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Ependymoma HELP
Based on 1,295 articles published since 2008
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These are the 1295 published articles about Ependymoma that originated from Worldwide during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Editorial On Ependymomas and SOX10. 2017

Mezencev, Roman / Švajdler, Marián. ·Georgia Institute of Technology School of Biological Sciences Integrated Cancer Research Center Atlanta, Georgia, USA. · Bioptická laborator, s.r.o. Sikl’s Department of Pathology Charles University in Pilsen, Pilsen, Czech Republic ·J Neuropathol Exp Neurol · Pubmed #28395065.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Toward an integrated histomolecular diagnosis of supratentorial ependymoma. 2016

Pajtler, Kristian W. ·Division of Pediatric Neuro-oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany and Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology, University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany. ·Neuro Oncol · Pubmed #27044295.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Translating preclinical hopes into clinical reality for children with ependymoma. 2015

Grill, Jacques. ·Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Oncology and CNRS UMR 8203, Gustave Roussy, Paris-Sud University, France (J.G.). ·Neuro Oncol · Pubmed #26468169.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Ependymomas. 2013

McCormick, Paul C. · ·J Neurosurg Spine · Pubmed #23662889.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Repeat surgery for residual ependymoma. 2011

Boop, Frederick A. · ·J Neurosurg Pediatr · Pubmed #21882913.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Stem cells, radial glial cells, and a unified origin of brain tumors. 2010

Castillo, M. · ·AJNR Am J Neuroradiol · Pubmed #19797796.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial Intracranial ependymoma in children: current status and future trends on diagnosis and management. 2009

Boop, Frederick A / Sgouros, Spyros. · ·Childs Nerv Syst · Pubmed #19629496.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Review Biomarkers in tumors of the central nervous system - a review. 2019

Scheie, David / Kufaishi, Huda Haidar Abdallah / Broholm, Helle / Lund, Eva Løbner / de Stricker, Karin / Melchior, Linea C / Grauslund, Morten. ·Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Department of Genetics and Pathology, Laboratory Medicine, Lund, Sweden. ·APMIS · Pubmed #30740783.

ABSTRACT: Until recently, diagnostics of brain tumors were almost solely based on morphology and immunohistochemical stainings for relatively unspecific lineage markers. Although certain molecular markers have been known for longer than a decade (combined loss of chromosome 1p and 19q in oligodendrogliomas), molecular biomarkers were not included in the WHO scheme until 2016. Now, the classification of diffuse gliomas rests on an integration of morphology and molecular results. Also, for many other central nervous system tumor entities, specific diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers have been detected and continue to emerge. Previously, we considered brain tumors with similar histology to represent a single disease entity. We now realize that histologically identical tumors might show alterations in different molecular pathways, and often represent separate diseases with different natural history and response to treatment. Hence, knowledge about specific biomarkers is of great importance for individualized treatment and follow-up. In this paper we review the biomarkers that we currently use in the diagnostic work-up of brain tumors.

9 Review Natural Course of Myxopapillary Ependymoma: Unusual Case Report and Review of Literature. 2019

Pusat, Serhat / Erbaş, Yahya Cem / Göçmen, Selçuk / Kocaoğlu, Murat / Erdoğan, Ersin. ·Sultan Abdulhamid Training and Research Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address: pusatserhat@yahoo.com. · Craniospinal Surgery Center, Ankara, Turkey. · Anadolu Medical Center Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Kocaeli, Turkey. · Pamukkale University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Denizli, Turkey. ·World Neurosurg · Pubmed #30321682.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Spinal cord ependymomas are the most frequent primary intramedullary tumors of the cord in middle age (40-60 years of age). Myxopapillary ependymomas are low-incidence tumors and occur in the cauda equina and conus medullaris. They are typically described as fleshy, sausage-shaped, vascular lesions. CASE DESCRIPTION: In this report, we present a 36-year-old woman who was seen in another hospital with complaints of back pain radiating into both legs 5 years ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations revealed a lesion releated to the spinal cord. At that point, the patient refused the proposed surgical treatment. Five years later, the patient was referred to our clinic with advancement of the complaint to paraparesis. The new MRI showed an intradural mass at the level of T11 and S1. We performed a total intradural tumor resection. Histopathologic examination revealed a myxopapillary ependymoma. CONCLUSIONS: Myxopapillary ependymomas grow slowly and are well defined by MRI. Advancements in radiologic technology and surgical equipment have allowed this tumor type to be treated successfully. Unfortunately, if untreated, these lesions have poor prognosis and result in clinical symptoms such as paraparesis. Surgical treatment of these lesions using total resection was performed total resection and was associated with an excellent postoperative outcome. We highlight the natural course of myxopapillary ependymomas.

10 Review MRI of intracranial intraventricular lesions. 2018

Muly, Sudha / Liu, Syrone / Lee, Roland / Nicolaou, Savvas / Rojas, Rafael / Khosa, Faisal. ·Vancouver General Hospital, 899 W 12th Ave, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada. Electronic address: sudhamuly@googlemail.com. · Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, 1000 W Carson St, Torrance, CA 90501, United States. Electronic address: syronl@uw.edu. · UCSD Medical Center and VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Dept., 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, MC114, San Diego, CA 92161, United States. Electronic address: rrlee@ucsd.edu. · Vancouver General Hospital, 899 W 12th Ave, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada. Electronic address: Savvas.Nicolaou@vch.ca. · Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215, United States. Electronic address: rrojas3@bidmc.harvard.edu. · Vancouver General Hospital, 899 W 12th Ave, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada. ·Clin Imaging · Pubmed #30138862.

ABSTRACT: The MRI appearance of intraventricular neoplasms is often nonspecific, however knowledge of patient age and tumor location facilitates the formulation of a differential diagnosis. Imaging and pertinent clinical features of the following intraventricular neoplasms are reviewed: ependymoma, subependymoma, central neurocytoma, subependymal giant cell tumor, choroid plexus tumors, medulloblastoma, meningioma, chordoid glioma, rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor, central nervous system lymphoma, and metastasis.

11 Review Giant Cell Ependymoma of Cervicomedullary Junction: A Case Report of a Long-Term Survivor and Literature Review. 2018

Cappelletti, Martina / Ruggeri, Andrea G / Iacopino, Giorgia / Delfini, Roberto. ·Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy. · Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Electronic address: giorgia.iacopino@uniroma1.it. ·World Neurosurg · Pubmed #29772366.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Ependymoma accounts for 3%-9% of all neuroepithelial tumors. Giant cell ependymoma (GCE) is a rare and distinct variant, with only 22 cases described in the literature. The 2007 World Health Organization classification first acknowledged this rare subtype. The cytologic features of GCE include the presence of pleomorphic giant cells with several cellular atypias, which at intraoperative frozen diagnosis may appear to be high-grade glial lesions. Despite its apparently malignant histology, GCE seems to be a neoplasm with a relatively good prognosis. Extended tumor removal is the gold standard without adjuvant treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe the first case, to our knowledge, of GCE situated at the cervicomedullary junction in a 62-year-old patient. Surgery was performed with combined intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials. Intraoperative frozen diagnosis revealed a high-grade glial neoplasm; however, gross total resection was achieved. The definitive diagnosis was GCE. At follow-up evaluation 11 years after surgery, the patient did not present with any tumor recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: As the intraoperative diagnosis can be misleading, whenever a cleavage plane is recognized, it is essential to perform a gross total resection with the aid of intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring, to improve prognosis and neurologic outcome. Data reported in the literature show that prognosis is mainly influenced by grade of resection.

12 Review Ependymoma. 2018

Gerstner, Elizabeth R / Pajtler, Kristian W. ·Division of Neuro-oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts. · Hopp-Children's Cancer Center, NCT Heidelberg (KiTZ), Heidelberg, Germany. · Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany. ·Semin Neurol · Pubmed #29548057.

ABSTRACT: Ependymoma can arise throughout the whole neuraxis. In children, tumors predominantly occur intracranially, whereas the spine is the most prevalent location in adults. Significant variance in the grade II versus grade III distinction of ependymomas has led to the acknowledgment that the clinical utility of histopathological classification is limited. Epigenomic profiling efforts have identified molecularly distinct groups of ependymomas that adequately reflect the biological, clinical, and histopathological heterogeneities across anatomical compartments, age groups, and grades. The recent update of the World Health Organization classification of central nervous system tumors has already integrated one of these groups, and molecular classification will be part of future clinical trials to improve risk stratification. Clinical management of this rare disease is challenging, making professional experience and intensified multidisciplinary cooperation pivotal factors for treatment success. Novel research strategies are currently applied for target discovery in ependymomas since for most molecular groups, genetic drivers are unknown.

13 Review Welcoming the new WHO classification of pituitary tumors 2017: revolution in TTF-1-positive posterior pituitary tumors. 2018

Shibuya, Makoto. ·Central Clinical Laboratory, Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo Medical University, 1163 Tatemachi, Hachioji City, Tokyo, 193-0998, Japan. shibuya@tokyo-med.ac.jp. ·Brain Tumor Pathol · Pubmed #29500747.

ABSTRACT: The fourth edition of the World Health Organization classification of endocrine tumors (EN-WHO2017) was released in 2017. In this new edition, changes in the classification of non-neuroendocrine tumors are proposed particularly in tumors arising in the posterior pituitary. These tumors are a distinct group of low-grade neoplasms of the sellar region that express thyroid transcription factor-1, and include pituicytoma, granular cell tumor of the sellar region, spindle cell oncocytoma, and sellar ependymoma. This short review focuses on the classification of posterior pituitary tumors newly proposed in EN-WHO2017, and controversies in their pathological differential diagnosis are discussed based on recent cases.

14 Review "Microendoscopic" versus "pure endoscopic" surgery for spinal intradural mass lesions: a comparative study and review. 2018

Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam / Karthigeyan, Madhivanan. ·Department of Neurosurgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012, India. Electronic address: ssdhandapani.neurosurg@gmail.com. · Department of Neurosurgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012, India. ·Spine J · Pubmed #29452284.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Endoscopy is increasingly being used for minimal invasiveness and panoramic visualization, with unclear efficacy and safety among spinal intradural mass. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to compare microendoscopic and pure endoscopic surgery for spinal intradural lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spinal intradural lesions operated using endoscopic or access ports were categorized into "microendoscopic" (predominant microscope use) or "pure endoscopic" (stand-alone endoscopy) surgery, and were studied with respect to clinico-radiological features, techniques, perioperative course, histopathology, clinical, and radiological outcome at minimum of 3 months. RESULTS: Among 34 patients studied, the initial 15 had "microendoscopic" surgery, 16 had "pure-endoscopic" surgery, and 3 had "mixed" use. There were 18 nerve sheath tumors, 6 meningiomas, 6 cysts, 2 ependymomas, ranging in size from 1.5 to as large as 6.8 cm (21%≥4 cm), including 4 in craniovertebral junction (CVJ). Intermuscular or paraspinous approach was utilized, followed by small bony fenestration or interlaminar corridor. Even larger tumors could be excised using expandable ports or "sliding delivery" technique. Although visualization of sides and angles was better with endoscope, hemostasis and dural closure had steep learning curve, necessitating the use of microscope in the initial cases. Clinical improvement and radiological resolution could be achieved in all. There was no significant difference between the groups. The change in Nurick grade had significant correlation with only the dimension of lesion (p=.03) and preoperative grade (p=.05). CONCLUSIONS: This is probably the first report of spinal endoscopy for intradural tumors in CVJ or as big as 7 cm. Endoscopy is effective and safe for even large tumors with better visualization of sides and angles, albeit with hemostasis and dural closure having initial learning curve. Wide heterogeneity of surgical terminologies in the literature on these procedures warrants consensus for uniform reporting.

15 Review Intramedullary ependymoma: long-term outcome after surgery. 2018

Svoboda, N / Bradac, O / de Lacy, P / Benes, V. ·Department of Neurosurgery and Neurooncology, Military University Hospital and Charles University, First Medical Faculty, U Vojenské nemocnice 1200/1, 162 00, Prague 6, Czech Republic. svoboda.norbert@gmail.com. · Department of Neurosurgery and Neurooncology, Military University Hospital and Charles University, First Medical Faculty, U Vojenské nemocnice 1200/1, 162 00, Prague 6, Czech Republic. ·Acta Neurochir (Wien) · Pubmed #29280009.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients undergoing spinal ependymoma resection has been frequently reported. Contrarily, OS and PFS of purely intramedullary ependymomas have not been clearly determined yet. METHODS: The data of 37 patients undergoing resection of an intramedullary ependymoma (IE) from January 2000 to December 2016 were analysed retrospectively. RESULTS: The mean age was 46 years. The male:female ratio was 24:13. The median duration of symptoms was 12 months. Sixty-two per cent of ependymomas were in the cervical, 24% in the thoracic, and 14% in the conus region in our series. The median volume was 1.3 ml. A syrinx was found in 49% and a cyst in 32%. GTR was achieved in 89%, STR in three (8%), and PR in one patient (3%). Median follow-up was 114 months. PFS was 87%, 82%, and 82% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. OS was 97%, 88%, and 63% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. There was a significant difference in PFS depending on the extent of resection and in OS depending on the pre-operative clinical status. There was no significant difference in OS and PFS regarding the other examined influencing factors. CONCLUSION: GTR resection was the most important factor influencing PFS. According to our results OS of IEs is much worse than that of spinal ependymomas. Our analysis confirms that patients with good pre-operative (McCormick grade 1 and 2) clinical status have significantly better OS than patients with McCormick grade 3 and higher.

16 Review Remarkable efficacy of temozolomide for relapsed spinal myxopapillary ependymoma with multiple recurrence and cerebrospinal dissemination: a case report and literature review. 2018

Fujiwara, Yasushi / Manabe, Hideki / Izumi, Bunichiro / Shima, Takayuki / Adachi, Nobuo. ·Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hiroshima City Asa Citizens' Hospital, Kabe-minami 2-1-1, Asakita-ku, Hiroshima, Japan, 731-0293. ys.fujiwara@nifty.com. · Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hiroshima City Asa Citizens' Hospital, Kabe-minami 2-1-1, Asakita-ku, Hiroshima, Japan, 731-0293. · Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan. ·Eur Spine J · Pubmed #29270703.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Myxopapillary ependymomas are intradural tumors which grow from the terminal filum of the spinal cord. Although they are classified as WHO grade I, they sometimes cause cerebrospinal fluid dissemination or local recurrence. In this report, we describe a case in that temozolomide (TMZ) showed remarkable efficacy on a recurrent spinal myxopapillary ependymoma. CASE REPORT: A 26-year-old female underwent resection of an intradural myxopapillary ependymoma at L5 initially. Although an en bloc total resection, including the capsule, could be achieved, she needed two additional tumor resection surgeries with postoperative radiotherapy at L4 and at L3 (2 and 6 years after the initial surgery, respectively). Moreover, 4 years after the initial surgery, a disseminated metastatic tumor occurred at T11/12 and local radiotherapy was not effective. After the third surgery, an aggressive adjuvant therapy was necessary because there was a high risk of another recurrence. Therefore, TMZ was administered for 1 year. After 6 months of TMZ treatment, remarkably, the disseminated metastatic tumor at T11/12 had disappeared completely. Presently, 6 years after finishing the TMZ treatment, the follow-up MRI has shown no recurrence in the brain and whole spine. CONCLUSIONS: TMZ is usually used in the treatment of glioblastoma and, recently, it has been reported to be effective for the lower grade spinal gliomas including spinal intramedullary ependymomas. However, for myxopapillary ependymomas, there has been no report that TMZ is effective. According to our results, TMZ could be one of the possible candidates for adjuvant therapy in multiple recurrent myxopapillary ependymomas.

17 Review Recent advances in intradural spinal tumors. 2018

Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M / Huang, Kevin T / Moses, Ziev B / Iorgulescu, J Bryan / Chi, John H. ·Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. ·Neuro Oncol · Pubmed #29216380.

ABSTRACT: Intradural spinal tumors are rare tumors of the central nervous system. Due to the eloquence of the spinal cord and its tracts, the compact architecture of the cord and nerves, and the infiltrative nature of some of these tumors, surgical resection is difficult to achieve without causing neurological deficits. Likewise, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are utilized more cautiously in the treatment of intradural spinal tumors than their cranial counterparts. Targeted therapies aimed at the genetic alterations and molecular biology tailored to these tumors would be helpful but are lacking.Here, we review the major types of intradural spinal tumors, with an emphasis on genetic alterations, molecular biology, and experimental therapies for these difficult to treat neoplasms.

18 Review The natural history of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex: a review. 2018

Chan, Denise L / Calder, Tessa / Lawson, John A / Mowat, David / Kennedy, Sean E. ·Department of Neurology, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia. · School of Women's and Children's Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia. ·Rev Neurosci · Pubmed #29211682.

ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an auto-somal-dominant inherited condition with an incidence of approximately 1:6000 births, characterised by deregulated mTOR activity with multi-site hamartomas. Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA) are one such hamartoma, affecting up to 24% of patients with TSC. Their intraventricular location may lead to life-threatening obstructive hydrocephalus. Current management is hampered by a lack of understanding regarding the natural history, behaviour and growth patterns of SEGA. We review the current literature to summarise what is known about SEGA in the following areas: (1) diagnostic criteria, (2) prevalence, (3) origin, (4) imaging characteristics, (5) growth rate, (6) genotype-phenotype correlation, (7) congenital SEGA and (8) SEGA as a marker of severity of other TSC manifestations.

19 Review EANO guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of ependymal tumors. 2018

Rudà, Roberta / Reifenberger, Guido / Frappaz, Didier / Pfister, Stefan M / Laprie, Anne / Santarius, Thomas / Roth, Patrick / Tonn, Joerg Christian / Soffietti, Riccardo / Weller, Michael / Moyal, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan. ·Department of Neuro-Oncology, University of Turin and City of Health and Science University Hospital, Turin, Italy. · Institute of Neuropathology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), partner site Essen/Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany. · Département de Neuro-Oncologie, Centre Léon-Bérard, Institut d'Hématologie et Oncologie Pédiatrique et Adulte, Lyon, France. · Division of Pediatric Neuro-oncology, German Cancer Research Center, DKTK, Heidelberg, Germany and Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse Oncopole, Toulouse, France. · Division of Neurosurgery, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK. · Department of Neurology and Brain Tumor Center, University Hospital Zurich and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Department of Neurosurgery Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and DKTK partner site, University of Munich, Munich, Germany. ·Neuro Oncol · Pubmed #29194500.

ABSTRACT: Ependymal tumors are rare CNS tumors and may occur at any age, but their proportion among primary brain tumors is highest in children and young adults. Thus, the level of evidence of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions is higher in the pediatric compared with the adult patient population.The diagnosis and disease staging is performed by craniospinal MRI. Tumor classification is achieved by histological and molecular diagnostic assessment of tissue specimens according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification 2016. Surgery is the crucial initial treatment in both children and adults. In pediatric patients with intracranial ependymomas of WHO grades II or III, surgery is followed by local radiotherapy regardless of residual tumor volume. In adults, radiotherapy is employed in patients with anaplastic ependymoma WHO grade III, and in case of incomplete resection of WHO grade II ependymoma. Chemotherapy alone is reserved for young children <12 months and for adults with recurrent disease when further surgery and irradiation are no longer feasible. A gross total resection is the mainstay of treatment in spinal ependymomas, and radiotherapy is reserved for incompletely resected tumors. Nine subgroups of ependymal tumors across different anatomical compartments (supratentorial, posterior fossa, spinal) and patient ages have been identified with distinct genetic and epigenetic alterations, and with distinct outcomes. These findings may lead to more precise diagnostic and prognostic assessments, molecular subgroup-adapted therapies, and eventually new recommendations pending validation in prospective studies.

20 Review Pituitary Ependymoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. 2018

Wang, Sheng / Zong, Weifeng / Li, Youwei / Wang, Baofeng / Ke, Changsu / Guo, Dongsheng. ·Department of Neurosurgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China. · Department of Pathology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China. · Department of Neurosurgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: guodongsheng@yahoo.com. ·World Neurosurg · Pubmed #29102750.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pituitary ependymoma is exceptionally rare. Its etiology, clinical presentation, radiologic feature, and treatment strategy are still a matter of debate. Only 7 human cases with limited data were reported in the English literature, and now we described another case of pituitary ependymoma. We also systematically reviewed previously reported cases and described its potential etiology, clinical presentation, radiologic features, pathology, immunohistochemical analysis, and ultrastructural examinations. CASE DESCRIPTION: A lesion in pituitary fossa was discovered in a 40-year-old man after suffering a progressive deterioration of vision in his right eye for >1 year with intermittent headache. The lesion was microsurgically resected and proved to be ependymoma upon pathologic and histologic examination. The patient made a fully recovery after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, only 7 patients with ependymoma in the sellar region have been described in the English literature. We reported 1 more case of pituitary ependymoma and discussed the potential etiology, clinical presentation, radiologic features, pathology, immunohistochemical analysis, ultrastructural examinations, treatment, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and prognosis of pituitary ependymoma. The case report may serve as a helpful reference for clinicians and radiologists.

21 Review Ependymomas arising outside of the central nervous system: A case series and literature review. 2018

Yust Katz, Shlomit / Cachia, David / Kamiya-Matsuoka, Carlos / Olar, Adriana / Theeler, Brett / Penas Prado, Marta / Gilbert, Mark R / Armstrong, Terri. ·Davidoff Cancer Center at Rabin Medical Center, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel. Electronic address: shlomit2@clalit.org.il. · Department of Neuro-oncology, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States. · Department of Neuro-Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, United States. · Department of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States. · Department of Neurology and John P. Murtha Cancer Center, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, United States. · Neuro-Oncology Branch, National Institutes of Health, United States. ·J Clin Neurosci · Pubmed #29054328.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Extracranial and extraspinal ependymomas are extremely rare tumors mostly published in the literature as case reports. METHODS: MD Anderson Cancer Center institutional database was screened for patients with extra CNS ependymomas over a 25 year period. RESULTS: Eight patients with extra CNS ependymoma were identified. Five cases originated in the sacrum or subcutaneous sacral area, and the other 3 cases originating in the breast, lung and adnexa of the uterus. By histology, most cases were myxopapillary ependymomas (5 cases), 2 cases were grade II ependymoma and 1 case was an anaplastic ependymoma. Metastases occurred in 6 cases and 3 patients died due to progressive disease. Most cases required surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Extra CNS ependymomas are very rare tumors that tend to metastasize, even though most cases are histologically classified as low grade ependymomas.

22 Review Adjuvant treatments for ependymomas. 2018

Sartor, Emmett A / Wen, Patrick Y. ·Center for Neuro-Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA, USA. · Center for Neuro-Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA, USA - patrick_wen@dfci.harvard.edu. · Division of Neurology, Neuro-Oncology, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. · Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ·J Neurosurg Sci · Pubmed #28945055.

ABSTRACT: Ependymomas are rare primary central nervous system tumors occurring in children and young adults. They can be indolent or locally aggressive depending on location, histology, and extent of resection. Treatment involves maximal surgical resection and usually focal radiation therapy, depending on the presence of residual disease and tumor grade. Chemotherapy has been studied for both adults and children but do not have an established role in adjuvant therapy. In both age groups, treatment with mainly cisplatin based regimens can be considered in the setting of residual disease after surgery or for salvage therapy when surgery or further radiation is not indicated. In children, chemotherapy can be considered in very young children to delay radiation or to increase the likelihood of complete resection in second look surgery. Targeted agents such as bevacizumab and lapatinib do not have a role in adjuvant therapy for ependymomas but are being explored for recurrent disease. This review discusses adjuvant therapy in both adult and child populations.

23 Review Surgery for posterior fossa ependymomas in adults. 2018

Laviv, Yosef / Germano, Isabelle M / Mahadevan, Anand / Kasper, Ekkehard M. ·Department of Neurosurgery, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Petah Tikva, Israel - yossilaviv@gmail.com. · Department of Neurosurgery, The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ·J Neurosurg Sci · Pubmed #28945053.

ABSTRACT: Ependymomas of the posterior fossa in adults are relatively rare, represent less than 1% of adult intracranial gliomas. Most of the cases are WHO grade II. Due to their rarity, there are no randomized studies regarding the best management of these tumors. It seems that surgical resection has a major role in their management. Unlike the scenario in children, these tumors can be cured by gross total resection without adjuvant therapy in the majority of cases. Hence, knowing the different surgical approaches, with their pros and cons, is important in order to offer the patient the best treatment. In this paper, we review the current literature on surgery for ependymomas of the posterior fossa in adults, and the advantages and risks of the principal surgical approaches, namely the telo-velar and the transvermian, are discussed.

24 Review Radiologic characteristics of ependymomas: a case-based approach. 2018

Khatami, David / Kasper, Ekkehard M / Bhadelia, Rafeeque / Rojas, Rafael. ·Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA - dkhatami@bidmc.harvard.edu. · Division of Neurosurgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. · Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. ·J Neurosurg Sci · Pubmed #28945051.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper was to introduce and review the characteristic imaging features of ependymal neoplasms through a comprehensive case-based approach. Illustrated cases highlight both common and uncommon manifestations of central nervous system-ependymomas. The combination of imaging features, location of the tumor, and patient's demographics often allow the suggestion of ependymoma as a lead entity in the differential diagnosis. However, significant overlap exists between the radiologic characteristics of ependymomas and those of other tumors commonly encountered in the same locations, which can pose a challenge for a definitive diagnosis based on imaging alone.

25 Review Epidemiology, molecular classification and WHO grading of ependymoma. 2018

Hübner, Jens-Martin / Kool, Marcel / Pfister, Stefan M / Pajtler, Kristian W. ·Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Consortium for Translational Cancer Research (DKTK), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany. · Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Consortium for Translational Cancer Research (DKTK), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany - k.pajtler@dkfz-heidelberg.de. ·J Neurosurg Sci · Pubmed #28895660.

ABSTRACT: Ependymoma can arise throughout all compartments of the central nervous system with prevalence for intracranial and spinal location in children and adults, respectively. The current histopathology based WHO grading system distinguishes grade I, II 'classic', and III 'anaplastic' ependymoma. However, analysis of multiple cohorts of intracranial ependymoma demonstrate a wide variance in the utility of the grade II versus grade III distinction as a prognostic marker that may additionally be confounded by the anatomic compartment. Recent (epi)genomic profiling efforts have identified molecularly distinct groups of ependymoma arising from all three anatomic compartments of the central nervous system that outperform the current histopathological classification regarding clinical associations. These advances have led to the cognition that molecular classification should be part of all future clinical trials in ependymoma patients. Clinical management of intracranial ependymomas (WHO Grade II/III) is challenging and molecular classification based risk stratification may help to intensify treatment and surveillance in high-risk patients but to de-escalate therapy in certain patient groups at low risk for recurrence. Finally, experience of neurosurgeons, and other disciplines, as well as intensified co-operation between all stakeholders involved hold promise to finally improve outcome of patients affected with ependymoma.

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