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Glaucoma: HELP
Articles by Seth R. Flaxman
Based on 4 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, Seth R. Flaxman wrote the following 4 articles about Glaucoma.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Global causes of blindness and distance vision impairment 1990-2020: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2017

Flaxman, Seth R / Bourne, Rupert R A / Resnikoff, Serge / Ackland, Peter / Braithwaite, Tasanee / Cicinelli, Maria V / Das, Aditi / Jonas, Jost B / Keeffe, Jill / Kempen, John H / Leasher, Janet / Limburg, Hans / Naidoo, Kovin / Pesudovs, Konrad / Silvester, Alex / Stevens, Gretchen A / Tahhan, Nina / Wong, Tien Y / Taylor, Hugh R / Anonymous15250923. ·Department of Mathematics and Data Science Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK. · Vision and Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address: rb@rupertbourne.co.uk. · Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia; School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia. · International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness, London, UK. · Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. · San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · York Hospital, York, UK. · Department of Ophthalmology, Universitätsmedizin, Mannheim, Germany; Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. · L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. · Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Discovery Eye Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; MyungSung Christian Medical Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA. · Health Information Services, Grootebroek, Netherlands. · Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia; African Vision Research Institute, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Glenwood, Durban, South Africa. · National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Clinical Eye Research, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia. · SpaMedica Research Institute, Bolton, UK. · Department of Information, Evidence and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. · Singapore Eye Research Institute, Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, National University of Singapore, Singapore. · Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. ·Lancet Glob Health · Pubmed #29032195.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Contemporary data for causes of vision impairment and blindness form an important basis of recommendations in public health policies. Refreshment of the Global Vision Database with recently published data sources permitted modelling of cause of vision loss data from 1990 to 2015, further disaggregation by cause, and forecasts to 2020. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analysed published and unpublished population-based data for the causes of vision impairment and blindness from 1980 to 2014. We identified population-based studies published before July 8, 2014, by searching online databases with no language restrictions (MEDLINE from Jan 1, 1946, and Embase from Jan 1, 1974, and the WHO Library Database). We fitted a series of regression models to estimate the proportion of moderate or severe vision impairment (defined as presenting visual acuity of <6/18 but ≥3/60 in the better eye) and blindness (presenting visual acuity of <3/60 in the better eye) by cause, age, region, and year. FINDINGS: We identified 288 studies of 3 983 541 participants contributing data from 98 countries. Among the global population with moderate or severe vision impairment in 2015 (216·6 million [80% uncertainty interval 98·5 million to 359·1 million]), the leading causes were uncorrected refractive error (116·3 million [49·4 million to 202·1 million]), cataract (52·6 million [18·2 million to 109·6 million]), age-related macular degeneration (8·4 million [0·9 million to 29·5 million]), glaucoma (4·0 million [0·6 million to 13·3 million]), and diabetic retinopathy (2·6 million [0·2 million to 9·9 million]). Among the global population who were blind in 2015 (36·0 million [12·9 million to 65·4 million]), the leading causes were cataract (12·6 million [3·4 million to 28·7 million]), uncorrected refractive error (7·4 million [2·4 million to 14·8 million]), and glaucoma (2·9 million [0·4 million to 9·9 million]). By 2020, among the global population with moderate or severe vision impairment (237·1 million [101·5 million to 399·0 million]), the number of people affected by uncorrected refractive error is anticipated to rise to 127·7 million (51·0 million to 225·3 million), by cataract to 57·1 million (17·9 million to 124·1 million), by age-related macular degeneration to 8·8 million (0·8 million to 32·1 million), by glaucoma to 4·5 million (0·5 million to 15·4 million), and by diabetic retinopathy to 3·2 million (0·2 million to 12·9 million). By 2020, among the global population who are blind (38·5 million [13·2 million to 70·9 million]), the number of patients blind because of cataract is anticipated to rise to 13·4 million (3·3 million to 31·6 million), because of uncorrected refractive error to 8·0 million (2·5 million to 16·3 million), and because of glaucoma to 3·2 million (0·4 million to 11·0 million). Cataract and uncorrected refractive error combined contributed to 55% of blindness and 77% of vision impairment in adults aged 50 years and older in 2015. World regions varied markedly in the causes of blindness and vision impairment in this age group, with a low prevalence of cataract (<22% for blindness and 14·1-15·9% for vision impairment) and a high prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (>14% of blindness) as causes in the high-income subregions. Blindness and vision impairment at all ages in 2015 due to diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio 2·52 [1·48-3·73]) and cataract (1·21 [1·17-1·25]) were more common among women than among men, whereas blindness and vision impairment due to glaucoma (0·71 [0·57-0·86]) and corneal opacity (0·54 [0·43-0·66]) were more common among men than among women, with no sex difference related to age-related macular degeneration (0·91 [0·70-1·14]). INTERPRETATION: The number of people affected by the common causes of vision loss has increased substantially as the population increases and ages. Preventable vision loss due to cataract (reversible with surgery) and refractive error (reversible with spectacle correction) continue to cause most cases of blindness and moderate or severe vision impairment in adults aged 50 years and older. A large scale-up of eye care provision to cope with the increasing numbers is needed to address avoidable vision loss. FUNDING: Brien Holden Vision Institute.

2 Review Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis. 2013

Bourne, Rupert R A / Stevens, Gretchen A / White, Richard A / Smith, Jennifer L / Flaxman, Seth R / Price, Holly / Jonas, Jost B / Keeffe, Jill / Leasher, Janet / Naidoo, Kovin / Pesudovs, Konrad / Resnikoff, Serge / Taylor, Hugh R / Anonymous6320802. ·Vision and Eye Research Unit, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address: rb@rupertbourne.co.uk. · Department of Health Statistics and Information Systems, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. · Department of Genes and Environment, Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. · Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. · School of Computer Science and Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. · Vision and Eye Research Unit, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. · Department of Ophthalmology, Universitätsmedizin, Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. · LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. · College of Optometry, Nova Southeastern University, Fort-Lauderdale-Davie, FL, USA. · African Vision Research Institute, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa; Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia. · NHMRC Centre for Clinical Eye Research, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia. · International Health and Development, Geneva, Switzerland. · Melbourne School of Public Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. ·Lancet Glob Health · Pubmed #25104599.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Data on causes of vision impairment and blindness are important for development of public health policies, but comprehensive analysis of change in prevalence over time is lacking. METHODS: We did a systematic analysis of published and unpublished data on the causes of blindness (visual acuity in the better eye less than 3/60) and moderate and severe vision impairment ([MSVI] visual acuity in the better eye less than 6/18 but at least 3/60) from 1980 to 2012. We estimated the proportions of overall vision impairment attributable to cataract, glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, trachoma, and uncorrected refractive error in 1990-2010 by age, geographical region, and year. FINDINGS: In 2010, 65% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 61-68) of 32·4 million blind people and 76% (73-79) of 191 million people with MSVI worldwide had a preventable or treatable cause, compared with 68% (95% UI 65-70) of 31·8 million and 80% (78-83) of 172 million in 1990. Leading causes worldwide in 1990 and 2010 for blindness were cataract (39% and 33%, respectively), uncorrected refractive error (20% and 21%), and macular degeneration (5% and 7%), and for MSVI were uncorrected refractive error (51% and 53%), cataract (26% and 18%), and macular degeneration (2% and 3%). Causes of blindness varied substantially by region. Worldwide and in all regions more women than men were blind or had MSVI due to cataract and macular degeneration. INTERPRETATION: The differences and temporal changes we found in causes of blindness and MSVI have implications for planning and resource allocation in eye care. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Fight for Sight, Fred Hollows Foundation, and Brien Holden Vision Institute.

3 Article Prevalence and causes of vision loss in high-income countries and in Eastern and Central Europe in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections. 2018

Bourne, Rupert R A / Jonas, Jost B / Bron, Alain M / Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria / Das, Aditi / Flaxman, Seth R / Friedman, David S / Keeffe, Jill E / Kempen, John H / Leasher, Janet / Limburg, Hans / Naidoo, Kovin / Pesudovs, Konrad / Peto, Tunde / Saadine, Jinan / Silvester, Alexander J / Tahhan, Nina / Taylor, Hugh R / Varma, Rohit / Wong, Tien Y / Resnikoff, Serge / Anonymous6461055. ·Vision & Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. · Department of Ophthalmology, Universitätsmedizin, Mannheim, Germany. · Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. · INRA, UMR1324 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Dijon, France. · CNRS, UMR6265 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Dijon, France. · Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France. · Ophthalmology Department, Dijon University Hospital, Dijon, France. · San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · Health Education Yorkshire and the Humber, Leeds, UK. · Department of Mathematics and Data Science Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK. · Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. · Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. · LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. · Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. · Discovery Eye Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · Myungsung Christian Medical Center and Medical School, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · Nova Southeastern University, Davie, Florida, USA. · Health Information Services, Grootebroek, The Netherlands. · African Vision Research Institute, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Brien Holden Vision Institute, Durban, South Africa. · NHMRC Centre for Clinical Eye Research, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. · School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK. · Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. · St Pauls Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK. · Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Melbourne School of Population Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California, USA. · Singapore Eye Research Institute, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, National University of Singapore, Singapore. ·Br J Ophthalmol · Pubmed #29545417.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Within a surveillance of the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in high-income regions and Central/Eastern Europe, we update figures through 2015 and forecast expected values in 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness, moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI), mild vision impairment and presbyopia was estimated for 1990, 2010, 2015, and 2020. RESULTS: Age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI for all ages decreased from 1990 to 2015 from 0.26% (0.10-0.46) to 0.15% (0.06-0.26) and from 1.74% (0.76-2.94) to 1.27% (0.55-2.17), respectively. In 2015, the number of individuals affected by blindness, MSVI and mild vision impairment ranged from 70 000, 630 000 and 610 000, respectively, in Australasia to 980 000, 7.46 million and 7.25 million, respectively, in North America and 1.16 million, 9.61 million and 9.47 million, respectively, in Western Europe. In 2015, cataract was the most common cause for blindness, followed by age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, uncorrected refractive error, diabetic retinopathy and cornea-related disorders, with declining burden from cataract and AMD over time. Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of MSVI. CONCLUSIONS: While continuing to advance control of cataract and AMD as the leading causes of blindness remains a high priority, overcoming barriers to uptake of refractive error services would address approximately half of the MSVI burden. New data on burden of presbyopia identify this entity as an important public health problem in this population. Additional research on better treatments, better implementation with existing tools and ongoing surveillance of the problem is needed.

4 Article Number of People Blind or Visually Impaired by Glaucoma Worldwide and in World Regions 1990 - 2010: A Meta-Analysis. 2016

Bourne, Rupert R A / Taylor, Hugh R / Flaxman, Seth R / Keeffe, Jill / Leasher, Janet / Naidoo, Kovin / Pesudovs, Konrad / White, Richard A / Wong, Tien Y / Resnikoff, Serge / Jonas, Jost B / Anonymous2260885. ·Vision & Eye Research Unit, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom. · Melbourne School of Population Health, University of Melbourne, Australia. · School of Computer Science & Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America. · L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. · Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States of America. · African Vision Research Institute, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa & Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, Australia. · NHMRC Centre for Clinical Eye Research, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia. · Department of Genes and Environment, Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. · Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore. · Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, Australia. · Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #27764086.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the number of individuals visually impaired or blind due to glaucoma and to examine regional differences and temporal changes in this parameter for the period from 1990 to 2012. METHODS: As part of the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) Study 2010, we performed a systematic literature review for the period from 1980 to 2012. We primarily identified 14,908 relevant manuscripts, out of which 243 high-quality, population-based studies remained after review by an expert panel that involved application of selection criteria that dwelt on population representativeness and clarity of visual acuity methods used. Sixty-six specified the proportion attributable to glaucoma. The software tool DisMod-MR (Disease Modeling-Metaregression) of the GBD was used to calculate fraction of vision impairment due to glaucoma. RESULTS: In 2010, 2.1 million (95% Uncertainty Interval (UI):1.9,2.6) people were blind, and 4.2 (95% UI:3.7,5.8) million were visually impaired due to glaucoma. Glaucoma caused worldwide 6.6% (95% UI:5.9,7.9) of all blindness in 2010 and 2.2% (95% UI:2.0,2.8) of all moderate and severe visual impairment (MSVI). These figures were lower in regions with younger populations (<5% in South Asia) than in high-income regions with relatively old populations (>10%). From 1990 to 2010, the number of blind or visually impaired due to glaucoma increased by 0.8 million (95%UI:0.7, 1.1) or 62% and by 2.3 million (95%UI:2.1,3.5) or 83%, respectively. Percentage of global blindness caused by glaucoma increased between 1990 and 2010 from 4.4% (4.0,5.1) to 6.6%. Age-standardized prevalence of glaucoma related blindness and MSVI did not differ markedly between world regions nor between women. SIGNIFICANCE: By 2010, one out of 15 blind people was blind due to glaucoma, and one of 45 visually impaired people was visually impaired, highlighting the increasing global burden of glaucoma.