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Glaucoma: HELP
Articles from France
Based on 358 articles published since 2008
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These are the 358 published articles about Glaucoma that originated from France during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15
1 Editorial [Ocular hypertension after intravitreal injection, foreword]. 2017

Denis, P / Pisella, P-J. ·Hospices civils de Lyon, hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, 103, boulevard de la Croix-Rousse, 69317 Lyon cedex 04, France; CHU de Tours, 2, boulevard Tonnelle, 37000 Tours, France. ·J Fr Ophtalmol · Pubmed #28318714.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial [Editorial]. 2015

Rouland, J-F. ·Service d'ophtalmologie, hôpital Huriez, avenue Polonowski, 59037 Lille cedex, France. Electronic address: jfrouland@chru-lille.fr. ·J Fr Ophtalmol · Pubmed #25842147.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Review [Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma]. 2018

Schweitzer, C. ·Service d'ophtalmologie, CHU de Bordeaux, 33000 Bordeaux, France; UMR 1219, Inserm, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, team LEHA, université Bordeaux, 33000 Bordeaux, France. Electronic address: cedric.schweitzer@chu-bordeaux.fr. ·J Fr Ophtalmol · Pubmed #29329947.

ABSTRACT: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an age-related systemic disease that mainly affects the anterior structures of the eye. Despite a worldwide distribution, reported incidence and prevalence of this syndrome vary widely between ethnicities and geographical areas. The exfoliative material is composed mainly of abnormal cross-linked fibrils that accumulate progressively in some organs such as the heart, blood vessels, lungs or meninges, and particularly in the anterior structures of the eye. The exact pathophysiological process still remains unclear but the association of genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in the development and progressive extracellular accumulation of exfoliative material. Hence, LOXL1 gene polymorphisms, responsible for metabolism of some components of elastic fibers and extracellular matrix, and increased natural exposure to ambient ultraviolet or caffeine consumption have been associated with pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Ophthalmological manifestations are commonly bilateral with an asymmetric presentation and can lead to severe visual impairment and blindness more frequently than in the general population, mainly related to glaucoma and cataract. Pseudoexfoliation glaucoma is a major complication of pseudoexfoliation syndrome and represents the main cause of identifiable glaucoma worldwide. Visual field progression is more rapid than that observed in primary open angle glaucoma, and filtering surgery is more frequently required. Nuclear cataract is more frequent and occurs earlier than in the general population. Owing to poorer pupil dilation and increased zonular instability, cataract surgery with pseudoexfoliation is associated with a 5- to 10-fold increase in surgical complications compared to cataract surgery without pseudoexfoliation. Some specific treatments targeting production, formation or accumulation of exfoliative material could improve the prognosis of this syndrome.

4 Review Diseases of the retina and the optic nerve associated with obstructive sleep apnea. 2018

Mentek, Marielle / Aptel, Florent / Godin-Ribuot, Diane / Tamisier, Renaud / Pepin, Jean-Louis / Chiquet, Christophe. ·Grenoble Alpes University, HP2 Laboratory, INSERM U1042, Grenoble, France. · Grenoble Alpes University, HP2 Laboratory, INSERM U1042, Grenoble, France; Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble, France. · Grenoble Alpes University, HP2 Laboratory, INSERM U1042, Grenoble, France; Pôle Thorax et Vaisseaux, University Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble, France. · Grenoble Alpes University, HP2 Laboratory, INSERM U1042, Grenoble, France; Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble, France. Electronic address: christophe.chiquet@inserm.fr. ·Sleep Med Rev · Pubmed #29107469.

ABSTRACT: Many associations between ocular disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been studied, such as nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, papilledema, retinal vein occlusion, eyelid hyperlaxity, lower-eyelid ectropion and recurrent corneal erosions. The objective of this review is to synthetize the possible vascular disorders of the retina and the optic nerve associated with sleep apnea patients and to discuss the underlying pathophysiological hypotheses. Main mechanisms involved in the ocular complications of OSA are related to intermittent hypoxia, sympathetic system activation, oxidant stress, and deleterious effects of endothelin 1. The main evidence-based medicine data suggest that OSA should be screened in patients with ischemic optic neuropathy and diabetic retinopathy. The effect of OSA treatment and emerging therapies are discussed.

5 Review [Role of laser peripheral iridotomy in pigmentary glaucoma and pigment dispersion syndrome: A review of the literature [French version]]. 2017

Buffault, J / Leray, B / Bouillot, A / Baudouin, C / Labbé, A. ·Service d'ophtalmologie, hôpital Ambroise-Paré, AP-HP, 9, avenue Charles-De-Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt, France; DHU Sight Restore, université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France. · Service d'ophtalmologie, hôpital Ambroise-Paré, AP-HP, 9, avenue Charles-De-Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt, France; DHU Sight Restore, université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France; Service d'ophtalmologie 3, centre hospitalier national d'ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France. · Service d'ophtalmologie, hôpital Ambroise-Paré, AP-HP, 9, avenue Charles-De-Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt, France; DHU Sight Restore, université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France; Service d'ophtalmologie 3, centre hospitalier national d'ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France. Electronic address: dr.antoinelabbe@gmail.com. ·J Fr Ophtalmol · Pubmed #29050926.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Pigment dispersion syndrome (PSD) is characterized by a structural abnormality of the posterior surface of the iris causing contact with the zonular fibers. It can lead to an open-angle glaucoma secondary to pigment dispersion into the trabecular meshwork. Laser peripheral iridotomy (PI) has been proposed as a treatment for pigmentary glaucoma (PG) and pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) by reducing the dispersion of pigment. The goal of this review was to assess the effects of PI for PSD and PG. METHODS: We included six randomized controlled trials and two cohort studies (286 eyes of 218 participants). Four trials included participants with PG, and 4 trials enrolled participants with PSD with or without elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). RESULTS: Among patients with PG, at an average of 9 months of follow-up, the mean difference in IOP between groups was 2.69mmHg less in the PI group (95 % CI: -6.05 to 0.67; 14 eyes). In patients with PDS, the average IOP was statistically lower after PI as compared to baseline (Student test, t=11.49, P<0.01). With regard to visual field progression in participants with GP, after an average follow-up of 28 months, the risk of progression was not influenced by PI (RR 1.00 95 %: CI 0.16 to 6.25; 32 eyes). No trials that enrolled patients with PSD showed a diminution of the risk of glaucoma conversion at mid- and long-term. CONCLUSION: PI decreases the biomechanical factor causing contact between the iris and zonular fibers and may lower IOP over the long-term. Nevertheless, the effects of PI on visual field changes or progression have not been established in PG and PDS. There is no scientific evidence as of yet to advocate PI as a treatment for PDS or PG.

6 Review Role of laser peripheral iridotomy in pigmentary glaucoma and pigment dispersion syndrome: A review of the literature. 2017

Buffault, J / Leray, B / Bouillot, A / Baudouin, C / Labbé, A. ·Department of ophthalmology, Ambroise-Paré hospital, AP-HP, 9, avenue Charles-De-Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne Billancourt, France; DHU Sight Restore, université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France. · Department of ophthalmology, Ambroise-Paré hospital, AP-HP, 9, avenue Charles-De-Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne Billancourt, France; DHU Sight Restore, université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France; Department of ophthalmology 3, Quinze-Vingts national ophthalmology hospital, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France. · Department of ophthalmology, Ambroise-Paré hospital, AP-HP, 9, avenue Charles-De-Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne Billancourt, France; DHU Sight Restore, université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France; Department of ophthalmology 3, Quinze-Vingts national ophthalmology hospital, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France. Electronic address: dr.antoinelabbe@gmail.com. ·J Fr Ophtalmol · Pubmed #28987446.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) is characterized by a structural abnormality of the posterior surface of the iris causing contact with the zonular fibers. It can lead to an open-angle glaucoma secondary to pigment dispersion into the trabecular meshwork. Laser peripheral iridotomy (PI) has been proposed as a treatment for pigmentary glaucoma (PG) and pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) by reducing the dispersion of pigment. The goal of this review was to assess the effects of PI for PDS and PG. METHODS: We included six randomized controlled trials and two cohort studies (286 eyes of 218 participants). Four trials included participants with PG, and 4 trials enrolled participants with PDS with or without elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). RESULTS: Among patients with PG, at an average of 9 months of follow-up, the mean difference in IOP between groups was 2.69mm Hg less in the PI group (95% CI: -6.05 to 0.67; 14 eyes). In patients with PDS, the average IOP was statistically lower after PI as compared to baseline (Student test t=11.49, P<0.01, 38 eyes). With regard to visual field progression in participants with PG, after an average follow-up of 28 months, the risk of progression was not influenced by PI (RR 1.00 95% CI: 0.16 to 6.25; 32 eyes). No trials that enrolled patients with PDS showed a diminution of the risk of glaucoma conversion at mid- and long-terms. CONCLUSION: PI decreases the biomechanical factor causing contact between the iris and zonular fibers and may lower IOP over the long-term. Nevertheless, the effects of PI on visual field changes or progression have not been established in PG and PDS. There is no scientific evidence as of yet to advocate PI as a treatment for PDS or PG.

7 Review [Retinal vein occlusions]. 2017

Pierru, A / Girmens, J-F / Héron, E / Paques, M. ·Centre national d'ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France. Electronic address: alexpierru@gmail.com. · Centre national d'ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France. ·J Fr Ophtalmol · Pubmed #28916115.

ABSTRACT: Retinal venous occlusions comprise central retinal vein occlusion, hemiretinal vein occlusions, and branch retinal vein occlusions. They are associated with arterial hypertension and glaucoma. Retinal vein occlusions occur more frequently in males, at a median age of 55. The pathogenesis of retinal venous occlusions remains obscure. The clinical presentation of the disease is variable. In most cases, there is a unilateral visual loss over days with a painless, white and quiet eye. However, retinal venous occlusions may also present as an abrupt and profound loss of vision, or be asymptomatic. The course of the disease may be chronic, often with exacerbations. The most severe complication is the onset of extensive capillary non-perfusion, with a high risk of neovascular glaucoma. The most frequent complication is macular edema due to breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier, which can originate from the macula itself and/or from the disc. The treatment is symptomatic. Retinal venous occlusions may resolve either because of the recanalization of the affected vein, or because of the establishment of an efficient collateral circulation. Intravitreal anti-VEGF antibodies or steroids may transiently improve vision, as well as laser photocoagulation, focused or not on macroaneurysms. Visual sequelae are frequent.

8 Review [Ophthalmology in 2016 : the advent of ocular biomarkers]. 2017

Matet, Alexandre / Daruich, Alejandra / Behar-Cohen, Francine. ·Université de Lausanne, Département d'ophtalmologie, Fondation Asile des aveugles, Hôpital ophtalmique Jules-Gonin, 1011 Lausanne. · INSERM UMR 1138, Université Paris Descartes, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, 15, rue de l'Ecole de médecine, 75006 Paris, France. ·Rev Med Suisse · Pubmed #28703544.

ABSTRACT: Precision medicine is the future. In all fields of medicine, optimized therapy aims at identifying individuals at risks in order to prevent diseases, to identify specific molecular targets in a specific patient, at a specific time, to administer optimized treatment with less side effects. To achieve this ambitious aim, biomarkers, which should be specific and sensitive predictive indicators of diseases, or of response to treatment or of a state of evolution of the disease, must be identified. The eye offers an easy access organ to collect directly media or tissue, which can serve to identify such markers. This paper summarizes recent advances in the identification of ocular biomarkers of ocular diseases but also of brain diseases.

9 Review Glaucoma. 2017

Jonas, Jost B / Aung, Tin / Bourne, Rupert R / Bron, Alain M / Ritch, Robert / Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra. ·Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address: jost.jonas@medma.uni-heidelberg.de. · Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore; Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. · Vision and Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. · Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Dijon, France; Eye and Nutrition Research Group, Bourgogne Franche-Comté University, Dijon, France. · Einhorn Clinical Research Center, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. ·Lancet · Pubmed #28577860.

ABSTRACT: Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by cupping of the optic nerve head and visual-field damage. It is the most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Progression usually stops if the intraocular pressure is lowered by 30-50% from baseline. Its worldwide age-standardised prevalence in the population aged 40 years or older is about 3·5%. Chronic forms of glaucoma are painless and symptomatic visual-field defects occur late. Early detection by ophthalmological examination is mandatory. Risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma-the most common form of glaucoma-include older age, elevated intraocular pressure, sub-Saharan African ethnic origin, positive family history, and high myopia. Older age, hyperopia, and east Asian ethnic origin are the main risk factors for primary angle-closure glaucoma. Glaucoma is diagnosed using ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, and perimetry. Treatment to lower intraocular pressure is based on topical drugs, laser therapy, and surgical intervention if other therapeutic modalities fail to prevent progression.

10 Review Ocular Surface and External Filtration Surgery: Mutual Relationships. 2017

Baudouin, Christophe. ·Department of Ophthalmology III, Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University Paris 06, INSERM, CNRS, Institut de la Vision, Paris, and University of Versailles, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France. ·Dev Ophthalmol · Pubmed #28442688.

ABSTRACT: There is a large body of evidence from clinical and experimental studies indicating that the long-term use of topical drugs may induce ocular surface changes, causing ocular discomfort, dry eye, conjunctival inflammation, subconjunctival fibrosis, corneal surface impairment, and, as a consequence of chronic ocular surface changes, the potential risk of failure for further glaucoma surgery. Subclinical inflammation has also been widely described in patients receiving antiglaucoma treatments for long periods of time, with inflammatory cell infiltration and fibroblast activation in the conjunctiva and subconjunctival space. Preservatives, especially benzalkonium chloride, which has consistently demonstrated its toxic effects in laboratory, experimental, and clinical studies, could induce or enhance such inflammatory changes, and has been recently confirmed as a direct risk factor of surgical failure. As a quaternary ammonium, this compound causes tear film instability, loss of goblet cells, conjunctival squamous metaplasia and apoptosis, disruption of the corneal epithelium barrier, corneal nerve impairment, chronic inflammation and potential damage to deeper ocular tissues. Drug-induced adverse effects are therefore far from restricted to only allergic reactions, but they are often very difficult to identify because they mostly occur in a delayed or poorly specific manner, and result from complex and multifactorial interactions between the drugs and the ocular surface. Postoperatively, the ocular surface also plays an important role, as the conjunctiva interacts with aqueous humor and subconjunctival fibrosis may block aqueous outflow and cause surgical failure. As preoperative inflammation underlies postoperative fibrosis and therefore surgical outcome, a better knowledge of ocular surface changes with appropriate evaluation and management should thus become a new paradigm in glaucoma care over the long term.

11 Review The development of a micro-shunt made from poly(styrene-block-isobutylene-block-styrene) to treat glaucoma. 2017

Pinchuk, Leonard / Riss, Isabelle / Batlle, Juan F / Kato, Yasushi P / Martin, John B / Arrieta, Esdras / Palmberg, Paul / Parrish, Richard K / Weber, Bruce A / Kwon, Yongmoon / Parel, Jean-Marie. ·InnFocus, Inc., Miami, Florida. · Ophthalmic Biophysics Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida. · Pôle Ophtalmologique de la Clinique Mutualiste, Pessac, Cedex, France. · Centro Laser, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. · Anne Bates Leach Eye Hospital, Miami, Florida. · Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida. · Department of Ophthalmology, University of Paris Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Paris, France. ·J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater · Pubmed #26380916.

ABSTRACT: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness with ∼70 million people worldwide who are blind from this disease. The currently practiced trabeculectomy surgery, the gold standard treatment used to stop the progression of vision loss, is rather draconian, traumatic to the patient and requires much surgical skill to perform. This article summarizes the more than 10-year development path of a novel device called the InnFocus MicroShunt®, which is a minimally invasive glaucoma drainage micro-tube used to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye to a flap formed under the conjunctiva and Tenon's Capsule. The safety and clinical performance of this device approaches that of trabeculectomy. The impetus to develop this device stemmed from the invention of a new biomaterial called poly(styrene-block-isobutylene-block-styrene), or "SIBS." SIBS is ultra-stable with virtually no foreign body reaction in the body, which manifests in the eye as clinically insignificant inflammation and capsule formation. The quest for an easier, safer, and more effective method of treating glaucoma led to the marriage of SIBS with this glaucoma drainage micro-tube. This article summarizes the development of SIBS and the subsequent three iterations of design and four clinical trials that drove the one-year qualified success rate of the device from 43% to 100%. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 211-221, 2017.

12 Review Oxidative and Anti-Oxidative Stress Markers in Chronic Glaucoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 2016

Benoist d'Azy, Cédric / Pereira, Bruno / Chiambaretta, Frédéric / Dutheil, Frédéric. ·University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand (CHU), Ophthalmology, Clermont-Ferrand, France. · University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand (CHU), Preventive and Occupational Medicine, Clermont-Ferrand, France. · University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand (CHU), Clinical Research Direction, Clermont-Ferrand, France. · CNRS Physiological and Psychosocial Stress, LAPSCO, University Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France. · Australian Catholic University, Faculty of Health, School of Exercise Science, Melbourne, Australia. · University Clermont Auvergne, Laboratory of Metabolic Adaptations to Exercise in Physiological and Pathological conditions EA3533, Clermont-Ferrand, France. · Research Centre in Human Nutrition (CRNH) Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #27907028.

ABSTRACT: Chronic glaucoma is a multifactorial disease among which oxidative stress may play a major pathophysiological role. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the levels of oxidative and antioxidative stress markers in chronic glaucoma compared with a control group. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct databases were searched for studies reporting oxidative and antioxidative stress markers in chronic glaucoma and in healthy controls using the following keywords: "oxidative stress" or "oxidant stress" or "nitrative stress" or "oxidative damage" or "nitrative damage" or "antioxidative stress" or "antioxidant stress" or "antinitrative stress" and "glaucoma". We stratified our meta-analysis on the type of biomarkers, the type of glaucoma, and the origin of the sample (serum or aqueous humor). We included 22 case-control studies with a total of 2913 patients: 1614 with glaucoma and 1319 healthy controls. We included 12 studies in the meta-analysis on oxidative stress markers and 19 on antioxidative stress markers. We demonstrated an overall increase in oxidative stress markers in glaucoma (effect size = 1.64; 95%CI 1.20-2.09), ranging from an effect size of 1.29 in serum (95%CI 0.84-1.74) to 2.62 in aqueous humor (95%CI 1.60-3.65). Despite a decrease in antioxidative stress marker in serum (effect size = -0.41; 95%CI -0.72 to -0.11), some increased in aqueous humor (superoxide dismutase, effect size = 3.53; 95%CI 1.20-5.85 and glutathione peroxidase, effect size = 6.60; 95%CI 3.88-9.31). The differences in the serum levels of oxidative stress markers between glaucoma patients and controls were significantly higher in primary open angle glaucoma vs primary angle closed glaucoma (effect size = 12.7; 95%CI 8.78-16.6, P < 0.001), and higher in pseudo-exfoliative glaucoma vs primary angle closed glaucoma (effect size = 12.2; 95%CI 8.96-15.5, P < 0.001). In conclusion, oxidative stress increased in glaucoma, both in serum and aqueous humor. Malonyldialdehyde seemed the best biomarkers of oxidative stress in serum. The increase of some antioxidant markers could be a protective response of the eye against oxidative stress.

13 Review 24-h monitoring devices and nyctohemeral rhythms of intraocular pressure. 2016

Aptel, Florent / Weinreb, Robert N / Chiquet, Christophe / Mansouri, Kaweh. ·Inserm U1042, Hypoxia and Physiopathology Laboratory, University Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France; Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, CHU Grenoble, Grenoble, France. · Hamilton Glaucoma Center, Shiley Eye Center and Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. · Glaucoma Center, Montchoisi Clinic, Swiss Vision Network, Lausanne, Switzerland; Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO, USA. Electronic address: kawehm@yahoo.com. ·Prog Retin Eye Res · Pubmed #27477112.

ABSTRACT: Intraocular pressure (IOP) is not a fixed value and varies over both the short term and periods lasting several months or years. In particular, IOP is known to vary throughout the 24-h period of a day, defined as a nyctohemeral rhythm in humans. In clinical practice, it is crucial to evaluate the changes in IOP over 24 h in several situations, including the diagnosis of ocular hypertension and glaucoma (IOP is often higher at night) and to optimize the therapeutic management of glaucoma. Until recently, all evaluations of 24-h IOP rhythm were performed using repeated IOP measurements, requiring individuals to be awakened for nocturnal measurements. This method may be imperfect, because it is not physiologic and disturbs the sleep architecture, and also because it provides a limited number of time point measurements not sufficient to finely asses IOP changes. These limitations may have biased previous descriptions of physiological IOP rhythm. Recently, extraocular and intraocular devices integrating a pressure sensor for continuous IOP monitoring have been developed and are available for use in humans. The objective of this article is to present the contributions of these new 24-h monitoring devices for the study of the nyctohemeral rhythms. In healthy subjects and untreated glaucoma subjects, a nyctohemeral rhythm is consistently found and frequently characterized by a mean diurnal IOP lower than the mean nocturnal IOP, with a diurnal bathyphase - usually in the middle or at the end of the afternoon - and a nocturnal acrophase, usually in the middle or at the end of the night.

14 Review Human TBK1: A Gatekeeper of Neuroinflammation. 2016

Ahmad, Liyana / Zhang, Shen-Ying / Casanova, Jean-Laurent / Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa. ·Department of Virology, Division of Medicine, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1 PG, UK. · St Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA; Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM U1163, Paris, France; University of Paris Descartes, Imagine Institute, Paris, France. · St Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA; Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM U1163, Paris, France; University of Paris Descartes, Imagine Institute, Paris, France; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, NY, USA; Pediatric Hematology and Immunology Unit, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France. · Department of Virology, Division of Medicine, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1 PG, UK; Department of Pediatrics, Division of Medicine, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1 PG, UK. Electronic address: v.sancho-shimizu@imperial.ac.uk. ·Trends Mol Med · Pubmed #27211305.

ABSTRACT: The importance of TANK binding kinase-1 (TBK1), a multimeric kinase that modulates inflammation and autophagy, in human health has been highlighted for the first time by the recent discoveries of mutations in TBK1 that underlie amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), normal tension glaucoma (NTG) or childhood herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Gain-of-function of TBK1 are associated with NTG, whereas loss-of-function mutations result in ALS/FTD or in HSE. In light of these new findings, we review the role of TBK1 in these seemingly unrelated, yet allelic diseases, and discuss the role of TBK1 in neuroinflammatory diseases. This discovery has the potential to significantly increase our understanding of the molecular basis of these poorly understood diseases.

15 Review Regulation of TBK1 activity by Optineurin contributes to cell cycle-dependent expression of the interferon pathway. 2016

Weil, Robert / Laplantine, Emmanuel / Génin, Pierre. ·Institut Pasteur, Signaling and Pathogenesis Laboratory, CNRS UMR 3691, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France. · Institut Pasteur, Signaling and Pathogenesis Laboratory, CNRS UMR 3691, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France. Electronic address: pierre.genin@pasteur.fr. ·Cytokine Growth Factor Rev · Pubmed #26976762.

ABSTRACT: The innate immune system has evolved to detect and neutralize viral invasions. Triggering of this defense mechanism relies on the production and secretion of soluble factors that stimulate intracellular antiviral defense mechanisms. The Tank Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) is a serine/threonine kinase in the innate immune signaling pathways including the antiviral response and the host defense against cytosolic infection by bacteries. Given the critical roles of TBK1, important regulatory mechanisms are required to regulate its activity. Among these, Optineurin (Optn) was shown to negatively regulate the interferon response, in addition to its important role in membrane trafficking, protein secretion, autophagy and cell division. As Optn does not carry any enzymatic activity, its functions depend on its precise subcellular localization and its interaction with other proteins, especially with components of the innate immune pathway. This review highlights advances in our understanding of Optn mechanisms of action with focus on the relationships between Optn and TBK1 and their implication in host defense against pathogens. Specifically, how the antiviral immune system is controlled during the cell cycle by the Optn/TBK1 axis and the physiological consequences of this regulatory mechanism are described. This review may serve to a better understanding of the relationships between the different functions of Optn, including those related to immune responses and its associated pathologies such as primary open-angle glaucoma, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Paget's disease of bone.

16 Review Autoregulation and neurovascular coupling in the optic nerve head. 2016

Prada, Daniele / Harris, Alon / Guidoboni, Giovanna / Siesky, Brent / Huang, Amelia M / Arciero, Julia. ·Department of Mathematical Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Electronic address: dprada@iupui.edu. · Department of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. · Department of Mathematical Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; LabEx IRMIA, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, Alsace, France. · Department of Mathematical Sciences, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. ·Surv Ophthalmol · Pubmed #26498862.

ABSTRACT: Impairments of autoregulation and neurovascular coupling in the optic nerve head play a critical role in ocular pathologies, especially glaucomatous optic neuropathy. We critically review the literature in the field, integrating results obtained in clinical, experimental, and theoretical studies. We address the mechanisms of autoregulation and neurovascular coupling in the optic nerve head, the current methods used to assess autoregulation--including measurements of optic nerve head blood flow (or volume and velocity)--blood flow data collected in the optic nerve head as pressure or metabolic demand is varied in healthy and pathologic conditions, and the current status and potential of mathematical modeling work to further the understanding of the relationship between ocular blood flow mechanisms and diseases such as glaucoma.

17 Review [Vascular factors in glaucoma]. 2015

Mottet, B / Aptel, F / Geiser, M / Romanet, J P / Chiquet, C. ·Université Joseph-Fourier - Grenoble 1, 38041 Grenoble, France; Clinique universitaire d'ophtalmologie, CHU de Grenoble, 38043 Grenoble, France. · Université Joseph-Fourier - Grenoble 1, 38041 Grenoble, France; Clinique universitaire d'ophtalmologie, CHU de Grenoble, 38043 Grenoble, France; Inserm U1042, hypoxie et physiopathologie, 38043 Grenoble cedex 9, France. · Département d'optique, HES-SO, haute école valaisanne, Sion, Suisse. · Université Joseph-Fourier - Grenoble 1, 38041 Grenoble, France; Clinique universitaire d'ophtalmologie, CHU de Grenoble, 38043 Grenoble, France; Inserm U1042, hypoxie et physiopathologie, 38043 Grenoble cedex 9, France. Electronic address: cchiquet@chu-grenoble.fr. ·J Fr Ophtalmol · Pubmed #26597554.

ABSTRACT: The exact pathophysiology of glaucoma is not fully understood. Understanding of the vascular pathophysiology of glaucoma requires: knowing the techniques for measuring ocular blood flow and characterizing the topography of vascular disease and the mechanisms involved in this neuropathy. A decreased mean ocular perfusion pressure and a loss of vascular autoregulation are implicated in glaucomatous disease. Early decrease in ocular blood flow has been identified in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal pressure glaucoma, contributing to the progression of optic neuropathy. The vascular damage associated with glaucoma is present in various vascular territories within the eye (from the ophthalmic artery to the retina) and is characterized by a decrease in basal blood flow associated with a dysfunction of vasoregulation.

18 Review Rho Kinases in Health and Disease: From Basic Science to Translational Research. 2015

Loirand, Gervaise. ·Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale UMR1087, Université de Nantes, CHU Nantes, l'institut du thorax, Nantes, France gervaise.loirand@univ-nantes.fr. ·Pharmacol Rev · Pubmed #26419448.

ABSTRACT: Rho-associated kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2 are key regulators of actin cytoskeleton dynamics downstream of Rho GTPases that participate in the control of important physiologic functions, S including cell contraction, migration, proliferation, adhesion, and inflammation. Several excellent review articles dealing with ROCK function and regulation have been published over the past few years. Although a brief overview of general molecular, biochemical, and functional properties of ROCKs is included, an effort has been made to produce an original work by collecting and synthesizing recent studies aimed at translating basic discoveries from cell and experimental models into knowledge of human physiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, and medical therapeutics. This review points out the specificity and distinct roles of ROCK1 and ROCK2 isoforms highlighted in the last few years. Results obtained from genetically modified mice and genetic analysis in humans are discussed. This review also addresses the involvement of ROCKs in human diseases and the potential use of ROCK activity as a biomarker or a pharmacological target for specific inhibitors.

19 Review The measurement of bulbar hyperemia: challenges and pitfalls. 2015

Baudouin, Christophe / Barton, Keith / Cucherat, Michele / Traverso, Carlo. ·1 Quinze-Vingts National Hospital and Vision Institute, University Paris 6, Paris - France. ·Eur J Ophthalmol · Pubmed #26069220.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To review methods of assessing bulbar redness, particularly with respect to the practicality of comparing different rating systems. METHODS: The published literature was reviewed and discussed by a panel of experts and a narrative review prepared. RESULTS: Bulbar hyperemia is a common clinical sign and an important indicator of ocular disease. As bulbar hyperemia is a frequent side effect of topical glaucoma medications, accurate objective measurement is important to allow comparison of clinical studies. A number of different measurement systems have evolved to allow quantification of subjectively assessed redness to be rendered into a form that allows between-treatment comparisons and longitudinal changes in both clinical research and practice. Whereas widespread use of image-based rating scales has improved the assessment of bulbar redness in clinical practice and clinical research, these techniques are less than ideal. The scales are subject to an intrinsic subjectivity and are suboptimal in differentiating the physiologic phenomenon of bulbar hyperemia. There is also a degree of interobserver and intraobserver variation; in some studies, average variation in scores exceed half the extent of the whole scale. Moreover, a lack of interscale validation has led to confusion in comparing the results from clinical studies that use different scales. In a recent series of studies, cross-calibration between the various scales in use has been attempted. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas naive comparisons between the results obtained in studies using different bulbar redness scales can lead to erroneous conclusions, the tools exist to permit meaningful comparisons between rating systems and scales.

20 Review [Retinal and trabecular degeneration in glaucoma: new insights into pathogenesis and treatment]. 2015

Denoyer, A / Roubeix, C / Sapienza, A / Réaux-Le Goazigo, A / Mélik-Parsadaniantz, S / Baudouin, C. ·Centre hospitalier national d'ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingt, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France; Inserm CIC 503, centre d'investigation clinique, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France; Inserm U968, UPMC UMRS 968, CNRS UMR 7210, institut de la Vision, 17, rue Moreau, 75012 Paris, France. Electronic address: alexandre.denoyer@gmail.com. · Inserm U968, UPMC UMRS 968, CNRS UMR 7210, institut de la Vision, 17, rue Moreau, 75012 Paris, France. · Centre hospitalier national d'ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingt, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France; Inserm CIC 503, centre d'investigation clinique, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France; Inserm U968, UPMC UMRS 968, CNRS UMR 7210, institut de la Vision, 17, rue Moreau, 75012 Paris, France; Hôpital Ambroise-Paré, AP-HP, université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 9, avenue Charles-de-Gaulle, 92104 Boulogne-Billancourt, France. ·J Fr Ophtalmol · Pubmed #25659482.

ABSTRACT: Academic and industrial research has brought new insights into the pathogenesis of glaucoma, aiming at identifying and targeting specific mechanisms to improve our current therapeutic strategy. Retinal neurodegeneration is still the main focus, whether in terms of extrinsic factors such as neurotrophin deprivation, glutamate toxicity, vascular deficiency and neuro-inflammation from glial cells, or in terms of retinal ganglion cell intrinsic sensibility to proapoptotic signals. However, glaucoma is not solely a retinal disease but also involves retinal and trabecular meshwork degeneration, extending into and/or even originating from the brain. The present review summarizes our current knowledge of key mechanisms involved in glaucoma degeneration, focusing on the direction of current research towards the future of glaucoma therapy.

21 Review [Acanthamoeba keratitis]. 2014

Bouheraoua, N / Labbé, A / Chaumeil, C / Liang, Q / Laroche, L / Borderie, V. ·Service d'ophtalmologie 5, Centre hospitalier national d'ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France; Inserm, U968, UPMC Paris VI, UMR S 968, CNRS, UMR 7210, institut de la vision, 17, rue Moreau, 75012 Paris, France. Electronic address: nacim.bouheraoua@gmail.com. · Inserm, U968, UPMC Paris VI, UMR S 968, CNRS, UMR 7210, institut de la vision, 17, rue Moreau, 75012 Paris, France; Service d'ophtalmologie 3, Centre hospitalier national d'ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France; Service d'ophtalmologie, hôpital Ambroise-Paré, AP-HP, DHU View maintain, 9, avenue Charles-de-Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt, France. · Service de biologie médicale, Centre hospitalier national d'ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France. · Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing TongRen Eye Center, Beijing TongRen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, Chine. · Service d'ophtalmologie 5, Centre hospitalier national d'ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, 28, rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France; Inserm, U968, UPMC Paris VI, UMR S 968, CNRS, UMR 7210, institut de la vision, 17, rue Moreau, 75012 Paris, France. ·J Fr Ophtalmol · Pubmed #25169145.

ABSTRACT: Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy are key elements for a good prognosis in Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). AK should be considered in any case of corneal trauma complicated by exposure to soil or contaminated water, and in all contact lens (CL) wearers. A presumptive diagnosis of AK can be made clinically and with in vivo confocal microscopy, although a definitive diagnosis requires identification of Acanthamoeba on direct scraping, histology, or identification of Acanthamoeba DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We use cysticidal drugs for treating AK because encysted forms are more resistant than trophozoites to treatment. The treatment protocol used a biguanide (PHMB 0.02% or chlorhexidine 0.02%) and a diamidine (propamidine 0.1% or hexamidine 0.1%). New diagnostic modalities and more specific topical anti-amoebic treatments would substantially benefit patients with AK.

22 Review Plasmalogens in the retina: from occurrence in retinal cell membranes to potential involvement in pathophysiology of retinal diseases. 2014

Saab, Sarah / Mazzocco, Julie / Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P / Bron, Alain M / Bretillon, Lionel / Acar, Niyazi. ·CNRS, UMR6265 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, F-21000 Dijon, France; INRA, UMR1324 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, F-21000 Dijon, France; Université de Bourgogne, UMR Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, F-21000 Dijon, France. · CNRS, UMR6265 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, F-21000 Dijon, France; INRA, UMR1324 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, F-21000 Dijon, France; Université de Bourgogne, UMR Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, F-21000 Dijon, France; Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, F-21000 Dijon, France. · CNRS, UMR6265 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, F-21000 Dijon, France; INRA, UMR1324 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, F-21000 Dijon, France; Université de Bourgogne, UMR Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, F-21000 Dijon, France. Electronic address: acar@dijon.inra.fr. ·Biochimie · Pubmed #25127660.

ABSTRACT: Plasmalogens (Pls) represent a specific subclass of glycerophospholipids characterized by the presence of a vinyl-ether bond at the sn-1 position of glycerol. Pls are quantitatively important in membranes of neuronal tissues, including the brain and the retina, where they can represent until almost two-third of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids. They are considered as reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as several studies have shown that arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids are preferentially esterified on Pls when compared to other glycerophospholipids. Reduced levels of Pls were observed in a number of neurodegenerative disorders such as glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. In a mouse model of Pls deficiency, "glaucoma-like" optic nerve abnormalities were observed as well as developmental defects in the eye. These included microphthalmia, dysgenesis of the anterior segment of the eye, and abnormalities in retinal vessel architecture. Several data from animal and in vitro studies suggest that Pls may be involved in the regulation of retinal vascular development through the release of polyunsaturated fatty acids by a calcium-independent phospholipase A2.

23 Review Long-term outcomes and risk factors for failure with the EX-press glaucoma drainage device. 2014

Mariotti, C / Dahan, E / Nicolai, M / Levitz, L / Bouee, S. ·Università Politecnica delle Marche, Clinica Oculistica, Ancona, Italy. · Department of Ophthalmology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. · Cemka-Eval, Bourg la Reine, France. ·Eye (Lond) · Pubmed #24232313.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To report on the long-term outcomes and risk factors for failure with the EX-PRESS shunt implanted under a scleral flap. SETTINGS: Eye Department, University of Ancona, Ancona, Italy and the Oxford Eye Center, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. METHODS: The medical records of glaucoma patients who underwent consecutive EX-PRESS implantations under a scleral flap between 2000 and 2009 were reviewed. The operations were performed by two experienced surgeons using an identical surgical technique. The potential risk factors for failure that were analysed included age, sex, race, glaucoma type, previous antiglaucoma medications, previous glaucoma surgeries, diabetes, and smoking. Complete success was defined as postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) 5 mm Hg>IOP<18 mm Hg without antiglaucoma medications. Qualified success was defined as 5 mm Hg>IOP<18 mm Hg with or without antiglaucoma medications. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-eight eyes of 211 consecutive patients were included. The mean IOP was reduced from 27.63 ± 8.26 mm Hg preoperatively (n=248) to 13.95 ± 2.70 mm Hg at 5 years (n=95). The mean follow-up was 3.46 ± 1.76 years. Complete and qualified success rates decreased gradually from 83% and 85% at 1 year to 57% and 63% at 5 years follow-up, respectively. The risk factors for failure were diabetes, non-Caucasian race, and previous glaucoma surgery. Complete success rates of diabetic patients and non-Caucasian patients decreased from 63% and 75% at 1 year to 42% and 40% at 5 years follow-up, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: EX-PRESS success rates decrease over time but compare favourably with trabeculectomy literature data. The main identifiable risk factors for failure are diabetes, non-Caucasian race, and previous glaucoma surgery.

24 Review [Ocular involvement in familial amyloid polyneuropathy]. 2013

Rousseau, A / Kaswin, G / Adams, D / Cauquil, C / Théaudin, M / Mincheva, Z / M'garrech, M / Labetoulle, M / Barreau, E. ·Service d'ophtalmologie, université Paris-Sud, centre hospitalier universitaire de Bicêtre, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 78, rue du Général-Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; Centre de référence des maladies rares NNERF (neuropathies amyloïdes familiales et autres neuropathies périphériques rares), université Paris-Sud, centre hospitalier universitaire de Bicêtre, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 78, rue du Général-Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. Electronic address: arousseau1010@gmail.com. ·J Fr Ophtalmol · Pubmed #24144522.

ABSTRACT: Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) or transthyretin (TTR) amyloid polyneuropathy is a progressive sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy of adult onset, which is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. In addition to neurologic symptoms, FAP may be associated with weight loss, cardiac and renal failure and ocular complications. FAP is a devastating disease, causing death within 10years after the first symptoms. The TTR Val30Met mutation is the most common of more than 100 amyloidogenic mutations identified worldwide. Liver transplantation (LT) is currently the only treatment for preventing synthesis of the amyloidogenic variants of TTR. LT can halt progression of the neuropathy in up to 70% of cases and doubles the overall median survival of young Val30Met patients. Oral administration of tafamidis, which prevents deposition of mutated TTR, is now available to delay neurologic complications in early stages of the disease. Ocular manifestations of FAP are frequent and mainly include keratoconjunctivitis sicca, secondary glaucoma, vitreous deposits and pupillary abnormalities. Retinal and choroidal vascular abnormalities are more rare. Since ocular TTR is synthesized, at least in part, in the retinal pigment epithelium, LT does not influence the course of ocular involvement. The effects of tafamidis on the latter are still unknown. Because LT and symptomatic treatments greatly improve life expectancy of patients with FAP, ocular involvement is becoming a more frequent challenge to address. This review summarizes the pathophysiology, clinical findings and possible treatments of ocular manifestations of FAP.

25 Review [Glaucoma today: detection and therapeutic progress]. 2013

Baudouin, Christophe / Denoyer, Alexandre / Rostène, William. ·Centre Hospitalier National d'Ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, 28 rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France - Institut de la Vision, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, INSERM UMR S968, CNRS UMR 7210, 17 rue Moreau, 75012 Paris, France. ·Biol Aujourdhui · Pubmed #24103339.

ABSTRACT: Second leading cause of blindness worldwide, glaucoma is an optic neuropathy related mainly but not exclusively to an increase of intraocular pressure. Angle closure glaucoma is related to a blockade of aqueous humor to the trabecular meshwork, whereas open-angle glaucoma is a degeneration of the trabecular meshwork, the filter that allows aqueous outflow from the eye. Many improvements have been made in terms of diagnosis, follow-up and treatments, although the treatment of glaucoma is restricted to control intraocular pressure, in order to prevent optic nerve degeneration or to stop the progression of the disease toward blindness. The first line therapy is based on topical medications that are administered for the whole life span. Although globally efficient, these treatments, and most likely the preservative included in the excipient to prevent bottle contamination, induce side effects in the long-term that may impair the quality of life, patient compliance or directly induce ocular surface changes like inflammatory cytokine release, or tear film destruction, with further dry eye disease and chronic inflammation. A large body of evidence has been accumulated, showing that benzalkonium chloride, the preservative mainly used, is toxic over the long run and plays a role in such ocular surface impairment. Therefore efforts have been made in the last decade to eliminate or replace this compound, providing safer therapies to the patients. Furthermore, the identification of chemokines as playing a role in the trabecular degeneration has open new directions for treating glaucoma. The blockade of one receptor of CXCL12 has been experimentally shown not only to decrease intraocular pressure but also to prevent trabecular cell degeneration. This is an innovative concept that could allow development of new treatments, more specifically targeting the disease at its onset, rather than attempting to reduce its progression in its later stages.

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