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Foot-and-Mouth Disease HELP
Based on 1,850 articles published since 2010
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These are the 1850 published articles about Foot-and-Mouth Disease that originated from Worldwide during 2010-2020.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Editorial In this issue - September 2018: Identification of commercial piggeries using aerial photographs and image analysis • Destruction of foot-and-mouth disease virus in carcases in the field • Size of the Australian goat industry • P4 and fertility after AI in extensively managed Bos indicus cattle • Antimuellerian hormone levels not recommended in young bitches • A sarcoma on an echidna beak. 2018

Jackson, A E. · ·Aust Vet J · Pubmed #30152066.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Editorial: Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine. 2017

Perez, Andres M / Willeberg, Preben W. ·Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, United States. · National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark. ·Front Vet Sci · Pubmed #28871286.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial A novel twist to uterine torsion and abomasal displacement in dairy cows. 2013

Beltman, Marijke. · ·Vet J · Pubmed #23294568.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Understanding foot-and-mouth disease virus early pathogenesis and immune responses. 2011

Charleston, B / Rodriguez, L L. · ·Transbound Emerg Dis · Pubmed #21733132.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Biosecurity and FMD transmission. 2011

Dekker, Aldo. · ·Vet Rec · Pubmed #21493485.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial The current state of vaccines used in the field for foot and mouth disease virus in China. 2011

Li, Zhiyong / Liu, Jixing. · ·Expert Rev Vaccines · Pubmed #21162615.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Review A new implication of quasispecies dynamics: Broad virus diversification in absence of external perturbations. 2020

Domingo, Esteban / Soria, María Eugenia / Gallego, Isabel / de Ávila, Ana Isabel / García-Crespo, Carlos / Martínez-González, Brenda / Gómez, Jordi / Briones, Carlos / Gregori, Josep / Quer, Josep / Perales, Celia. ·Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa" (CSIC-UAM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), del Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: edomingo@cbm.csic.es. · Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa" (CSIC-UAM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Department of Clinical Microbiology, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, UAM, Av. Reyes Católicos 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain. · Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa" (CSIC-UAM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), del Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain. · Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa" (CSIC-UAM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain. · Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), del Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina 'López-Neyra' (CSIC), Parque Tecnológico Ciencias de la Salud, Armilla 18016, Granada, Spain. · Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), del Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain; Centro de Astrobiología (CAB, CSIC-INTA), 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain. · Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), del Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain; Liver Unit, Internal Medicine Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona, Spain; Roche Diagnostics, S.L., Sant Cugat del Vallés, 08174 Barcelona, Spain. · Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), del Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain; Liver Unit, Internal Medicine Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona, Spain. · Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa" (CSIC-UAM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), del Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain; Department of Clinical Microbiology, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, UAM, Av. Reyes Católicos 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: cperales@cbm.csic.es. ·Infect Genet Evol · Pubmed #32165244.

ABSTRACT: RNA genetic elements include many important animal and plant pathogens. They share high mutability, a trait that has multiple implications for the interactions with their host organisms. Here we review evidence of a new adaptive feature of RNA viruses that we term "broadly diversifying selection". It constitutes a new type of positive selection without participation of any external selective agent, and which is built upon a progressive increase of the number of different genomes that dominate the population. The evidence was provided by analyses of mutant spectrum composition of two important viral pathogens, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) after prolonged replication in their respective cell culture environment. Despite being fueled by mutations that arise randomly and in absence of an external guiding selective force, this type of selection prepares the viral population for a response to selective forces still to occur. Since current evidence suggests that broadly diversifying selection is favored by elevated mutation rates and population sizes, it may constitute a more general behavior, relevant also to the adaptive dynamics of microbial populations and cancer cells.

8 Review The Carrier Conundrum; A Review of Recent Advances and Persistent Gaps Regarding the Carrier State of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus. 2020

Stenfeldt, Carolina / Arzt, Jonathan. ·Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Plum Island animal Disease Center, Orient, NY 11957, USA. · Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. ·Pathogens · Pubmed #32121072.

ABSTRACT: The existence of a prolonged, subclinical phase of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle was first recognized in the 1950s. Since then, the FMDV carrier state has been a subject of controversy amongst scientists and policymakers. A fundamental conundrum remains in the discordance between the detection of infectious FMDV in carriers and the apparent lack of contagiousness to in-contact animals. Although substantial progress has been made in elucidating the causal mechanisms of persistent FMDV infection, there are still critical knowledge gaps that need to be addressed in order to elucidate, predict, prevent, and model the risks associated with the carrier state. This is further complicated by the occurrence of a distinct form of neoteric subclinical infection, which is indistinguishable from the carrier state in field scenarios, but may have substantially different epidemiological properties. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the FMDV carrier state and identifies specific areas of research in need of further attention. Findings from experimental investigations of FMDV pathogenesis are discussed in relation to experience gained from field studies of foot-and-mouth disease.

9 Review Flavonoids as Antiviral Agents for 2020

Lalani, Salima / Poh, Chit Laa. ·Centre for Virus and Vaccine Research, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, Subang Jaya, Selangor 47500, Malaysia. ·Viruses · Pubmed #32041232.

ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are natural biomolecules that are known to be effective antivirals. These biomolecules can act at different stages of viral infection, particularly at the molecular level to inhibit viral growth.

10 Review Cellular receptors for enterovirus A71. 2020

Kobayashi, Kyousuke / Koike, Satoshi. ·Neurovirology Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 156-8506, Japan. · Neurovirology Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 156-8506, Japan. koike-st@igakuken.or.jp. ·J Biomed Sci · Pubmed #31924205.

ABSTRACT: Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease. EV-A71 infection is sometimes associated with severe neurological diseases such as acute encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, and cardiopulmonary failure. Therefore, EV-A71 is a serious public health concern. Scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) is a type III transmembrane protein that belongs to the CD36 family and is a major receptor for EV-A71. SCARB2 supports attachment and internalization of the virus and initiates conformational changes that lead to uncoating of viral RNA in the cytoplasm. The three-dimensional structure of the virus-receptor complex was elucidated by cryo-electron microscopy. Two α-helices in the head domain of SCARB2 bind to the G-H loop of VP1 and the E-F loop of VP2 capsid proteins of EV-A71. Uncoating takes place in a SCARB2- and low pH-dependent manner. In addition to SCARB2, other molecules support cell surface binding of EV-A71. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, sialylated glycan, annexin II, vimentin, fibronectin, and prohibitin enhance viral infection by retaining the virus on the cell surface. These molecules are known as "attachment receptors" because they cannot initiate uncoating. In vivo, SCARB2 expression was observed in EV-A71 antigen-positive neurons and epithelial cells in the crypts of the palatine tonsils in patients that died of EV-A71 infection. Adult mice are not susceptible to infection by EV-A71, but transgenic mice that express human SCARB2 become susceptible to EV-A71 infection and develop neurological diseases similar to those observed in humans. Attachment receptors may also be involved in EV-A71 infection in vivo. Although heparan sulfate proteoglycans are expressed by many cultured cell lines and enhance infection by a subset of EV-A71 strains, they are not expressed by cells that express SCARB2 at high levels in vivo. Thus, heparan sulfate-positive cells merely adsorb the virus and do not contribute to replication or dissemination of the virus in vivo. In addition to these attachment receptors, cyclophilin A and human tryptophanyl aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase act as an uncoating regulator and an entry mediator that can confer susceptibility to non-susceptibile cells in the absence of SCARB2, respectively. The roles of attachment receptors and other molecules in EV-A71 pathogenesis remain to be elucidated.

11 Review Cell culture propagation of foot-and-mouth disease virus: adaptive amino acid substitutions in structural proteins and their functional implications. 2020

Dill, Veronika / Eschbaumer, Michael. ·Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. · Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. michael.eschbaumer@fli.de. ·Virus Genes · Pubmed #31776851.

ABSTRACT: Foot-and-mouth disease is endemic in livestock in large parts of Africa and Asia, where it is an important driver of food insecurity and a major obstacle to agricultural development and the international trade in animal products. Virtually all commercially available vaccines are inactivated whole-virus vaccines produced in cell culture, but the adaptation of a field isolate of the virus to growth in culture is laborious and time-consuming. This is of particular concern for the development of vaccines to newly emerging virus lineages, where long lead times from virus isolate to vaccine can delay the implementation of effective control programs. High antigen yields in production cells are also necessary to make vaccines affordable for less developed countries in endemic areas. Therefore, a rational approach to cell culture adaptation that combines prior knowledge of common adaptive mutations and reverse genetics techniques is urgently required. This review provides an overview of amino acid exchanges in the viral capsid proteins in the context of adaptation to cell culture.

12 Review Environmental persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus applied to endemic regions. 2020

Mielke, Sarah R / Garabed, Rebecca. ·Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA. ·Transbound Emerg Dis · Pubmed #31595659.

ABSTRACT: The consequences of foot-and-mouth disease impact regional economies and food security through animal mortality and morbidity, trade restrictions and burdens to veterinary infrastructure. Despite efforts to control the disease, some regions, mostly in warmer climates, persistently report disease outbreaks. Consequently, it is necessary to understand how environmental factors influence transmission, of this economically devastating disease. Extensive research covers basic aetiology and transmission potential of livestock and livestock products for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), with a subset evaluating environmental survival. However, this subset, completed in the early to mid-20th century in Northern Europe and the United States, is not easily generalized to today's endemic locations. This review uncovered 20 studies, to assess current knowledge and analyse the effects of environmental variables on FMDV survival, using a Cox proportional hazards (Coxph) model. However, the dataset is limited, for example pH was included in three studies and only five studies reported both relative humidity (RH) and temperature. After dropping pH from the analysis, our results suggest that temperature alone does not describe FMDV survival; instead, interactions between RH and temperature have broader impacts across various conditions. For instance, FMDV is expected to survive longer during the wet season (survival at day 50 is ~90% at 16°C and 86% RH) versus the dry season (survival at day 50 approaches 0% at 16°C and 37.5% RH) or comparatively in the UK versus the Southwestern United States. Additionally, survival on vegetation topped 70% on day 75 when conditions exceeded 20°C with high RH (86%), drastically higher than the survival on inanimate surfaces at the same temperature and RH (~0%). This is important in tropical regions, where high temperatures can persist throughout the year, but RH varies. Therefore, parameter estimates, for disease modelling and control in endemic areas, require environmental survival data from a wider range of conditions.

13 Review Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: Immunobiology, Advances in Vaccines and Vaccination Strategies Addressing Vaccine Failures-An Indian Perspective. 2019

Singh, Raj Kumar / Sharma, Gaurav Kumar / Mahajan, Sonalika / Dhama, Kuldeep / Basagoudanavar, Suresh H / Hosamani, Madhusudan / Sreenivasa, B P / Chaicumpa, Wanpen / Gupta, Vivek Kumar / Sanyal, Aniket. ·ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh 243122, India. · ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh 243122, India. gaurvet@gmail.com. · ICAR-IVRI Bangalore Campus, Bangalore, Karnataka 560024, India. · Center of Research Excellence on Therapeutic Proteins and Antibody Engineering, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand. · ICAR-IVRI Bangalore Campus, Bangalore, Karnataka 560024, India. aniket.sanyal@gmail.com. ·Vaccines (Basel) · Pubmed #31426368.

ABSTRACT: A mass vaccination campaign in India seeks to control and eventually eradicate foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Biosanitary measures along with FMD monitoring are being conducted along with vaccination. The implementation of the FMD control program has drastically reduced the incidence of FMD. However, cases are still reported, even in regions where vaccination is carried out regularly. Control of FMD outbreaks is difficult when the virus remains in circulation in the vaccinated population. Various FMD risk factors have been identified that are responsible for FMD in vaccinated areas. The factors are discussed along with strategies to address these challenges. The current chemically inactivated trivalent vaccine formulation containing strains of serotype O, A, and Asia 1 has limitations including thermolability and induction of only short-term immunity. Advantages and disadvantages of several new-generation alternate vaccine formulations are discussed. It is unfeasible to study every incidence of FMD in vaccinated animals/areas in such a big country as India with its huge livestock population. However, at the same time, it is absolutely necessary to identify the precise reason for vaccination failure. Failure to vaccinate is one reason for the occurrence of FMD in vaccinated areas. FMD epidemiology, emerging and re-emerging virus strains, and serological status over the past 10 years are discussed to understand the impact of vaccination and incidences of vaccination failure in India. Other factors that are important in vaccination failure that we discuss include disrupted herd immunity, health status of animals, FMD carrier status, and FMD prevalence in other species. Recommendations to boost the search of alternate vaccine formulation, strengthen the veterinary infrastructure, bolster the real-time monitoring of FMD, as well as a detailed investigation and documentation of every case of vaccination failure are provided with the goal of refining the control program.

14 Review [Review on the etiology and complications of hand, foot and mouth disease, using data from the national sentinel surveillance program, in China, 2015-2016]. 2019

Zhang, Z / Zheng, Y M / Jiang, L L / Ji, H / Chen, G P / Luo, P / Pan, J J / Tian, X L / Wei, L L / Huo, D / Miao, Z P / Zou, X N / Chen, J H / Liao, Q H / Chang, Z R. ·Nanjing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 210003, China; Chinese Field Epidemiology Training Program, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China. · Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early Warning on InfectiousDisease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China. · Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Kunming 650011, China. · Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 210009, China. · Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hefei 230601, China. · Shaoyang Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shaoyang 422000, China. · Henan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou 450016, China. · Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region General Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hohhot 010031, China. · Jilin Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changchun 130062, China. · Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100013, China. · Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, China. · Guangdong Women and Children Hospital, Guangzhou 511440, China. · Gansu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Lanzhou 730000, China. ·Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi · Pubmed #31238609.

ABSTRACT:

15 Review Recent advances on the role of host factors during non-poliovirus enteroviral infections. 2019

Owino, Collins Oduor / Chu, Justin Jang Hann. ·Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, 138673, Singapore. · Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117597, Singapore. miccjh@nus.edu.sg. · Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, 138673, Singapore. miccjh@nus.edu.sg. ·J Biomed Sci · Pubmed #31215493.

ABSTRACT: Non-polio enteroviruses are emerging viruses known to cause outbreaks of polio-like infections in different parts of the world with several cases already reported in Asia Pacific, Europe and in United States of America. These outbreaks normally result in overstretching of health facilities as well as death in children under the age of five. Most of these infections are usually self-limiting except for the neurological complications associated with human enterovirus A 71 (EV-A71). The infection dynamics of these viruses have not been fully understood, with most inferences made from previous studies conducted with poliovirus.Non-poliovirus enteroviral infections are responsible for major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) often associated with neurological complications and severe respiratory diseases. The myriad of disease presentations observed so far in children calls for an urgent need to fully elucidate the replication processes of these viruses. There are concerted efforts from different research groups to fully map out the role of human host factors in the replication cycle of these viral infections. Understanding the interaction between viral proteins and human host factors will unravel important insights on the lifecycle of this groups of viruses.This review provides the latest update on the interplay between human host factors/processes and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV). We focus on the interactions involved in viral attachment, entry, internalization, uncoating, replication, virion assembly and eventual egress of the NPEV from the infected cells. We emphasize on the virus- human host interplay and highlight existing knowledge gaps that needs further studies. Understanding the NPEV-human host factors interactions will be key in the design and development of vaccines as well as antivirals against enteroviral infections. Dissecting the role of human host factors during NPEV infection cycle will provide a clear picture of how NPEVs usurp the human cellular processes to establish an efficient infection. This will be a boost to the drug and vaccine development against enteroviruses which will be key in control and eventual elimination of the viral infections.

16 Review A review of the animal disease outbreaks and biosecure animal mortality composting systems. 2019

Costa, Tiago / Akdeniz, Neslihan. ·Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801, USA. · Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801, USA. Electronic address: neslihan@illinois.edu. ·Waste Manag · Pubmed #31088667.

ABSTRACT: Despite the development of new vaccines and the application of rigorous biosecurity measures, animal diseases pose a continuing threat to animal health, food safety, national economy, and the environment. Intense livestock production, increased travel, and changing climate have increased the risk of catastrophic animal losses due to infectious diseases. In the event of an outbreak, it is essential to properly manage the infected animals to prevent the spread of diseases. The most common disposal methods used during a disease outbreak include burial, landfilling, incineration and composting. Biosecurity, transportation logistics, public perception, and environmental concerns limit the use of some of these methods. During a disease outbreak, the large number of mortalities often exceeds the capacity of local rendering plants and landfills. Transporting mortalities to disposal and incineration facilities outside the production operation introduces biosecurity risks. Burying mortalities is limited by the size and availability of suitable sites and it has the risk of pathogen survival and contamination of groundwater and soil. Portable incinerators are expensive and have the potential to aerosolize infectious particles. Composting, on the other hand, has been recognized as a biosecure disposal method. Research showed that it eliminates bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157: H7, Salmonella spp., as well as viruses including highly pathogenic avian influenza, foot-and-mouth disease, Newcastle disease, and porcine epidemic diarrhea. This paper summarizes the lessons learned during the major animal disease outbreaks including the 2010 foot-and-mouth disease, 2016 highly pathogenic avian influenza, and recent African swine fever outbreaks. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss the biosecurity of composting as a mortality disposal method during the outbreaks of infectious animal diseases.

17 Review A history of FMD research and control programmes in Southeast Asia: lessons from the past informing the future. 2019

Blacksell, Stuart D / Siengsanan-Lamont, Jarunee / Kamolsiripichaiporn, Somjai / Gleeson, Laurence J / Windsor, Peter A. ·Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University,Bangkok,Thailand. · Independent Veterinary Consultant,Canning Vale, Western Australia,Australia. · Independent Veterinary Consultant,Bangkok,Thailand. · Independent Veterinary Consultant,Killarney, Victoria,Australia. · Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney,Camden, NSW,Australia. ·Epidemiol Infect · Pubmed #31063108.

ABSTRACT: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a major animal health problem within Southeast Asia (SEA). Although Indonesia and more recently the Philippines have achieved freedom from FMD, the disease remains endemic on continental SEA. Control of FMD within SEA would increase access to markets in more developed economies and reduce lost productivity in smallholder and emerging commercial farmer settings. However, despite many years of vaccination by individual countries, numerous factors have prevented the successful control of FMD within the region, including unregulated 'informal' transboundary movement of livestock and their products, difficulties implementing vaccination programmes, emergence of new virus topotypes and lineages, low-level technical capacity and biosecurity at national levels, limited farmer knowledge on FMD disease recognition, failure of timely outbreak reporting and response, and limitations in national and international FMD control programmes. This paper examines the published research of FMD in the SEA region, reviewing the history, virology, epidemiology and control programmes and identifies future opportunities for FMD research aimed at the eventual eradication of FMD from the region.

18 Review A history of FMD research and control programmes in Southeast Asia: Lessons from the past informing the future. 2019

Blacksell, Stuart D / Siengsanan-Lamont, Jarunee / Kamolsiripichaiporn, Somjai / Gleeson, Laurence J / Windsor, Peter A. ·Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. · Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom. · Independent veterinary consultant, Canning Vale, Western Australia, Australia. · Independent veterinary consultant, Bangkok, Thailand. · Independent veterinary consultant, Killarney, Victoria, Australia. · Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, Australia. ·Epidemiol Infect · Pubmed #31061566.

ABSTRACT: Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a major animal health problem within Southeast Asia (SEA). Although Indonesia and more recently the Philippines have achieved freedom from FMD, the disease remains endemic on continental SEA. Control of FMD within SEA would increase access to markets in more developed economies and reduce lost productivity in smallholder and emerging commercial farmer settings. However, despite many years of vaccination by individual countries, numerous factors have prevented the successful control of FMD within the region, including: unregulated 'informal' transboundary movement of livestock and their products, difficulties implementing vaccination programmes, emergence of new virus topotypes and lineages, low-level technical capacity and biosecurity at national levels, limited farmer knowledge on FMD disease recognition, failure of timely outbreak reporting and response, and limitations in national and international FMD control programmes. This paper examines the published research of FMD in the SEA region, reviewing the history, virology, epidemiology and control programmes and identifies future opportunities for FMD research aimed at the eventual eradication of FMD from the region.

19 Review Potential role of wildlife in the USA in the event of a foot-and-mouth disease virus incursion. 2019

Brown, Vienna R / Bevins, Sarah N. ·Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), National Wildlife Research Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. · Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Fort Collins, Washington, District of Columbia, USA. ·Vet Rec · Pubmed #31023873.

ABSTRACT: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) which affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed species. The FMD-free status of the USA and the tremendous economic impact of a virus incursion motivated the development of this evaluation of the potential role of wildlife in the event of a virus introduction. Additionally, this manuscript contains a summary of US vulnerabilities for viral incursion and persistence which focuses specifically on the possible role of wildlife. The legal movement of susceptible live animals, animal products, by-products and animal feed containing animal products pose a risk of virus introduction and spread. Additionally, the illegal movement of FMD-susceptible animals and their products and an act of bioterrorism present additional routes where FMDV could be introduced to the USA. Therefore, robust surveillance and rapid diagnostics in the face of a possible introduction are essential for detecting and controlling FMD as quickly as possible. Wildlife species and feral pigs present an added complexity in the case of FMDV introduction as they are typically not closely monitored or managed and there are significant logistical concerns pertaining to disease surveillance and control in these populations. Recommendations highlight the need to address existing knowledge gaps relative to the potential role of wildlife in FMDV introduction events.

20 Review Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: recent updates and future perspectives. 2019

Kamel, Mohamed / El-Sayed, Amr / Castañeda Vazquez, Hugo. ·Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. m_salah@staff.cu.edu.eg. · Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. · Laboratory of Mastitis and Molecular Diagnostics, Division of Veterinary Sciences, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico. ·Arch Virol · Pubmed #30888563.

ABSTRACT: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major worldwide viral disease in animals, affecting the national and international trade of livestock and animal products and leading to high economic losses and social consequences. Effective control measures of FMD involve prevention through vaccination with inactivated vaccines. These inactivated vaccines, unfortunately, require short-term protection and cold-chain and high-containment facilities. Major advances and pursuit of hot topics in vaccinology and vectorology are ongoing, involving peptide vaccines, DNA vaccines, live vector vaccines, and novel attenuated vaccines. DIVA capability and marker vaccines are very important in differentiating infected animals from vaccinated animals. This review focuses on updating the research progress of these novel vaccines, summarizing their merits and including ideas for improvement.

21 Review An Overview of Zoonotic Disease Outbreaks and its Forensic Management Over Time. 2019

Serrano, Isa / Gomes, Diana / Ramilo, David / Rebelo, Maria Teresa / da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira / Moreira, Anabela / Oliveira, Manuela. ·CIISA - Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Lisbon, Avenida da Universidade Técnica, 1300-477, Lisbon, Portugal. · Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa e Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campo Grande, 1749-016, Lisboa, Portugal. ·J Forensic Sci · Pubmed #30801721.

ABSTRACT: Most emerging or re-emerging infections are vector-borne or zoonotic and can be disseminated worldwide by infected humans or animals. They are a major public health problem and cause a great impact on economy. Zoonotic outbreaks began to be characterized in the 90s, after the creation of Europol and the FBI. Such investigations are carried by forensic pathologists and other specialists to determine whether an outbreak is natural or deliberate. This review will discuss ten zoonotic outbreaks nonrelated to wars focusing on forensic management. In conclusion, some points should be highlighted in the management of a zoonotic outbreak: (i) its diagnosis and detection by forensic pathologists and the coordination of efforts between other specialists are key factors; (ii) communication guidelines and an efficient healthcare system are crucial for any emergency response; (iii) biosafety of all specialists involved must be guaranteed.

22 Review Hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with coxsackievirus A10: more serious than it seems. 2019

Bian, Lianlian / Gao, Fan / Mao, Qunying / Sun, Shiyang / Wu, Xing / Liu, Siyuan / Yang, Xiaoming / Liang, Zhenglun. ·a Division of Hepatitis Virus Vaccines , National Institutes for Food and Drug Control , Beijing , China. · b Division of Hepatitis Virus Vaccines , Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd , Wuhan , China. ·Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther · Pubmed #30793637.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral childhood illness, that has been a severe public health concern worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. According to epidemiological data of HFMD during the past decade, the most prevalent causal viruses were enterovirus (EV)-A71, coxsackievirus (CV)-A16, CV-A6, and CV-A10. The public health burden of CV-A10-related diseases has been underestimated as their incidence was lower than that of EV-A71 and CV-A16 in most HFMD outbreaks. However, cases of CV-A10 infection are more severe, and its genome is more variable, which has alerted the research community worldwide. Areas covered: In this paper, studies on the epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, clinical manifestations, molecular epidemiology, seroepidemiology, animal models of CV-A10, and vaccines and antiviral strategies against this genotype are reviewed. In addition, the genetic evolution of circulating strains was analyzed. Expert opinion: Multivalent vaccines against EV-A71, CV-A16, CV-A6, and CV-A10 should be a next-step HFMD vaccine strategy.

23 Review Advances in novel vaccines for foot and mouth disease: focus on recombinant empty capsids. 2019

Mignaqui, Ana Clara / Ruiz, Vanesa / Durocher, Yves / Wigdorovitz, Andrés. ·a National Agricultural Technology Institute , Institute of Virology and Technological Innovations IVIT, CONICET-INTA, Hurlingham , Buenos Aires , Argentina. · b Human Health Therapeutics Research Center, National Research Council Canada , Montreal , Quebec , Canada. ·Crit Rev Biotechnol · Pubmed #30654663.

ABSTRACT: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which causes severe economic losses in the livestock industry. Currently available vaccines are based on inactivated FMD virus (FMDV). Although inactivated virus vaccines have proved to be effective in FMD control, they have a number of disadvantages, including the need for high bio-containment production facilities and the lack of induction of immunological memory. Novel FMD vaccines based on the use of recombinant empty capsids have shown promising results. These recombinant empty capsids are attractive candidates because they avoid the use of virus in the production facilities but conserve its complete repertoire of conformational epitopes. However, many of these recombinant empty capsids require time-consuming procedures that are difficult to scale up. Achieving production of a novel and efficient FMD vaccine requires not only immunogenic antigens, but also industrially relevant processes. This review intends to summarize and compare the different strategies already published for the production of FMDV recombinant empty capsids, focusing on large-scale production.

24 Review Investigating the temporal and spatial distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype C in the Region of South America, 1968-2016. 2019

Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel José / Buzanovsky, Lia Puppim / Dos Santos, Alexandre Guerra / Allende, Rossana Maria / Cosivi, Ottorino / Rivera, Alejandro Mauricio. ·Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center (PANAFTOSA), Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ·Transbound Emerg Dis · Pubmed #30417550.

ABSTRACT: This study investigates the historical temporal trend and geographical distribution of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDv) serotype C in South America; discussing the findings within the context of the actions and strategies carried out for the elimination of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). This is the first time that such a comprehensive historical compilation has been carried out in the Region; hence, the study is intended as a reference and source of evidence about the presence/absence of FMDv serotype C in South America. Data on the occurrence of FMD were sourced from the Weekly Epidemiological Reports submitted by the countries to Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center (PANAFTOSA-PAHO/WHO) since 1972, and complemented with other sources of information from the 1968-1971 period. The temporal distribution was examined with local weighted regression (LOESS) to identify two temporal trends, that is, "smoothed" and "over-adjusted", utilising the time-series with the total number of cases per year, at Regional level. Thereafter the outbreaks were aggregated by decades and mapped by the first subnational administrative level. As a result, two major peaks of occurrence were identified, one in the 70s, with up to 1,193 outbreaks, and another in the 80s, with 380. Overall, the investigations show a clear regressive trend in the occurrence of serotype C, with a reduction in the number of outbreaks over-time, and with the subsequent reduction of affected locations. This study illustrates the contrast between the very limited presence over the last 20 years - with only one event in 2004 - and the epidemic situation in the 1970s and 1980s, and suggests that serotype C of FMDv is no longer present in the Region.

25 Review Function of the RNA Coliphage Qβ Proteins in Medical In Vitro Evolution. 2018

Singleton, Rana L / Sanders, Carrie A / Jones, Kevin / Thorington, Bobby / Egbo, Timothy / Coats, Mamie T / Waffo, Alain Bopda. ·Department of Biological Sciences, College STEM, 1627 Hall Street, Montgomery, AL 36101, USA. rls0055@tigermail.auburn.edu. · Department of Biological Sciences, College STEM, 1627 Hall Street, Montgomery, AL 36101, USA. carriec1c3@gmail.com. · Department of Biological Sciences, College STEM, 1627 Hall Street, Montgomery, AL 36101, USA. kmj2@ymail.com. · Department of Biological Sciences, College STEM, 1627 Hall Street, Montgomery, AL 36101, USA. bobbythorington@yahoo.com. · Department of Biological Sciences, College STEM, 1627 Hall Street, Montgomery, AL 36101, USA. egboty@gmail.com. · Department of Biological Sciences, College STEM, 1627 Hall Street, Montgomery, AL 36101, USA. mcoats@alasu.edu. · Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, 1627 Harris Way, Montgomery, AL 36104, USA. mcoats@alasu.edu. · Department of Biological Sciences, College STEM, 1627 Hall Street, Montgomery, AL 36101, USA. abopdawaffo@alasu.edu. · Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, 1627 Harris Way, Montgomery, AL 36104, USA. abopdawaffo@alasu.edu. ·Methods Protoc · Pubmed #31164561.

ABSTRACT: Qβ is a positive (+) single-stranded RNA bacteriophage covered by a 25 nm icosahedral shell. Qβ belongs to the family of Leviviridae and is found throughout the world (bacterial isolates and sewage). The genome of Qβ is about 4.2 kb, coding for four proteins. This genome is surrounded by 180 copies of coat proteins (capsomers) each comprised of 132 residues of amino acids. The other proteins, the subunit II (β) of a replicase, the maturation protein (A

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