution of the clinicopathologic abnormalities, and eradication of the infection, although the latter is not always feasible or diagnostically confirmable. Treatment of dogs with aplastic pancytopenia should be undertaken with the clear understanding that medical management will require long-term care, will be expensive, and may eventually prove ineffective. This manuscript reviews the current state of knowledge regarding treatment of ehrlichiosis, caused by E. canis infection in dogs, provides expert opinion guidelines for the management of the CME-associated aplastic pancytopenia, and outlines methods for evaluation of treatment outcomes.

9 Review Subversion of RAB5-regulated autophagy by the intracellular pathogen 2019

Rikihisa, Yasuko. ·a Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University , Columbus , OH , USA. ·Small GTPases · Pubmed #28650718.

ABSTRACT: Intracellular pathogens often exploit RAB functions to establish a safe haven in which to survive and proliferate.

10 Review Tick-Borne Illnesses in the United States. 2018

Pujalte, George G A / Marberry, Scott T / Libertin, Claudia R. ·Family Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Road S, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA; Sports Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Road S, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA. Electronic address: pujalte.george@mayo.edu. · Family Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Road S, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA. · Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Road S, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA. ·Prim Care · Pubmed #30115329.

ABSTRACT: Close interaction with nature can lead to tick-borne illnesses, which are seen most frequently in primary care clinics when patients present symptoms. Considerable morbidity can result from untreated infections. Fortunately, these illnesses are often easily managed when diagnosed early.

11 Review Tick borne illness-Lyme disease. 2018

Bush, Larry M / Vazquez-Pertejo, Maria T. ·Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL; University of Miami-Miller School of Medicine, Palm Beach County, FL. Electronic address: drlarry561@aol.com. · Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Wellington Regional Medical Center, BlueHealth, LLC, Palm Beach County, FL. ·Dis Mon · Pubmed #29402399.

ABSTRACT: Lyme disease is the most commonly reported tick-borneillness in the United States. Thecausative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted by 4 species of Ixodes tick species. Over 90% of US cases occur in northeasternstates from Maine to Virginia, and in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan. Infection also takes place in northern California and Oregon. Lyme borreliosis is also diagnosed in parts of Europe, China, and Japan. The white-footed mouse is the primary animal reservoir for B. burgdorferi in the U.S. and the preferred host for nymphal and larval forms of the deer tick. Deer are hosts for the adult ticks but do not carry the spirochete. Signs and symptomsof infection occur in 3 stages; early localized, typified by erythema migrans; early disseminated with a flu-like syndrome, neurologic, and cardiac manifestations; and late, characteristically with arthritis. Although, the term 'Chronic Lyme Disease' has been assigned to many patients with a variety of unexplained symptoms, experts in the field question the validity of this diagnosis and warn against prolonged unproven antimicrobial therapies. Diagnosis relies upon clinical evaluation and is supported by serologic testing using a 2-step process which requires careful interpretation. Treatmentvaries with stage of disease, but normally includes doxycycline, amoxicillin,and ceftriaxone. Currently, no preventative vaccine is available. In some geographic areas, patients may be confected with Babesia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma since the same Ixodes ticks transmit these pathogens.

12 Review Pathogen transmission in relation to duration of attachment by Ixodes scapularis ticks. 2018

Eisen, Lars. ·Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3156, Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, United States. Electronic address: evp4@cdc.gov. ·Ticks Tick Borne Dis · Pubmed #29398603.

ABSTRACT: The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the deer tick virus lineage of Powassan virus (Powassan virus disease); the protozoan parasite Babesia microti (babesiosis); and multiple bacterial disease agents including Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis), Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii (Lyme disease), Borrelia miyamotoi (relapsing fever-like illness, named Borrelia miyamotoi disease), and Ehrlichia muris eauclairensis (a minor causative agent of ehrlichiosis). With the notable exception of Powassan virus, which can be transmitted within minutes after attachment by an infected tick, there is no doubt that the risk of transmission of other I. scapularis-borne pathogens, including Lyme disease spirochetes, increases with the length of time (number of days) infected ticks are allowed to remain attached. This review summarizes data from experimental transmission studies to reinforce the important disease-prevention message that regular (at least daily) tick checks and prompt tick removal has strong potential to reduce the risk of transmission of I. scapularis-borne bacterial and parasitic pathogens from infected attached ticks. The most likely scenario for human exposure to an I. scapularis-borne pathogen is the bite by a single infected tick. However, recent reviews have failed to make a clear distinction between data based on transmission studies where experimental hosts were fed upon by a single versus multiple infected ticks. A summary of data from experimental studies on transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes (Bo. burgdorferi and Bo. mayonii) by I. scapularis nymphs indicates that the probability of transmission resulting in host infection, at time points from 24 to 72 h after nymphal attachment, is higher when multiple infected ticks feed together as compared to feeding by a single infected tick. In the specific context of risk for human infection, the most relevant experimental studies therefore are those where the probability of pathogen transmission at a given point in time after attachment was determined using a single infected tick. The minimum duration of attachment by single infected I. scapularis nymphs required for transmission to result in host infection is poorly defined for most pathogens, but experimental studies have shown that Powassan virus can be transmitted within 15 min of tick attachment and both A. phagocytophilum and Bo. miyamotoi within the first 24 h of attachment. There is no experimental evidence for transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes by single infected I. scapularis nymphs to result in host infection when ticks are attached for only 24 h (despite exposure of nearly 90 experimental rodent hosts across multiple studies) but the probability of transmission resulting in host infection appears to increase to approximately 10% by 48 h and reach 70% by 72 h for Bo. burgdorferi. Caveats to the results from experimental transmission studies, including specific circumstances (such as re-attachment of previously partially fed infected ticks) that may lead to more rapid transmission are discussed.

13 Review Repellence of essential oils and selected compounds against ticks-A systematic review. 2018

Benelli, Giovanni / Pavela, Roman. ·Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy; The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address: benelli.giovanni@gmail.com. · Crop Research Institute, Drnovska 507, 161 06, Prague, Czech Republic. ·Acta Trop · Pubmed #29287758.

ABSTRACT: Ticks act as vectors of a wide range of infectious agents, far encompassing any other group of bloodsucking arthropods worldwide. The prevention of tick-borne diseases is strictly linked to the successful management of tick vector populations. The employ of repellents can represent a worth solution to avoid tick bites. It is widely adopted to protect travellers and pets exposed to ticks during limited periods of the year. The use of natural products as active ingredients in eco-friendly repellent formulations is currently a prominent research area, due to the wide diversity and high effectiveness of a number of plant-borne compounds, with special reference to essential oils (EOs) extracted from medicinal and aromatic species. Here, we reviewed current knowledge available on EOs tested as repellents against tick species of veterinary importance. Furthermore, we analysed the effectiveness of pure compounds isolated from EOs as tick repellents and their potential implications for practical use in the öreal world". A quantitative analysis of literature available is this research field was provided, along with its impact (i.e., in terms of citations over time) on the scientific community of researchers in tick control science and natural product chemistry. In the final sections, future outlooks are highlighted. We discussed major challenges to stabilize the most effective EOs and pure molecules, explore the synergistic and antagonistic effects in blends of EOs and/or pure constituents, standardize currently adopted testing methods, and evaluate non-target risks of herbal repellents.

14 Review Anaplasmosis in pediatric patients: Case report and review. 2017

Sigurjonsdottir, Vaka K / Feder, Henry M / Wormser, Gary P. ·Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT, 06106. · University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, 06030. Electronic address: feder@uchc.edu. · Division of Infectious Diseases, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595. ·Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis · Pubmed #29050793.

ABSTRACT: Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne infection, characterized as an acute and sometimes severe febrile illness which may be associated with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Most case reports of HGA have been in adults, with only 8 case reports of HGA in children. We add a ninth case of HGA, which occurred in a 5-year-old. The paucity of pediatric HGA case reports maybe because publication bias, or HGA in children is a mild illness and children with HGA are less likely than adults to seek medical care, or the diagnosis of HGA requires a blood draw and adults (versus children) are more likely to get diagnostic testing. The 9 case reports in children suggest that pediatric HGA is usually a mild infection and that doxycycline and rifampin are effective therapies. Like adults, children with HGA frequently present with fever, headache, and malaise; however, children are more likely than adults to have abdominal pain as a prominent complaint.

15 Review Tick-Borne Emerging Infections: Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis. 2017

Ismail, Nahed / McBride, Jere W. ·Departments of Pathology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 3550 Terrace Street, Scaife Hall, Room 739, Pittsburgh, PA 15217, USA. Electronic address: ismailn@upmc.edu. · Department of Pathology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Keiller 1.136, Galveston, TX 77555-0609, USA. ·Clin Lab Med · Pubmed #28457353.

ABSTRACT: Human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are acute febrile tick-borne infectious diseases caused by various members from the genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. Ehrlichia chaffeensis is the major etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME), while Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the major cause of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). The clinical manifestations of HME and HGA ranges from subclinical to potentially life-threatening diseases associated with multi-organ failure. Macrophages and neutrophils are the major target cells for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma, respectively. The threat to public health is increasing with newly emerging ehrlichial and anaplasma agents, yet vaccines for human ehrlichioses and anaplasmosis are not available, and therapeutic options are limited. This article reviews recent advances in the understanding of HME and HGA.

16 Review Ehrlichioses: An Important One Health Opportunity. 2016

Saito, Tais B / Walker, David H. ·Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. tbsaito@utmb.edu. · Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. dwalker@utmb.edu. ·Vet Sci · Pubmed #29056728.

ABSTRACT: Ehrlichioses are caused by obligately intracellular bacteria that are maintained subclinically in a persistently infected vertebrate host and a tick vector. The most severe life-threatening illnesses, such as human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis and heartwater, occur in incidental hosts.

17 Review Tick-Borne Diseases in Turkey: A Review Based on One Health Perspective. 2016

Inci, Abdullah / Yildirim, Alparslan / Duzlu, Onder / Doganay, Mehmet / Aksoy, Serap. ·Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey. · Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases Implementation and Research Centre, University of Erciyes, Kayseri, Turkey. · Department of Infection Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey. · Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America. ·PLoS Negl Trop Dis · Pubmed #27977689.

ABSTRACT: The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) with zoonotic characteristics. In Turkey, almost 19 TBDs have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acanthocheilonemasis), ten bacterial agents (anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, aegyptianellosis, tick-borne typhus, Candidatus Rickettsia vini, Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne relapsing fever [TBRF], tularaemia, bartonellosis, and hemoplasmosis), and four viral infections (tick-borne encephalitis [TBE], Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever [CCHF], louping-ill [LI], and lumpy skin disease [LSD]). The growing number of TBD cases, in particular the fatal viral epidemics in humans, have led to increased public awareness and concern against TBDs in recent years. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a new political concept, called the "One Health" initiative, which is especially relevant for developing strategies against tick infestations and TBD control in humans and animals. It would be beneficial for Turkey to adopt this new strategy and establish specific research and control programs in coordination with international organizations like WHO, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) to combat TBDs based on the "One Health Initiative" concept. In this article, we review the occurrence of primary TBDs in man and animals in Turkey in light of the "One Health" perspective.

18 Review Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases. 2016

Huntington, Mark K / Allison, Jay / Nair, Dilip. ·University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls, SD, USA. · Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA. ·Am Fam Physician · Pubmed #27929218.

ABSTRACT: Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. Chikungunya also causes flulike febrile illness and disabling arthralgias. Although meningoencephalitis may occur with chikungunya, bleeding is uncommon. Symptoms of Zika virus infection are similar to those of dengue, but milder. Zika virus increases the risk of fetal brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, if a pregnant woman is infected. Zika virus is spread through Aedes albopictus mosquito bites, is transmitted sexually, and may rarely spread nonsexually from person to person. Diagnosis of these vectorborne infections is clinical and serologic, and treatment is supportive. Other, well-established vector-borne diseases are also important. Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne bacterial disease that presents as a nonspecific syndrome of fever, headache, malaise, and myalgias. It is diagnosed via blood smear testing, with confirmatory serology. Ehrlichiosis is treated with doxycycline. Rickettsial infections are transmitted by fleas, mites, and ticks, and severity ranges from mild to life threatening. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, the most significant rickettsial infection, is primarily a clinical diagnosis that presents as fever, headache, myalgias, petechial rash, and tick exposure. Doxycycline is effective for rickettsial infections if administered promptly. Vector avoidance strategies are critical to the prevention of all of these infections.

19 Review Wild animals as reservoirs of Anaplasma phagocytophilum for humans 2016

Dzięgiel, Beata / Adaszek, Łukasz / Winiarczyk, Stanisław. ·University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Epizootiology and Clinic of Infectious Diseases ·Przegl Epidemiol · Pubmed #27883378.

ABSTRACT: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-transmitted obligate-intracellular gram-negative bacteria that causes emerging human zoonosis. A. phagocytophilum is transmitted by Ixodid ticks. Recent studies suggest that wild animals may be reservoirs of A. phagocytophilum for humans. The organism infects and survives within neutrophils. The infection diagnosis is based on the detection of morulae within granulocytes of peripheral blood, results of serological tests and detection of the DNA of A. phagocytophilum using specific polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR). A. phagocytophilum in most cases is transmitted to people by tick bites, but sometimes direct contact with infected blood may cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). The possibility of infection should be taken into consideration at each occurrence of heavy disease symptoms after people come into contact with ticks.

20 Review The eye and tick-borne disease in the United States. 2016

Sathiamoorthi, Saraniya / Smith, Wendy M. ·aMayo Medical School bDepartment of Ophthalmology cMayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. ·Curr Opin Ophthalmol · Pubmed #27585218.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tick-borne diseases are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution. Several diseases endemic to the United States have ophthalmic manifestations, including the most common tick-borne disease, Lyme borreliosis. As ocular complaints may lead a patient to seek medical evaluation, it is important to be aware of the systemic and ophthalmic manifestations of tick-borne diseases in order to make the correct diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Vision-threatening ophthalmic manifestations are relatively common in Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Ocular involvement is rare in babesiosis, tick-borne relapsing fever, Powassan encephalitis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, and Colorado tick fever.There are clear guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease; however, confusion and misinformation among the general public as well as controversy about chronic or late-stage Lyme disease can impact the evaluation of ophthalmic disease. Furthermore, there are many gaps in our knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of ocular borreliosis although it seems likely that Lyme uveitis is rare in the United States. SUMMARY: Knowledge of systemic and ophthalmic manifestations combined with an understanding of the epidemiology of disease vectors is crucial for the diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.

21 Review Emerging Tick-Borne Bacterial Pathogens. 2016

Kernif, Tahar / Leulmi, Hamza / Raoult, Didier / Parola, Philippe. ·Aix Marseille Université, Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses Transmissibles et Emergentes (URMITE), UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Inserm 1095, Faculté de Médecine, 13385 Marseille cedex 5, France. · Institut Pasteur d'Algérie, Algiers, Algeria. · Ecole Nationale Supérieure Vétérinaire d'Alger, El Aliya Alger, Algérie. ·Microbiol Spectr · Pubmed #27337487.

ABSTRACT: A vast number of novel tick-related microorganisms and tick-borne disease agents have been identified in the past 20 years, and more are being described due to several factors, from the curiosity of clinicians faced with unusual clinical syndromes to new tools used by microbiologists and entomologists. Borrelioses, ehrlichioses, anaplasmosis, and tick-borne rickettsial diseases are some of the emerging diseases that have been described throughout the world in recent years. In this article, we focus on the bacterial agents and diseases that have been recognized in the past 3 years and refer to major recent reviews of other recognized infections.

22 Review [Ehrlichia infection in a child: clinical findings and review of the literature]. 2016

Halac, Eduardo. ·Clínica Pediátrica, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina. eduardohalac@yahoo.com.ar. ·Arch Argent Pediatr · Pubmed #27164358.

ABSTRACT: A 12 year old child was brought in by his parents due to persistent fever of 3 weeks duration, sore throat, malaise, chills, small joint arthralgia, myalgias, and a pink macular rash. The first clinical impression of the physicians was infectious mononucleosis but serologic testing ruled out the diagnosis. He was then treated with oral ampicillin without a favorable response. He was referred to us for a second evaluation. A detailed clinical history revealed that he had a few days of vacation in a rural area in the northern region of the province of Cordoba, in close contact with horses, dogs and cats. His parents found 2 ticks on his abdomen, and removed them with tweezers. Serology and blood count carried out in a specialized laboratory showed positive titers (> 160) for Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Further confirmation was obtained using genus-specific polymerase chain reaction. After a 3-week course of doxycicline the patient recovered and serological titers decreased.

23 Review Ocular manifestations of tick-borne diseases. 2016

Raja, Harish / Starr, Matthew R / Bakri, Sophie J. ·Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. · Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. Electronic address: bakri.sophie@mayo.edu. ·Surv Ophthalmol · Pubmed #27060746.

ABSTRACT: Tick-borne illnesses are a significant disease burden worldwide. Diagnosis is challenging and requires a high level of clinical suspicion. Ocular manifestations reported in association with tick-borne disease are mostly as case reports and small case series because of the relative infrequency with which they occur; however, given the global nature of health care and increase in travel in the 21st century, it is important for ophthalmologists to be aware of ocular manifestations of these diseases because early diagnosis may reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, we review of the literature of tick-borne diseases with reported ophthalmic findings. All known human tick-borne diseases are discussed, including a brief description of the causative agent, region of endemicity, vector, systemic symptoms, and any reported eye findings. When possible, we also address the strength of the evidence for these ocular associations.

24 Review Tick-Borne Illnesses. 2016

Choi, Edwin / Pyzocha, Natasha J / Maurer, Douglas M. ·Madigan Army Medical Center, Department of Family Medicine, Fort Lewis, WA. ·Curr Sports Med Rep · Pubmed #26963018.

ABSTRACT: Tick-borne diseases are prevalent throughout the United States. These illnesses are caused by a variety of different pathogens that use ticks as vectors, including bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, and protozoa. Some of the most common illnesses caused by ticks are Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, tularemia, Colorado tick fever, tick-borne relapsing fever, and Powassan disease. Unique skin changes, fever, and influenza-like symptoms may indicate tick-borne disease. Early diagnosis can be difficult as well as nonspecific and can resemble overtraining syndrome. Diagnosis is important to facilitate early treatment to decrease morbidity and mortality and should often be initiated before a definitive diagnosis is made. Treatment guidelines are published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. As tick-borne diseases increase and their geographic regions expand, it is important for providers to distinguish the often overlapping and diverse presentations of these diseases.

25 Review The genus Anaplasma: new challenges after reclassification. 2015

Kocan, K M / de la Fuente, J / Cabezas-Cruz, A. · ·Rev Sci Tech · Pubmed #26601458.

ABSTRACT: Summary The genus Anaplasmais one of four distinct genera in the family Anaplasmataceae, which are obligate intracellular pathogens vectored by ticks and found exclusively within parasitophorous vacuoles in the host cell cytoplasm. The 2001 reclassification of the order Rickettsiales expanded the genus Anaplasma, which previously contained pathogens that were host specific for ruminants (A. marginale, A. centrale and A. bovis), by adding A. phagocytophilum, a unification of three organisms previously classified as Ehrlichia (E. equi, E. phagocytophila and the unnamed agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis). Also included in the genus Anaplasma were A. bovis (formerly E. bovis), A. platys (formerly E. platys) and Aegyptianella pullorum. Despite the genomic relatedness of the regrouped organisms, many aspects of their biology are diverse, including their host specificity, host cell preferences, major surface proteins (MSPs) and tick vectors. This review focuses on the two most important pathogens: A. marginale, which causes bovine anaplasmosis, and A. phagocytophilum, the aetiologic agent of tick-borne fever in sheep and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging tick-borne disease of humans. For both pathogens, strain diversity is much greater than previously recognised. While MSPs were found to be useful in phylogenetic studies and strain identification, highly conserved MSPs were found to affect the specificity of serologic tests. Comparison of these two important pathogens highlights the challenges and insight derived from reclassification and molecular analysis, both of which have implications for the development and evaluation of diagnosis and control strategies.

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