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Glaucoma: HELP
Articles by Seth R. Flaxman
Based on 10 articles published since 2010
(Why 10 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, Seth R. Flaxman wrote the following 10 articles about Glaucoma.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Global causes of blindness and distance vision impairment 1990-2020: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2017

Flaxman, Seth R / Bourne, Rupert R A / Resnikoff, Serge / Ackland, Peter / Braithwaite, Tasanee / Cicinelli, Maria V / Das, Aditi / Jonas, Jost B / Keeffe, Jill / Kempen, John H / Leasher, Janet / Limburg, Hans / Naidoo, Kovin / Pesudovs, Konrad / Silvester, Alex / Stevens, Gretchen A / Tahhan, Nina / Wong, Tien Y / Taylor, Hugh R / Anonymous4500923. ·Department of Mathematics and Data Science Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK. · Vision and Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address: rb@rupertbourne.co.uk. · Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia; School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia. · International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness, London, UK. · Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. · San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · York Hospital, York, UK. · Department of Ophthalmology, Universitätsmedizin, Mannheim, Germany; Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. · L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. · Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Discovery Eye Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; MyungSung Christian Medical Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA. · Health Information Services, Grootebroek, Netherlands. · Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia; African Vision Research Institute, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Glenwood, Durban, South Africa. · National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Clinical Eye Research, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia. · SpaMedica Research Institute, Bolton, UK. · Department of Information, Evidence and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. · Singapore Eye Research Institute, Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, National University of Singapore, Singapore. · Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. ·Lancet Glob Health · Pubmed #29032195.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Contemporary data for causes of vision impairment and blindness form an important basis of recommendations in public health policies. Refreshment of the Global Vision Database with recently published data sources permitted modelling of cause of vision loss data from 1990 to 2015, further disaggregation by cause, and forecasts to 2020. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analysed published and unpublished population-based data for the causes of vision impairment and blindness from 1980 to 2014. We identified population-based studies published before July 8, 2014, by searching online databases with no language restrictions (MEDLINE from Jan 1, 1946, and Embase from Jan 1, 1974, and the WHO Library Database). We fitted a series of regression models to estimate the proportion of moderate or severe vision impairment (defined as presenting visual acuity of <6/18 but ≥3/60 in the better eye) and blindness (presenting visual acuity of <3/60 in the better eye) by cause, age, region, and year. FINDINGS: We identified 288 studies of 3 983 541 participants contributing data from 98 countries. Among the global population with moderate or severe vision impairment in 2015 (216·6 million [80% uncertainty interval 98·5 million to 359·1 million]), the leading causes were uncorrected refractive error (116·3 million [49·4 million to 202·1 million]), cataract (52·6 million [18·2 million to 109·6 million]), age-related macular degeneration (8·4 million [0·9 million to 29·5 million]), glaucoma (4·0 million [0·6 million to 13·3 million]), and diabetic retinopathy (2·6 million [0·2 million to 9·9 million]). Among the global population who were blind in 2015 (36·0 million [12·9 million to 65·4 million]), the leading causes were cataract (12·6 million [3·4 million to 28·7 million]), uncorrected refractive error (7·4 million [2·4 million to 14·8 million]), and glaucoma (2·9 million [0·4 million to 9·9 million]). By 2020, among the global population with moderate or severe vision impairment (237·1 million [101·5 million to 399·0 million]), the number of people affected by uncorrected refractive error is anticipated to rise to 127·7 million (51·0 million to 225·3 million), by cataract to 57·1 million (17·9 million to 124·1 million), by age-related macular degeneration to 8·8 million (0·8 million to 32·1 million), by glaucoma to 4·5 million (0·5 million to 15·4 million), and by diabetic retinopathy to 3·2 million (0·2 million to 12·9 million). By 2020, among the global population who are blind (38·5 million [13·2 million to 70·9 million]), the number of patients blind because of cataract is anticipated to rise to 13·4 million (3·3 million to 31·6 million), because of uncorrected refractive error to 8·0 million (2·5 million to 16·3 million), and because of glaucoma to 3·2 million (0·4 million to 11·0 million). Cataract and uncorrected refractive error combined contributed to 55% of blindness and 77% of vision impairment in adults aged 50 years and older in 2015. World regions varied markedly in the causes of blindness and vision impairment in this age group, with a low prevalence of cataract (<22% for blindness and 14·1-15·9% for vision impairment) and a high prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (>14% of blindness) as causes in the high-income subregions. Blindness and vision impairment at all ages in 2015 due to diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio 2·52 [1·48-3·73]) and cataract (1·21 [1·17-1·25]) were more common among women than among men, whereas blindness and vision impairment due to glaucoma (0·71 [0·57-0·86]) and corneal opacity (0·54 [0·43-0·66]) were more common among men than among women, with no sex difference related to age-related macular degeneration (0·91 [0·70-1·14]). INTERPRETATION: The number of people affected by the common causes of vision loss has increased substantially as the population increases and ages. Preventable vision loss due to cataract (reversible with surgery) and refractive error (reversible with spectacle correction) continue to cause most cases of blindness and moderate or severe vision impairment in adults aged 50 years and older. A large scale-up of eye care provision to cope with the increasing numbers is needed to address avoidable vision loss. FUNDING: Brien Holden Vision Institute.

2 Review Prevalence and causes of vision loss in high-income countries and in Eastern and Central Europe: 1990-2010. 2014

Bourne, Rupert R A / Jonas, Jost B / Flaxman, Seth R / Keeffe, Jill / Leasher, Janet / Naidoo, Kovin / Parodi, Maurizio B / Pesudovs, Konrad / Price, Holly / White, Richard A / Wong, Tien Y / Resnikoff, Serge / Taylor, Hugh R / Anonymous1210789. ·Vision & Eye Research Unit, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, , Cambridge, UK. ·Br J Ophthalmol · Pubmed #24665132.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To assess prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment in high-income regions and in Central/Eastern Europe in 1990 and 2010. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60 in the better eye) and blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60) was estimated for 1990 and 2010. RESULTS: Age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased from 0.2% to 0.1% (3.314 million to 2.736 million people) and from 1.6% to 1.0% (25.362 million to 22.176 million), respectively. Women were generally more affected than men. Cataract was the most frequent cause of blindness in all subregions in 1990, but macular degeneration and uncorrected refractive error became the most frequent causes of blindness in 2010 in all high-income countries, except for Eastern/Central Europe, where cataract remained the leading cause. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy were fourth and fifth most common causes for blindness for all regions at both times. Uncorrected refractive error, followed by cataract, macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, was the most common cause for MSVI in 1990 and 2010. CONCLUSIONS: In highly developed countries, prevalence of blindness and MSVI has been reduced by 50% and 38%, respectively, and the number of blind people and people with MSVI decreased by 17.4% and 12.6%, respectively, even with the increasing number of older people in the population. In high-income countries, macular degeneration has become the most important cause of blindness, but uncorrected refractive errors continue to be the leading cause of MSVI.

3 Review Prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa: 1990-2010. 2014

Naidoo, Kovin / Gichuhi, Stephen / Basáñez, María-Gloria / Flaxman, Seth R / Jonas, Jost B / Keeffe, Jill / Leasher, Janet L / Pesudovs, Konrad / Price, Holly / Smith, Jennifer L / Turner, Hugo C / White, Richard A / Wong, Tien Y / Resnikoff, Serge / Taylor, Hugh R / Bourne, Rupert R A / Anonymous1470786. ·African Vision Research Institute, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa and Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia. ·Br J Ophthalmol · Pubmed #24568870.

ABSTRACT: AIM: To estimate the magnitude, temporal trends and subregional variation in the prevalence of blindness, and moderate/severe vision impairment (MSVI) in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of published and unpublished population-based surveys as part of the Global Burden of Disease, Risk Factors and Injuries Study 2010. The prevalence of blindness and vision impairment by country and subregion was estimated. RESULTS: In sub-Saharan Africa, 52 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. The estimated age-standardised prevalence of blindness decreased by 32% from 1.9% (95% CI 1.5% to 2.2%) in 1990 to 1.3% (95% CI 1.1% to 1.5%) in 2010 and MSVI by 25% from 5.3% (95% CI 0.2% to 0.3%) to 4.0% (95% CI 0.2% to 0.3%) over that time. However, there was a 16% increase in the absolute numbers with blindness and a 28% increase in those with MSVI. The major causes of blindness in 2010 were; cataract 35%, other/unidentified causes 33.1%, refractive error 13.2%, macular degeneration 6.3%, trachoma 5.2%, glaucoma 4.4% and diabetic retinopathy 2.8%. In 2010, age-standardised prevalence of MSVI in Africa was 3.8% (95% CI 3.1% to 4.7%) for men and 4.2% (95% CI 3.6% to 5.3%) for women with subregional variations from 4.1% (95% CI 3.3% to 5.4%) in West Africa to 2.0% (95% CI 1.5% to 3.3%) in southern Africa for men; and 4.7% (95% CI 3.9% to 6.0%) in West Africa to 2.3% (95% CI 1.7% to 3.8%) in southern Africa for women. CONCLUSIONS: The age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased substantially from 1990 to 2010, although there was a moderate increase in the absolute numbers with blindness or MSVI. Significant subregional and gender disparities exist.

4 Review Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia: 1990-2010. 2014

Jonas, Jost B / George, Ronnie / Asokan, Rashima / Flaxman, Seth R / Keeffe, Jill / Leasher, Janet / Naidoo, Kovin / Pesudovs, Konrad / Price, Holly / Vijaya, Lingam / White, Richard A / Wong, Tien Y / Resnikoff, Serge / Taylor, Hugh R / Bourne, Rupert R A / Anonymous4350782. ·Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, , Mannheim, Germany. ·Br J Ophthalmol · Pubmed #24457361.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To examine the prevalence, patterns and trends of vision impairment and its causes from 1990 to 2010 in Central and South Asia. METHODS: Based on the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010 and ongoing literature searches, we examined prevalence and causes of moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18, ≥3/60) and blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60). RESULTS: In Central Asia, the estimated age-standardised prevalence of blindness decreased from 0.4% (95% CI 0.3% to 0.6%) to 0.2% (95% CI 0.2% to 0.3%) and of MSVI from 3.0% (95% CI 1.9% to 4.7%) to 1.9% (95% CI 1.2% to 3.2%), and in South Asia blindness decreased from 1.7% (95% CI 1.4% to 2.1%) to 1.1% (95% CI 0.9% to 1.3%) and MSVI from 8.9% (95% CI 6.9% to 10.9%) to 6.4% (95% CI 5.2% to 8.2%). In 2010, 135 000 (95% CI 99,000 to 194,000) people were blind in Central Asia and 10,600,000 (95% CI 8,397,000 to 12,500,000) people in South Asia. MSVI was present in 1,178,000 (95% CI 772,000 to 2,243,000) people in the Central Asia, and in 71,600,000 (95% CI 57,600,000 to 92,600,000) people in South Asia. Women were generally more often affected than men. The leading causes of blindness (cataract) and MSVI (undercorrected refractive error) did not change from 1990 to 2010. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of blindness and MSVI in South Asia is still three times higher than in Central Asia and globally, with women generally more often affected than women. In both regions, cataract and undercorrected refractive error were major causes of blindness and MSVI.

5 Review Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis. 2013

Bourne, Rupert R A / Stevens, Gretchen A / White, Richard A / Smith, Jennifer L / Flaxman, Seth R / Price, Holly / Jonas, Jost B / Keeffe, Jill / Leasher, Janet / Naidoo, Kovin / Pesudovs, Konrad / Resnikoff, Serge / Taylor, Hugh R / Anonymous6490802. ·Vision and Eye Research Unit, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address: rb@rupertbourne.co.uk. · Department of Health Statistics and Information Systems, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. · Department of Genes and Environment, Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. · Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. · School of Computer Science and Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. · Vision and Eye Research Unit, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. · Department of Ophthalmology, Universitätsmedizin, Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. · LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. · College of Optometry, Nova Southeastern University, Fort-Lauderdale-Davie, FL, USA. · African Vision Research Institute, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa; Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia. · NHMRC Centre for Clinical Eye Research, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia. · International Health and Development, Geneva, Switzerland. · Melbourne School of Public Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. ·Lancet Glob Health · Pubmed #25104599.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Data on causes of vision impairment and blindness are important for development of public health policies, but comprehensive analysis of change in prevalence over time is lacking. METHODS: We did a systematic analysis of published and unpublished data on the causes of blindness (visual acuity in the better eye less than 3/60) and moderate and severe vision impairment ([MSVI] visual acuity in the better eye less than 6/18 but at least 3/60) from 1980 to 2012. We estimated the proportions of overall vision impairment attributable to cataract, glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, trachoma, and uncorrected refractive error in 1990-2010 by age, geographical region, and year. FINDINGS: In 2010, 65% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 61-68) of 32·4 million blind people and 76% (73-79) of 191 million people with MSVI worldwide had a preventable or treatable cause, compared with 68% (95% UI 65-70) of 31·8 million and 80% (78-83) of 172 million in 1990. Leading causes worldwide in 1990 and 2010 for blindness were cataract (39% and 33%, respectively), uncorrected refractive error (20% and 21%), and macular degeneration (5% and 7%), and for MSVI were uncorrected refractive error (51% and 53%), cataract (26% and 18%), and macular degeneration (2% and 3%). Causes of blindness varied substantially by region. Worldwide and in all regions more women than men were blind or had MSVI due to cataract and macular degeneration. INTERPRETATION: The differences and temporal changes we found in causes of blindness and MSVI have implications for planning and resource allocation in eye care. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Fight for Sight, Fred Hollows Foundation, and Brien Holden Vision Institute.

6 Article Prevalence and causes of vision loss in East Asia in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections. 2020

Cheng, Ching-Yu / Wang, Ningli / Wong, Tien Y / Congdon, Nathan / He, Mingguang / Wang, Ya Xing / Braithwaite, Tasanee / Casson, Robert J / Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria / Das, Aditi / Flaxman, Seth R / Jonas, Jost B / Keeffe, Jill Elizabeth / Kempen, John H / Leasher, Janet / Limburg, Hans / Naidoo, Kovin / Pesudovs, Konrad / Resnikoff, Serge / Silvester, Alexander J / Tahhan, Nina / Taylor, Hugh R / Bourne, Rupert R A / Anonymous4311174. ·Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore. · Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences Academic Clinical Program (Eye ACP), Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore. · Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Science Key Lab, Beijing, China. · Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. · Preventive Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Guangdong, China. · Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast School of Medicine Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Belfast, UK. · Ophthalmology Eye and Ear Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital University of Medical Science, Beijing, China. · School of Medicine, Vision and Eye Research Unit (VERU), Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK. · Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. · Ophthalmology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. · Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-Salute, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy. · Ophthalmic Public Health, Leeds Teaching Hospital NHS Trust, London, UK. · Department of Mathematics and Data Science Institute, Imperial College, London, UK. · Department of Ophthalmology, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Seegartenklinik Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany. · L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. · Ophthalmology and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. · HPD/College of Optometry, Nova Southeastern University, Davie, Florida, USA. · Health Information Services, Grootebroek, The Netherlands. · African Vision Research Institute, Durban, South Africa. · Pesudovs, GLENELG, South Australia, Australia. · Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Ophthalmology, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK. · Melbourne School of Population Health, The University of Melbourne, Carlton, Victoria, Australia. · School of Medicine, Vision and Eye Research Unit (VERU), Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK rb@rupertbourne.co.uk. ·Br J Ophthalmol · Pubmed #31462416.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment (VI) in East Asia in 2015 and to forecast the trend to 2020. METHODS: Through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, we estimated prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate-to-severe vision impairment (MSVI; 3/60≤presenting visual acuity <6/18), mild vision impairment (mild VI: 6/18≤presenting visual acuity <6/12) and uncorrected presbyopia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. A total of 44 population-based studies were included. RESULTS: In 2015, age-standardised prevalence of blindness, MSVI, mild VI and uncorrected presbyopia was 0.37% (80% uncertainty interval (UI) 0.12%-0.68%), 3.06% (80% UI 1.35%-5.16%) and 2.65% (80% UI 0.92%-4.91%), 32.91% (80% UI 18.72%-48.47%), respectively, in East Asia. Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (43.6%), followed by uncorrected refractive error (12.9%), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, corneal diseases, trachoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR). The leading cause for MSVI was uncorrected refractive error, followed by cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, corneal disease, trachoma and DR. The burden of VI due to uncorrected refractive error, cataracts, glaucoma and DR has continued to rise over the decades reported. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing the public healthcare barriers for cataract and uncorrected refractive error can help eliminate almost 57% of all blindness cases in this region. Therefore, public healthcare efforts should be focused on effective screening and effective patient education, with access to high-quality healthcare.

7 Article Prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment: magnitude, temporal trends and projections in South and Central Asia. 2019

Nangia, Vinay / Jonas, Jost B / George, Ronnie / Lingam, Vijaya / Ellwein, Leon / Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria / Das, Aditi / Flaxman, Seth R / Keeffe, Jill E / Kempen, John H / Leasher, Janet / Limburg, Hans / Naidoo, Kovin / Pesudovs, Konrad / Resnikoff, Serge / Silvester, Alexander J / Tahhan, Nina / Taylor, Hugh R / Wong, Tien Y / Bourne, Rupert R A / Anonymous8091112. ·Suraj Eye Institute, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. · Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. · Department of Glaucoma, Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. · National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. · San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Health Education Yorkshire and the Humber, Humber, UK. · Department of Mathematics, Data Science Institute, Imperial College, London, UK. · Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. · Director of Epidemiology, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. · Discovery Eye Center, MyungSung Christian Medical Center and Medical School, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA. · Health Information Services, Grootebroek, The Netherlands. · African Vision Research Institute, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa and Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, Victoria, Australia. · 5 Rose St, Glenelg, Glenelg, South Australia, Australia. · Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, Australia & School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Pauls Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK. · Melbourne School of Population Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Parkville, Australia. · Singapore Eye Research Institute, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Asia. · Vision and Eye Research Unit, School of Medicine, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK rb@rupertbourne.co.uk. ·Br J Ophthalmol · Pubmed #30409914.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To assess prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia. METHODS: A systematic review of medical literature assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity<3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18) in Central and South Asia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. RESULTS: In Central and South Asia combined, age-standardised prevalences of blindness, MSVI and MVI in 2015 were for men and women aged 50+years, 3.72% (80% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.39-6.75) and 4.00% (80% UI: 1.41-7.39), 16.33% (80% UI: 8.55-25.47) and 17.65% (80% UI: 9.00-27.62), 11.70% (80% UI: 4.70-20.32) and 12.25% (80% UI:4.86-21.30), respectively, with a significant decrease in the study period for both gender. In South Asia in 2015, 11.76 million individuals (32.65% of the global blindness figure) were blind and 61.19 million individuals (28.3% of the global total) had MSVI. From 1990 to 2015, cataract (accounting for 36.58% of all cases with blindness in 2015) was the most common cause of blindness, followed by undercorrected refractive error (36.43%), glaucoma (5.81%), age-related macular degeneration (2.44%), corneal diseases (2.43%), diabetic retinopathy (0.16%) and trachoma (0.04%). For MSVI in South Asia 2015, most common causes were undercorrected refractive error (accounting for 66.39% of all cases with MSVI), followed by cataract (23.62%), age-related macular degeneration (1.31%) and glaucoma (1.09%). CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the global blind resided in South Asia in 2015, although the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased significantly between 1990 and 2015.

8 Article Prevalence and causes of vision loss in South-east Asia and Oceania in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections. 2019

Keeffe, Jill Elizabeth / Casson, Robert J / Pesudovs, Konrad / Taylor, Hugh R / Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria / Das, Aditi / Flaxman, Seth R / Jonas, Jost B / Kempen, John H / Leasher, Janet / Limburg, Hans / Naidoo, Kovin / Silvester, Alexander J / Stevens, Gretchen A / Tahhan, Nina / Wong, Tien Yin / Resnikoff, Serge / Bourne, Rupert R A / Anonymous721087. ·L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India jillkeeffe@lvpei.org. · University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. · Melbourne School of Population Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Health Education Yorkshire, London, UK. · Department of Mathematics and Data Science Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK. · Department of Ophthalmology, Universitätsmedizin, Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. · Immunology and Uveitis Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. · Discovery Eye Center, Leawood, Kansas, USA. · MyungSung Christian Medical Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA. · Health Information Services, Grootebroek, The Netherlands. · African Vision Research Institute, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa & Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · St Pauls Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool, UK. · Department of Information, Evidence and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. · Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Singapore Eye Research Institute, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. · Vision & Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. ·Br J Ophthalmol · Pubmed #30209084.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To assess prevalence and causes of vision impairment in South-east Asia and Oceania regions from 1990 to 2015 and to forecast the figures for 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (PVA) <3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; PVA <6/18 but ≥3/60), mild vision impairment (PVA <6/12 but ≥6/18) and near vision impairment (>N5 or N8 in the presence of normal vision) were estimated for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. RESULTS: The age-standardised prevalence of blindness for all ages and both genders was higher in the Oceania region but lower for MSVI when comparing the subregions. The prevalence of near vision impairment in people≥50 years was 41% (uncertainty interval (UI) 18.8 to 65.9). Comparison of the data for 2015 with 2020 predicts a small increase in the numbers of people affected by blindness, MSVI and mild VI in both subregions. The numbers predicted for near VI in South-east Asia are from 90.68 million in 2015 to 102.88 million in 2020. The main causes of blindness and MSVI in both subregions in 2015 were cataract, uncorrected refractive error, glaucoma, corneal disease and age-related macular degeneration. There was no trachoma in Oceania from 1990 and decreasing prevalence in South-east Asia with elimination predicted by 2020. CONCLUSIONS: In both regions, the main challenges for eye care come from cataract which remains the main cause of blindness with uncorrected refractive error the main cause of MSVI. The trend between 1990 and 2015 is for a lower prevalence of blindness and MSVI in both regions.

9 Article Prevalence and causes of vision loss in high-income countries and in Eastern and Central Europe in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections. 2018

Bourne, Rupert R A / Jonas, Jost B / Bron, Alain M / Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria / Das, Aditi / Flaxman, Seth R / Friedman, David S / Keeffe, Jill E / Kempen, John H / Leasher, Janet / Limburg, Hans / Naidoo, Kovin / Pesudovs, Konrad / Peto, Tunde / Saadine, Jinan / Silvester, Alexander J / Tahhan, Nina / Taylor, Hugh R / Varma, Rohit / Wong, Tien Y / Resnikoff, Serge / Anonymous2511112. ·Vision & Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. · Department of Ophthalmology, Universitätsmedizin, Mannheim, Germany. · Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. · INRA, UMR1324 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Dijon, France. · CNRS, UMR6265 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Dijon, France. · Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France. · Ophthalmology Department, Dijon University Hospital, Dijon, France. · San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Health Education Yorkshire and the Humber, Leeds, UK. · Department of Mathematics and Data Science Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK. · Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. · Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. · LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. · Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. · Discovery Eye Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · Myungsung Christian Medical Center and Medical School, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · Nova Southeastern University, Davie, Florida, USA. · Health Information Services, Grootebroek, The Netherlands. · African Vision Research Institute, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Brien Holden Vision Institute, Durban, South Africa. · NHMRC Centre for Clinical Eye Research, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. · School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK. · Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. · St Pauls Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK. · Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Melbourne School of Population Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California, USA. · Singapore Eye Research Institute, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, National University of Singapore, Singapore. ·Br J Ophthalmol · Pubmed #29545417.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Within a surveillance of the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in high-income regions and Central/Eastern Europe, we update figures through 2015 and forecast expected values in 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness, moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI), mild vision impairment and presbyopia was estimated for 1990, 2010, 2015, and 2020. RESULTS: Age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI for all ages decreased from 1990 to 2015 from 0.26% (0.10-0.46) to 0.15% (0.06-0.26) and from 1.74% (0.76-2.94) to 1.27% (0.55-2.17), respectively. In 2015, the number of individuals affected by blindness, MSVI and mild vision impairment ranged from 70 000, 630 000 and 610 000, respectively, in Australasia to 980 000, 7.46 million and 7.25 million, respectively, in North America and 1.16 million, 9.61 million and 9.47 million, respectively, in Western Europe. In 2015, cataract was the most common cause for blindness, followed by age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, uncorrected refractive error, diabetic retinopathy and cornea-related disorders, with declining burden from cataract and AMD over time. Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of MSVI. CONCLUSIONS: While continuing to advance control of cataract and AMD as the leading causes of blindness remains a high priority, overcoming barriers to uptake of refractive error services would address approximately half of the MSVI burden. New data on burden of presbyopia identify this entity as an important public health problem in this population. Additional research on better treatments, better implementation with existing tools and ongoing surveillance of the problem is needed.

10 Article Number of People Blind or Visually Impaired by Glaucoma Worldwide and in World Regions 1990 - 2010: A Meta-Analysis. 2016

Bourne, Rupert R A / Taylor, Hugh R / Flaxman, Seth R / Keeffe, Jill / Leasher, Janet / Naidoo, Kovin / Pesudovs, Konrad / White, Richard A / Wong, Tien Y / Resnikoff, Serge / Jonas, Jost B / Anonymous870885. ·Vision & Eye Research Unit, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom. · Melbourne School of Population Health, University of Melbourne, Australia. · School of Computer Science & Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America. · L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. · Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States of America. · African Vision Research Institute, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa & Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, Australia. · NHMRC Centre for Clinical Eye Research, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia. · Department of Genes and Environment, Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. · Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore. · Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, Australia. · Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #27764086.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the number of individuals visually impaired or blind due to glaucoma and to examine regional differences and temporal changes in this parameter for the period from 1990 to 2012. METHODS: As part of the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) Study 2010, we performed a systematic literature review for the period from 1980 to 2012. We primarily identified 14,908 relevant manuscripts, out of which 243 high-quality, population-based studies remained after review by an expert panel that involved application of selection criteria that dwelt on population representativeness and clarity of visual acuity methods used. Sixty-six specified the proportion attributable to glaucoma. The software tool DisMod-MR (Disease Modeling-Metaregression) of the GBD was used to calculate fraction of vision impairment due to glaucoma. RESULTS: In 2010, 2.1 million (95% Uncertainty Interval (UI):1.9,2.6) people were blind, and 4.2 (95% UI:3.7,5.8) million were visually impaired due to glaucoma. Glaucoma caused worldwide 6.6% (95% UI:5.9,7.9) of all blindness in 2010 and 2.2% (95% UI:2.0,2.8) of all moderate and severe visual impairment (MSVI). These figures were lower in regions with younger populations (<5% in South Asia) than in high-income regions with relatively old populations (>10%). From 1990 to 2010, the number of blind or visually impaired due to glaucoma increased by 0.8 million (95%UI:0.7, 1.1) or 62% and by 2.3 million (95%UI:2.1,3.5) or 83%, respectively. Percentage of global blindness caused by glaucoma increased between 1990 and 2010 from 4.4% (4.0,5.1) to 6.6%. Age-standardized prevalence of glaucoma related blindness and MSVI did not differ markedly between world regions nor between women. SIGNIFICANCE: By 2010, one out of 15 blind people was blind due to glaucoma, and one of 45 visually impaired people was visually impaired, highlighting the increasing global burden of glaucoma.