Pick Topic
Review Topic
List Experts
Examine Expert
Save Expert
  Site Guide ··   
Glaucoma: HELP
Articles from Unspecified
Based on 513 articles published since 2008
||||

These are the 513 published articles about Glaucoma that originated from Unspecified during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Editorial Intraocular Pressure and Glaucoma. 2018

Twa, Michael D. ·Editor in Chief Optometry and Vision Science. ·Optom Vis Sci · Pubmed #29389709.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Glucocorticoid withdrawal in polymyalgia rheumatica: the theory versus the practice. 2017

Yates, Max / Watts, Richard A / Swords, Francesca / MacGregor, Alexander J. ·Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich; and Department of Rheumatology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, UK. m.yates@uea.ac.uk. · Department of Rheumatology, Ipswich Hospital, UK. · Department of Rheumatology and Deparment of Endocrinology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, UK. · Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich; and Department of Rheumatology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, UK. ·Clin Exp Rheumatol · Pubmed #28079505.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Editorial. 2016

Mihail, Zemba. ·Editor in Chief, Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology. ·Rom J Ophthalmol · Pubmed #29450322.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Optometry's role in managing patients with glaucoma. 2016

Gibson, Tony. ·Clinical optometrist, Eyecare Plus Mitcham, Victoria. ·Clin Exp Optom · Pubmed #26875848.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial What follows double episodes? 2015

Adams, Tony. ·Optometry and Vision Science. ·Optom Vis Sci · Pubmed #25906407.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Treating glaucoma: the not-so-nice guidance. 2014

Ackland, Daniel / Kumaran, Neruban / Zia, Rashid. ·William Harvey Hospital, Ashford, Kent, UK. ·Br J Ophthalmol · Pubmed #24352598.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial [Editor's commentary. Eye diseases amd ophthalmology]. 2013

Süveges, Ildikó. ·Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Szemészeti Klinika Budapest Mária u. 39. 1085. ·Orv Hetil · Pubmed #24374579.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Editorial [Conference of Romanian Glaucoma Society--International Glaucoma Conference, Sinaia, March 14-16, 2008]. 2008

Melinte-Dumitrica, Diana / Stefan, Cornel. ·Societatea Româna de glaucom ·Oftalmologia · Pubmed #19140299.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Review Progress in Gene Therapy to Prevent Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Glaucoma and Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. 2018

Ratican, Sara E / Osborne, Andrew / Martin, Keith R. ·John van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. · Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA. · Eye Department, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK. · Cambridge NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge, UK. · Wellcome Trust-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. ·Neural Plast · Pubmed #29853847.

ABSTRACT: The eye is at the forefront of the application of gene therapy techniques to medicine. In the United States, a gene therapy treatment for Leber's congenital amaurosis, a rare inherited retinal disease, recently became the first gene therapy to be approved by the FDA for the treatment of disease caused by mutations in a specific gene. Phase III clinical trials of gene therapy for other single-gene defect diseases of the retina and optic nerve are also currently underway. However, for optic nerve diseases not caused by single-gene defects, gene therapy strategies are likely to focus on slowing or preventing neuronal death through the expression of neuroprotective agents. In addition to these strategies, there has also been recent interest in the potential use of precise genome editing techniques to treat ocular disease. This review focuses on recent developments in gene therapy techniques for the treatment of glaucoma and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). We discuss recent successes in clinical trials for the treatment of LHON using gene supplementation therapy, promising neuroprotective strategies that have been employed in animal models of glaucoma and the potential use of genome editing techniques in treating optic nerve disease.

10 Review Assessing the role of ranibizumab in improving the outcome of glaucoma filtering surgery and neovascular glaucoma. 2018

Katsanos, Andreas / Gorgoli, Kostantina / Mikropoulos, Dimitrios G / Arranz-Marquez, Esther / Athanasopoulos, Georgios P / Teus, Miguel A / Konstas, Anastasios G P. ·a Ophthalmology Department , University of Ioannina , Ioannina , Greece. · b Sussex Eye Hospital , Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust , Brighton , UK. · c 3rd University Department of Ophthalmology , AHEPA Hospital , Thessaloniki , Greece. · d Clínica Novovisión , Madrid , Spain. · e Ophthalmology Department , Rey Juan Carlos Universitary Hospital , Móstoles, Madrid , Spain. · f 1st University Department of Ophthalmology , Aristotle University , Thessaloniki , Greece. · g Department of Ophthalmology , Hospital Universitario "Principe de Asturias", University of Alcalá , Alcalá de Henares , Spain. ·Expert Opin Biol Ther · Pubmed #29781319.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Ranibizumab was the first anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent approved for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The use of ranibizumab and other anti-VEGF medications in recent years has revolutionized the treatment of several sight-threatening retinal disorders. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that anti-VEGF treatment can offer advantages in the management of other ocular conditions where VEGFs play a key role: ocular scarring following glaucoma filtering surgery and neovascular glaucoma (NVG). Areas covered: We critically review available evidence on the use of ranibizumab as a wound healing modulator in glaucoma filtering surgery and as an adjunct in the management of NVG. Expert opinion: Based on the available evidence and the authors' clinical experience, ranibizumab is a valuable adjunct in the management of NVG. In glaucoma filtering surgery, however, the role of ranibizumab is less clear and does not provide a significant advantage over mitomycin C. Drawbacks for its use in glaucoma include cost, its off-label use, uncertainty and limited evidence on the various routes of administration, the optimal dosing schemes and its toxicity profile. Future advances in ranibizumab delivery systems allowing less frequent dosing may change this treatment paradigm.

11 Review Comparative cost evaluation of brand name and generic ophthalmology medications in Ontario. 2018

Popovic, Marko / Chan, Clara / Lattanzio, Nisha / El-Defrawy, Sherif / Schlenker, Matthew B. ·Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. · Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. · Outpatient Pharmacy, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ont. · Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. Electronic address: matt.schlenker@gmail.com. ·Can J Ophthalmol · Pubmed #29631831.

ABSTRACT: Medication cost for the same indication can vary considerably and can affect patient compliance. In this comparative cost analysis of commonly prescribed ophthalmology medications, the differences in cost between generic and brand name medications as well as different medications within an individual drug class were evaluated. Eye preparations from the Ontario Drug Benefit Formulary were identified, and further agents commonly prescribed by ophthalmologists were included. The standardized prescription drug cost, which includes the cost of the medication, mark-up, and dispensing cost, was provided by Ontario Shoppers Drug Mart stores in July 2016 for 103 common medications using typical dosages and durations. Based on medication class, the highest and lowest cost medications were antiallergy agents (Zaditor [ketotifen], Vasocon [naphazoline]), antibiotic ophthalmic solutions (Vigamox [moxifloxacin], generic ciprofloxacin), oral antibiotics (Cipro [ciprofloxacin], generic cephalexin), antibiotic ophthalmic ointments (generic erythromycin, Tobrex [tobramycin]), antiviral treatment (Valtrex [oral valacyclovir], Viroptic [topical trifluridine]), blepharitis treatment (Zithromax [oral azithromycin], generic oral tetracycline), beta-adrenergic inhibitors (Timoptic [topical timolol], generic topical timolol), topical prostaglandin analogues (Xalatan [latanoprost], generic travoprost), oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (methazolamide, acetazolamide), topical carbonic anhydrase solutions (Trusopt preservative-free [dorzolamide], Azopt [brinzolamide]), topical alpha-adrenergic agonists (Alphagan [brimonidine], generic brimonidine), topical muscarinic agonists (Isopto carpine [pilocarpine], Diocarpine [pilocarpine]), topical combination glaucoma agents (Cosopt [dorzolamide-timolol], generic dorzolamide-timolol), topical lubricants (Lacri-lube, Isopto tears), topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Acuvail [ketorolac], Ilevro [nepafenac]), and steroids (Durezol [difluprednate], Pred mild [prednisolone]). Substantial cost differences exist between ophthalmology medications of the same class. We encourage ophthalmologists to be aware of the associated costs of the medications they prescribe and to use this information in their decision making.

12 Review [Significance of Homocysteine in Glaucoma]. 2018

Jünemann, Anselm / Rejdak, Robert / Hohberger, Bettina. ·Universitätsaugenklinik, Universitätsmedizin Rostock, Rostock. · Tadeusz Krwawicz Chair of Ophthalmology, Medical University, Chmielna, Poland. · Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Augenklinik, Erlangen. ·Klin Monbl Augenheilkd · Pubmed #29448287.

ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction and vascular dysregulation play a role in the multifactorial pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma as well as secondary open-angle glaucoma in the pseudoexfoliation syndrome. This paper reviews the literature on the association between homocysteine metabolism and glaucomatous disease and explains the possible role of hyperhomocysteinemia in the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma. We discuss the role of exogenous modifiable risk factors for the prevention and therapy of glaucoma, as well as modification of these factors by changes in life style, such as weight reduction, changes in nutrition and physical activity. The roles of homocysteine in regulating the extracellular matrix, vasotoxicity, neurodegeneration, and epigenetics are explained. Prevention and therapy of glaucoma by regulation of homocysteine levels are discussed.

13 Review Changing patterns in treatment of angle closure glaucoma. 2018

Napier, Maria L / Azuara-Blanco, Augusto. ·Ophthalmology Department, Royal Victoria Hospital. · Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, UK. ·Curr Opin Ophthalmol · Pubmed #29194069.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Angle closure glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness globally and trends of how best to treat this disease are evolving. The advent of anterior segment imaging aids our understanding of pathogenesis and allows more robust and objective measurement of treatment modalities. We will also review recent literature regarding the role of laser and surgical interventions for the treatment of primary angle closure disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies evaluating the efficacy of laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in primary angle closure suspects (PACs) show that while it is a safe intervention and initially anterior chamber angle widens following the laser treatment, the effect is lost with time. Only a small minority of PACs patients develop primary angle closure (PAC) or primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). Trials evaluating argon laser peripheral iridoplasty (ALPI) have failed to show a substantial clinical benefit. In patients with early or moderate PACG and those with PAC with IOP over 30 mmHg, clear lens extraction is associated with better clinical and quality of life outcomes than LPI. SUMMARY: Recent evidence supports initial clear lens extraction in the context of PACG or primary angle closure with IOP more than 30 mmHg.

14 Review Adherence to topical treatment of glaucoma, risk and protective factors: A review. 2018

Vélez-Gómez, M C / Vásquez-Trespalacios, E M. ·Grupo de investigación Observatorio de la Salud Pública, Universidad CES, Medellín, Colombia. Electronic address: mavelezgo@gmail.com. · Grupo de investigación Observatorio de la Salud Pública, Universidad CES, Medellín, Colombia. ·Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol · Pubmed #29032867.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Glaucoma is a chronic asymptomatic disease, progressing to loss of vision. Elevated intraocular pressure is the only modifiable factor. Adherence to glaucoma treatment varies from 2-80%. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors associated with adherence to topical glaucoma treatment reported in the literature, and to identify protective factors and risk factors, as well as modifiable and non-modifiable factors, in order to take them into account to perform interventions in adherence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bibliographic search of articles published in the last 8 years in databases such as Clinical Key, Cochrane (OVID), EBSCO, Lilacs, PubMed and Science Direct, of different observational studies that performed a measurement of the treatment of glaucoma and to identify associated factors. RESULTS: A total of 7 studies were selected that directly and indirectly measured adherence to glaucoma treatment. Different risk and protective factors for adherence to treatment were found. These showed that African-American race, poor education, low personal income, and high treatment costs, are strongly related to poor adherence to treatment. It was also found that educational interventions and a good patient- physician relationship impacted positively on adherence. CONCLUSION: The results found are a guide for risk and protective factors for adherence to treatment of glaucoma. It is cost effective to educate patients to positively impact adherence. By identifying such factors, attention can be focused on poor adherence patients.

15 Review The role of phacoemulsification in glaucoma therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 2018

Masis, Marisse / Mineault, Patrick J / Phan, Eileen / Lin, Shan C. ·Department of Ophthalmology, Koret Vision Center, University of California, San Francisco Medical School, San Francisco, California, USA. · Independent Researcher. · Department of Ophthalmology, Koret Vision Center, University of California, San Francisco Medical School, San Francisco, California, USA. Electronic address: shan.lin@ucsf.edu. ·Surv Ophthalmol · Pubmed #28887138.

ABSTRACT: Cataract extraction is a safe and effective surgery that has been performed in its modern form for several decades. Many studies have noted that cataract extraction could also have a clinically significant role in the control of comorbid glaucoma. Lens extraction decreases the pressure within the eye, and intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only controllable risk factor in glaucoma proven to be effective. A systematic analysis of current evidence is needed to establish strong practice patterns and identify areas where further research is required. We performed systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical data to estimate the net effect of cataract surgery on IOP. A total of 37 treatment arms from 32 different studies from January 1997 to January 2017 were included. IOP reduction was highly correlated across follow-up periods. For angle-closure glaucoma, results showed an IOP decrease of -6.4 mmHg (95% CI: -9.4 to -3.4) at final follow-up (12 months and longer). For the open-angle glaucoma group, there was an overall IOP change of -2.7 mmHg (95% CI -3.7 to -1.7) from baseline. For pseudoexfoliation glaucoma further research is needed to reach an adequate evidence-based conclusion. The influence of inherent sources of bias, including loss to follow-up, washout and medication use, and lack of a control group, was evaluated numerically. These sources of bias pulled the IOP estimate in opposite directions and are therefore unlikely to affect the main conclusions substantially. Future prospective clinical trials, including other outcomes such as quality of life, clinical severity information, and cost-effectiveness analysis, are needed to determine the role of phacoemulsification alone within the glaucoma treatment algorithm.

16 Review National and subnational prevalence and burden of glaucoma in China: A systematic analysis. 2017

Song, Peige / Wang, Jiawen / Bucan, Kajo / Theodoratou, Evropi / Rudan, Igor / Chan, Kit Yee. ·Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. · Institute of Medical Humanities, Peking University, Beijing, China. · Department of Ophthalmology, University of Split Hospital Centre, Split, Croatia. · Joint last authors. ·J Glob Health · Pubmed #29302324.

ABSTRACT: Background: Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness, affects approximately 64.3 million individuals worldwide. In China, demographic ageing is in rapid progress. Yet detailed and up-to-date estimates of the scale of glaucoma are rare. We aimed to quantify and understand the prevalence and burden of glaucoma in China from 1990 to 2015, with projections until 2050. Methods: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database (CBM-SinoMed), PubMed, Embase and Medline using comprehensive search strategies to identify all relevant articles that have reported the prevalence of glaucoma in the general Chinese population. We used a multilevel mixed-effect meta-regression to estimate the prevalence rates of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and a random-effects meta-analysis to pool the overall prevalence of secondary glaucoma. United Nations population data were used to estimate and project the number of people with glaucoma from 1990 to 2050. Univariable and multivariable meta-regressions were conducted to assess the association between the prevalence of POAG and PACG and relevant demographic and geographic factors. The national burden of POAG and PACG in the years 2000 and 2010 were distributed to six geographic regions accordingly. Results: From 1990 to 2015, the prevalence of all glaucoma ranged from 2.59% (95% CI = 1.96-3.49) to 2.58% (95% CI = 1.94-3.47). For different subtypes of glaucoma, the overall prevalence of POAG ranged from 1.03% (95% CI = 0.67-1.58) in 1990 to 1.02% (95% CI = 0.67-1.57) in 2015, PACG from 1.41% (95% CI = 1.18-1.68) to 1.40% (95% CI = 1.17-1.68). The overall prevalence of secondary glaucoma was 0.15% (95% CI = 0.10-0.23) during this period. The number of people with all glaucoma in China was 5.92 million (95% CI = 4.47-7.97) in 1990, and 13.12 million (95% CI = 9.88-17.68) in 2015. This increasing trend was also witnessed in different subtypes of glaucoma. The number of people affected by POAG increased from 2.35 million (95% CI = 1.54-3.60) in 1990 to 5.22 million (95% CI = 3.40-7.98) in 2015, PACG from 3.22 million (95% CI = 2.70-3.84) to 7.14 million (95% CI = 5.97-8.53), and secondary glaucoma from 0.34 million (95% CI = 0.23-0.53) to 0.76 million (95% CI = 0.51-1.17). In 2015, more than half (54.42%) of the glaucoma cases were PACG, followed by POAG (39.79%) and secondary glaucoma (5.79%). By 2050, the number of all glaucoma cases in China will be 25.16 million (95% CI = 18.96-33.86). In the multivariable meta-regressions, the odds ratio (OR) for each decade's increase in age was 1.43 (95% CI = 1.33-1.55) for POAG, and 1.65 (95% CI = 1.51-1.80) for PACG; males were more likely to have POAG (OR 1.36, 95% CI = 1.17-1.59), but less likely to have PACG (OR 0.53, 95% CI = 0.46-0.60) compared with females. After adjustment of age and gender, people living in urban areas were more likely to have POAG compared with those in rural areas (OR 1.54, 95% CI = 1.02-2.35). People in Northeast China were at a higher risk (OR 1.77, 95% CI = 1.07-2.94) of having PACG than people in East China. Among the six regions, East China owed the most POAG and PACG cases, whereas Northwest China owed the least. Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests a substantial burden of glaucoma in China, with great variances among the different age groups, genders, settings and geographic regions. With the dramatic ageing trend in the next three decades, the prevalence and burden of glaucoma will continue to increase. More elaborate epidemiological studies are needed to optimise public health strategies for mitigating this important health problem.

17 Review Global causes of blindness and distance vision impairment 1990-2020: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2017

Flaxman, Seth R / Bourne, Rupert R A / Resnikoff, Serge / Ackland, Peter / Braithwaite, Tasanee / Cicinelli, Maria V / Das, Aditi / Jonas, Jost B / Keeffe, Jill / Kempen, John H / Leasher, Janet / Limburg, Hans / Naidoo, Kovin / Pesudovs, Konrad / Silvester, Alex / Stevens, Gretchen A / Tahhan, Nina / Wong, Tien Y / Taylor, Hugh R / Anonymous15250923. ·Department of Mathematics and Data Science Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK. · Vision and Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address: rb@rupertbourne.co.uk. · Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia; School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia. · International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness, London, UK. · Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. · San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. · York Hospital, York, UK. · Department of Ophthalmology, Universitätsmedizin, Mannheim, Germany; Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany. · L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. · Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Discovery Eye Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; MyungSung Christian Medical Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA. · Health Information Services, Grootebroek, Netherlands. · Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia; African Vision Research Institute, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Glenwood, Durban, South Africa. · National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Clinical Eye Research, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia. · SpaMedica Research Institute, Bolton, UK. · Department of Information, Evidence and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. · Singapore Eye Research Institute, Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, National University of Singapore, Singapore. · Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. ·Lancet Glob Health · Pubmed #29032195.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Contemporary data for causes of vision impairment and blindness form an important basis of recommendations in public health policies. Refreshment of the Global Vision Database with recently published data sources permitted modelling of cause of vision loss data from 1990 to 2015, further disaggregation by cause, and forecasts to 2020. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analysed published and unpublished population-based data for the causes of vision impairment and blindness from 1980 to 2014. We identified population-based studies published before July 8, 2014, by searching online databases with no language restrictions (MEDLINE from Jan 1, 1946, and Embase from Jan 1, 1974, and the WHO Library Database). We fitted a series of regression models to estimate the proportion of moderate or severe vision impairment (defined as presenting visual acuity of <6/18 but ≥3/60 in the better eye) and blindness (presenting visual acuity of <3/60 in the better eye) by cause, age, region, and year. FINDINGS: We identified 288 studies of 3 983 541 participants contributing data from 98 countries. Among the global population with moderate or severe vision impairment in 2015 (216·6 million [80% uncertainty interval 98·5 million to 359·1 million]), the leading causes were uncorrected refractive error (116·3 million [49·4 million to 202·1 million]), cataract (52·6 million [18·2 million to 109·6 million]), age-related macular degeneration (8·4 million [0·9 million to 29·5 million]), glaucoma (4·0 million [0·6 million to 13·3 million]), and diabetic retinopathy (2·6 million [0·2 million to 9·9 million]). Among the global population who were blind in 2015 (36·0 million [12·9 million to 65·4 million]), the leading causes were cataract (12·6 million [3·4 million to 28·7 million]), uncorrected refractive error (7·4 million [2·4 million to 14·8 million]), and glaucoma (2·9 million [0·4 million to 9·9 million]). By 2020, among the global population with moderate or severe vision impairment (237·1 million [101·5 million to 399·0 million]), the number of people affected by uncorrected refractive error is anticipated to rise to 127·7 million (51·0 million to 225·3 million), by cataract to 57·1 million (17·9 million to 124·1 million), by age-related macular degeneration to 8·8 million (0·8 million to 32·1 million), by glaucoma to 4·5 million (0·5 million to 15·4 million), and by diabetic retinopathy to 3·2 million (0·2 million to 12·9 million). By 2020, among the global population who are blind (38·5 million [13·2 million to 70·9 million]), the number of patients blind because of cataract is anticipated to rise to 13·4 million (3·3 million to 31·6 million), because of uncorrected refractive error to 8·0 million (2·5 million to 16·3 million), and because of glaucoma to 3·2 million (0·4 million to 11·0 million). Cataract and uncorrected refractive error combined contributed to 55% of blindness and 77% of vision impairment in adults aged 50 years and older in 2015. World regions varied markedly in the causes of blindness and vision impairment in this age group, with a low prevalence of cataract (<22% for blindness and 14·1-15·9% for vision impairment) and a high prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (>14% of blindness) as causes in the high-income subregions. Blindness and vision impairment at all ages in 2015 due to diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio 2·52 [1·48-3·73]) and cataract (1·21 [1·17-1·25]) were more common among women than among men, whereas blindness and vision impairment due to glaucoma (0·71 [0·57-0·86]) and corneal opacity (0·54 [0·43-0·66]) were more common among men than among women, with no sex difference related to age-related macular degeneration (0·91 [0·70-1·14]). INTERPRETATION: The number of people affected by the common causes of vision loss has increased substantially as the population increases and ages. Preventable vision loss due to cataract (reversible with surgery) and refractive error (reversible with spectacle correction) continue to cause most cases of blindness and moderate or severe vision impairment in adults aged 50 years and older. A large scale-up of eye care provision to cope with the increasing numbers is needed to address avoidable vision loss. FUNDING: Brien Holden Vision Institute.

18 Review [Laser Iridotomy - In Cases of Acute Angle Closure Only?] 2017

Handzel, Daniel M / Meyer, Carsten H / Wegener, Alfred. ·Augenheilkunde, Augenärzte im Altstadt-Carree, Fulda. · Augenklinik, Universität Bonn. · Augenheilkunde, Pallas Kliniken AG, Olten, Schweiz. ·Klin Monbl Augenheilkd · Pubmed #28470656.

ABSTRACT: The narrowing of the chamber angle-as a result of anatomic predispositions like high hyperopia or increasing lens thickness-poses the greatest risk for acute angle closure. A laser iridotomy counts as a standard procedure in cases of acute angle closure, whereas there are no coherent recommendations or guidelines for a prophylactic therapy. Modern imaging techniques, such as anterior segment optical coherence tomography or Scheimpflug photography, can give valuable information for the planning of treatment. This review presents traditional and modern imaging techniques and summarises recommendations for action in relation to recent publications.

19 Review [Can Anti-VEGF Injections Cause Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension?] 2017

Lanzl, I / Kotliar, K. ·Augen Tagesklinik, Chiemsee Augen Tagesklinik, Prien. · Medical Engineering and Technomathematics, FH Aachen - University of Applied Sciences, Jülich. ·Klin Monbl Augenheilkd · Pubmed #28226388.

ABSTRACT: An increasing number of patients receive intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections with a high frequency for the treatment of neovascular macular disease. Since the volume of the vitreous body is temporarily increased by the injection of the substances, a short-term intraocular pressure increase after the introduction of the substance is not uncommon. However, there are more and more reports indicating that multiple injections may lead to a long-term increase in intraocular pressure. This may also be the case in patients without a glaucoma history. In some cases, this pressure increase cannot be adequately treated with local pressure-reducing medication and requires an operative procedure in order to avoid glaucoma damage. This appears to be more common in products dispensed from broken bulk or after administration of bevacizumab. The mechanism leading to inflammation and/or a sustained increase in pressure is unknown. High molecular weight molecules present in the syringe, such as monomer antibodies, aggregated proteins, or silicone oil droplets from the syringe, may lead to inflammation in the trabecular meshwork or displacement thereof and a subsequent increase of the intraocular pressure. Avoiding silicone oil droplets in the syringes would be desirable. Intraocular pressure after intravitreal injections should also be monitored long term after the procedure.

20 Review [Sport and Glaucoma]. 2017

Rüfer, F. ·Augenheilkunde, Nordblick Augenklinik Bellevue, Kiel. ·Klin Monbl Augenheilkd · Pubmed #28086257.

ABSTRACT: Traumatic changes in the iridocorneal angle, e.g. in ball sports, can lead to secondary glaucoma. High intensity resistance exercise or yoga exercises - such as the headstand - can increase IOP, and deterioration in the visual field and acute narrow angle glaucoma attacks have been described in some case reports. Glaucoma therapy of professional athletes with steroids, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and beta-blockers can result in positive doping tests. In manifest glaucoma, moderate aerobic exercise is presumably of use because of the IOP lowering effect, improved retinal perfusion and reduction in oxidative stress.

21 Review Protecting retinal ganglion cells. 2017

Khatib, T Z / Martin, K R. ·Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. · Eye Department, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK. · Cambridge NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge, UK. · Wellcome Trust-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. ·Eye (Lond) · Pubmed #28085136.

ABSTRACT: Retinal ganglion cell degeneration underlies several conditions which give rise to significant visual compromise, including glaucoma, hereditary optic neuropathies, ischaemic optic neuropathies, and demyelinating disease. In this review, we discuss the emerging strategies for neuroprotection specifically in the context of glaucoma, including pharmacological neuroprotection, mesenchymal stem cells, and gene therapy approaches. We highlight potential pitfalls that need to be considered when developing these strategies and outline future directions, including the prospects for clinical trials.

22 Review Modifiable factors in the management of glaucoma: a systematic review of current evidence. 2017

Hecht, Idan / Achiron, Asaf / Man, Vitaly / Burgansky-Eliash, Zvia. ·Department of Ophthalmology, The Edith Wolfson Medical Center, 62 Halochamim St., Holon, Israel, 58100. idanhe@gmail.com. · Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. idanhe@gmail.com. · Department of Ophthalmology, The Edith Wolfson Medical Center, 62 Halochamim St., Holon, Israel, 58100. · Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. · Department of Ophthalmology, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel. ·Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol · Pubmed #27743157.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy affecting millions of people worldwide and represents a major public health issue. Environmental factors, behaviors, and diet are intimately related to patient health and may play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma. This study aims to review the literature, focusing on the last three years, regarding modifiable lifestyle interventions in the management of primary open angle glaucoma. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for studies published between January 2013 and July 2016 on the topic of lifestyle interventions in primary open angle glaucoma. RESULTS: Sleeping with the head elevated and avoiding the worst eye-dependent side during sleep may slightly lower intraocular pressure and reduce visual field loss. Some food supplements and moderate aerobic exercise may also reduce intraocular pressure up to 2.0 and 3.0 mmHg, respectively. Frequency of coffee intake may be associated with disease progression. Potential negative effects are associated with weight-lifting and yoga exercises. CONCLUSIONS: Certain lifestyle habits could influence glaucoma progression, yet no specific interventions are currently supported by robust evidence. Awareness of the possible influences of certain habits should help guide clinical advice and is important to help patients avoid adverse outcomes and take an active role in the management of their disease.

23 Review The importance of assessing corneal biomechanical properties in glaucoma patients care - a review. 2016

Dascalescu, Dana / Corbu, Catalina / Vasile, Potop / Iancu, Raluca / Cristea, Miruna / Ionescu, Catalina / Radu Constantin, Ciuluvica / Voinea, Liliana. ·Clinical Ophthalmology Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania. · UMF "Carol Davila" Bucuresti. ·Rom J Ophthalmol · Pubmed #29450353.

ABSTRACT:

24 Review Postoperative results of cosmetic iris implants. 2016

Galvis, Virgilio / Tello, Alejandro / Corrales, Maria I. ·From the Centro Oftalmológico Virgilio Galvis (Galvis, Tello, Corrales), Floridablanca and the Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga (Galvis, Tello), Bucaramanga, Colombia. · From the Centro Oftalmológico Virgilio Galvis (Galvis, Tello, Corrales), Floridablanca and the Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga (Galvis, Tello), Bucaramanga, Colombia. Electronic address: alejandrotello@gmail.com. ·J Cataract Refract Surg · Pubmed #27839608.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review was to evaluate the postoperative results of cosmetic iris implants. A systematic review of studies reporting postoperative outcomes of cosmetic iris implants identified 26 studies and 3 videos, comprising 128 eyes. In 88 (68.8%) of the eyes, the device required explantation due to complications. Secondary glaucoma occurred in 59 eyes, uveitis in 39 eyes, cataract in 22 eyes, and severe endothelial cell loss or corneal decompensation in 44 eyes. In 8 eyes, the final corrected distance visual acuity was counting fingers or worse. The review showed that cosmetic iris implants resulted in a substantial number of cases with severe complications. The finding strongly suggests that this cosmetic surgical technique should be avoided. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.

25 Review [Possibilities and limitations of eye drops for glaucoma therapy]. 2016

Lanzl, I M / Poimenidou, M / Spaeth, G L. ·Augenklinik, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, München, Deutschland. prof.lanzl@auge.bayern. · Chiemsee Augen Tagesklinik, Geigelsteinstr. 26, 83209, Prien, Deutschland. prof.lanzl@auge.bayern. · Chiemsee Augen Tagesklinik, Geigelsteinstr. 26, 83209, Prien, Deutschland. · Glaucoma Service, Wills Eye Hospital, 840 Walnut Street, 19107, Philadelphia, PA, USA. ·Ophthalmologe · Pubmed #27604586.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In Germany, chronic open-angle glaucoma is mostly treated by daily eye drop application. The possibilities and limitations of this form of therapy are presented. Reasons for the change in the selection of the preferred substances over time are also discussed and the limits of local drug therapy are described. OBJECTIVES: What effects can be expected of the available drugs? MATERIALS AND METHODS: The article provides a review of the literature from PubMed and clinical experience. RESULTS: In chronic open-angle glaucoma, eye drops containing a single agent can achieve an intraocular pressure decrease of 15-35 % compared to the initial pressure level. This is dependent on the substance and is achievable when used as directed. Difficulties in administration are often observed in older patients where regular use over extended periods of time is required. In addition, there are limits in the achievable pressure reduction by combining several active ingredients. Novel systems are being developed for future applications. The idea is to achieve a continuous slow release of the active substance by surgical application of a biodegradable carrier. CONCLUSION: A treatment regimen which is individually tailored to the individual patient's needs should be developed by the attending physician and the achievement of the set objectives should be monitored at regular intervals. However, restrictions induced by patients due to inadequate adherence or by the drug due to limited efficacy of the drug have to be considered. Therefore, eye drop therapy in open-angle glaucoma is not always sufficient. It should be supplemented in due time by laser or filtering surgery before the affected patients and their optic nerves suffer advanced glaucomatous damage.

Next