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Gout: HELP
Articles by Herbert S. B. Baraf
Based on 11 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, Herbert S. B. Baraf wrote the following 11 articles about Gout.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Guideline 2011 Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of gout and hyperuricemia. 2011

Hamburger, Max / Baraf, Herbert S B / Adamson, Thomas C / Basile, Jan / Bass, Lewis / Cole, Brent / Doghramji, Paul P / Guadagnoli, Germano A / Hamburger, Frances / Harford, Regine / Lieberman, Joseph A / Mandel, David R / Mandelbrot, Didier A / McClain, Bonny P / Mizuno, Eric / Morton, Allan H / Mount, David B / Pope, Richard S / Rosenthal, Kenneth G / Setoodeh, Katy / Skosey, John L / Edwards, N Lawrence / Anonymous4710712. ·Rheumatology Associates of Long Island, Melville, NY 11747, USA. mcapacious@aol.com ·Postgrad Med · Pubmed #22156509.

ABSTRACT: Gout is a major health problem in the United States; it affects 8.3 million people, which is approximately 4% of the adult population. Gout is most often diagnosed and managed in primary care physician practices. Primary care physicians have a significant opportunity to diagnose and manage patients with gout and improve patient outcomes. Following publication of the 2006 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) gout guidelines, significant evidence on gout has accumulated and new treatments for patients with gout have become available. It is the objective of these 2011 recommendations for the diagnosis and management of gout and hyperuricemia to update the 2006 EULAR guidelines, paying special attention to the needs of primary care physicians, who manage most patients with gout. The revised 2011 recommendations are based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach as an evidence-based strategy for rating quality of evidence and grading strength of recommendation in clinical practice. A total of 26 key recommendations for diagnosis (n = 10) and management (n = 16) were evaluated. Presence of tophus (proven or suspected) and response to colchicine had the highest clinical diagnostic value (likelihood ratio [LR], 15.56 [95% CI, 2.11-114.71] and LR, 4.33 [95% CI, 1.16-16.16], respectively). The key aspect of effective management of an acute gout attack is initiation of treatment within hours of onset of first symptoms. Low-dose colchicine is better tolerated than and is as effective as high-dose colchicine (number needed to treat [NNT], 5 [95% CI, 3-13] and NNT, 6 [95% CI, 3-72], respectively). For urate-lowering therapy, allopurinol in combination with probenecid was shown to be more effective than either agent alone (effect size [ES], 5.51 for combination; ES, 4.46 for probenecid; and ES, 2.80 for allopurinol). Febuxostat, also a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, has a slightly different mechanism of action and can be prescribed at unchanged doses for patients with mild-to-moderate renal or hepatic impairment. Febuxostat 40 mg versus 80 mg (NNT, 6 [95% CI, 4-11]) and 120 mg (NNT, 6 [95% CI, 3-26]) both demonstrated long-term efficacy. The target of urate-lowering therapy should be a serum uric acid level of ≤ 6 mg/dL. For patients with refractory and tophaceous gout, intravenous pegloticase is a new treatment option.

2 Review Infusion-related reactions with pegloticase, a recombinant uricase for the treatment of chronic gout refractory to conventional therapy. 2014

Baraf, Herbert S B / Yood, Robert A / Ottery, Faith D / Sundy, John S / Becker, Michael A. ·From the *Center for Rheumatology & Bone Research, Wheaton, MD; †Reliant Medical Group, Worcester, MA; ‡Savient Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Bridgewater, NJ; §Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; and ║The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. ·J Clin Rheumatol · Pubmed #25417679.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In clinical trials of pegloticase, a PEGylated uricase developed for treatment of gout refractory to conventional therapy, infusion-related reactions (IRs) were the second most frequent adverse event reported. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to provide a detailed account of IRs with pegloticase therapy. METHODS: Data from 2 replicate, 6-month randomized trials and an open-label extension study were pooled. Infusions of pegloticase (8 mg) were administered biweekly or monthly; all patients received prophylaxis (antihistamine, acetaminophen, and corticosteroid) and were tested for urate levels prior to each infusion. An IR was defined by protocol as any otherwise unexplained adverse event or cluster of temporally related events occurring during or within 2 hours of infusion. RESULTS: Infusion-related reactions occurred in 94 (45%) of 208 patients receiving pegloticase; 10 patients reported IRs at first infusion and 84 during subsequent infusions. Chest discomfort (15%), flushing (12%), and dyspnea (11%) were the most common symptoms. Most IRs were rated mild or moderate; 7% were rated severe. All IRs resolved with slowing, interrupting, or stopping the infusion. No patient required blood pressure or ventilatory support. Infusion-related reactions were associated with loss of pegloticase urate-lowering efficacy: 91% of all IRs occurred in patients with preinfusion serum uric acid concentrations (sUA) greater than 6 mg/dL. For patients sustaining preinfusion sUA of less than 6 mg/dL, IRs occurred in fewer than 1 per 100 infusions. CONCLUSIONS: Phase 3 trial data combined with post hoc analyses demonstrated that knowledge of sUA preceding each pegloticase infusion and cessation of therapy when urate-lowering efficacy is lost provide a means to optimize the safety of pegloticase in clinical practice.

3 Review 2011 recommendations for the diagnosis and management of gout and hyperuricemia. 2011

Hamburger, Max / Baraf, Herbert S B / Adamson, Thomas C / Basile, Jan / Bass, Lewis / Cole, Brent / Doghramji, Paul P / Guadagnoli, Germano A / Hamburger, Frances / Harford, Regine / Lieberman, Joseph A / Mandel, David R / Mandelbrot, Didier A / McClain, Bonny P / Mizuno, Eric / Morton, Allan H / Mount, David B / Pope, Richard S / Rosenthal, Kenneth G / Setoodeh, Katy / Skosey, John L / Edwards, N Lawrence. ·SUNY Stony Brook, NY, USA. mcapacious@aol.com ·Phys Sportsmed · Pubmed #22293773.

ABSTRACT: Gout is a major health problem in the United States; it affects 8.3 million people, which is approximately 4% of the adult population. Gout is most often diagnosed and managed in primary care practices; thus, primary care physicians have a significant opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Following publication of the 2006 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) gout guidelines, significant new evidence has accumulated, and new treatments for patients with gout have become available. It is the objective of these 2011 recommendations to update the 2006 EULAR guidelines, paying special attention to the needs of primary care physicians. The revised 2011 recommendations are based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach as an evidence-based strategy for rating quality of evidence and grading the strength of recommendation formulated for use in clinical practice. A total of 26 key recommendations, 10 for diagnosis and 16 for management, of patients with gout were evaluated, resulting in important updates for patient care. The presence of monosodium urate crystals and/or tophus and response to colchicine have the highest clinical diagnostic value. The key aspect of effective management of an acute gout attack is initiation of treatment within hours of symptom onset. Low-dose colchicine is better tolerated and is as effective as a high dose. When urate-lowering therapy (ULT) is indicated, the xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol and febuxostat are the options of choice. Febuxostat can be prescribed at unchanged doses for patients with mild-to-moderate renal or hepatic impairment. The target of ULT should be a serum uric acid level that is ≤ 6 mg/dL. For patients with refractory and tophaceous gout, intravenous pegloticase is a new treatment option. This article is a summary of the 2011 clinical guidelines published in Postgraduate Medicine. This article provides a streamlined, accessible overview intended for quick review by primary care physicians, with the full guidelines being a resource for those seeking additional background information and expanded discussion.

4 Clinical Trial Tophus burden reduction with pegloticase: results from phase 3 randomized trials and open-label extension in patients with chronic gout refractory to conventional therapy. 2013

Baraf, Herbert S B / Becker, Michael A / Gutierrez-Urena, Sergio R / Treadwell, Edward L / Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia / Rehrig, Claudia D / Ottery, Faith D / Sundy, John S / Yood, Robert A. · ·Arthritis Res Ther · Pubmed #24286509.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Two replicate randomized, placebo-controlled six-month trials (RCTs) and an open-label treatment extension (OLE) comprised the pegloticase development program in patients with gout refractory to conventional therapy. In the RCTs, approximately 40% of patients treated with the approved dose saw complete response (CR) of at least one tophus. Here we describe the temporal course of tophus resolution, total tophus burden in patients with multiple tophi, tophus size at baseline, and the relationship between tophus response and urate-lowering efficacy. METHODS: Baseline subcutaneous tophi were analyzed quantitatively using computer-assisted digital images in patients receiving pegloticase (8 mg biweekly or monthly) or placebo in the RCTs, and pegloticase in the OLE. Tophus response, a secondary endpoint in the trials, was evaluated two ways. Overall tophus CR was the proportion of patients achieving a best response of CR (without any new/enlarging tophi) and target tophus complete response (TT-CR) was the proportion of all tophi with CR. RESULTS: Among 212 patients randomized in the RCTs, 155 (73%) had ≥ 1 tophus and 547 visible tophi were recorded at baseline. Overall tophus CR was recorded in 45% of patients in the biweekly group (P = 0.002 versus placebo), 26% in the monthly group, and 8% in the placebo group after six months of RCT therapy. TT-CR rates at six months were 28%, 19%, and 2% of tophi, respectively. Patients meeting the primary endpoint of sustained urate-lowering response to therapy (responders) were more likely than nonresponders to have an overall tophus CR at six months (54% vs 20%, respectively and 8% with placebo). CONCLUSIONS: Pegloticase reduced tophus burden in patients with refractory tophaceous gout, especially those achieving sustained urate-lowering. Complete resolution of tophi occurred in some patients by 13 weeks and in others with longer-term therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: NCT00325195, NCT01356498.

5 Clinical Trial Rilonacept in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis: a randomized, controlled clinical trial using indomethacin as the active comparator. 2013

Terkeltaub, Robert A / Schumacher, H Ralph / Carter, John D / Baraf, Herbert S B / Evans, Robert R / Wang, Jian / King-Davis, Shirletta / Weinstein, Steven P. · ·Arthritis Res Ther · Pubmed #23375025.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: In phase-3 clinical trials, the interleukin (IL-1) blocker, rilonacept (IL-1 Trap), demonstrated efficacy for gout flare prevention during initiation of urate-lowering therapy. This trial evaluated rilonacept added to a standard-of-care, indomethacin, for treatment of acute gout flares. METHODS: Adults, aged 18-70 years, with gout presenting within 48 hours of flare onset and having at least moderate pain as well as swelling and tenderness in the index joint were randomized to subcutaneous (SC) rilonacept 320 mg at baseline plus oral indomethacin 50 mg TID for 3 days followed by 25 mg TID for up to 9 days (n = 74); SC placebo at baseline plus oral indomethacin as above (n=76); or SC rilonacept 320 mg at baseline plus oral placebo (n=75). The primary efficacy endpoint was change in pain in the index joint (patient-reported using a Likert scale (0=none; 4=extreme)) from baseline to the average of values at 24, 48 and 72 hours (composite time point) for rilonacept plus indomethacin versus indomethacin alone. Comparison of rilonacept monotherapy with indomethacin monotherapy was dependent on demonstration of significance for the primary endpoint. Safety evaluation included clinical laboratory and adverse event (AE) assessments. RESULTS: Patient characteristics were comparable among the groups; the population was predominantly male (94.1%), white (75.7%), with mean±SD age of 50.3±10.6 years. All treatment groups reported within-group pain reductions from baseline (P<0.0001). Although primary endpoint pain reduction was greater with rilonacept plus indomethacin (-1.55±0.92) relative to indomethacin alone (-1.40±0.96), the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.33), so formal comparison between monotherapy groups was not performed. Pain reduction over the 72-hour period with rilonacept alone (-0.69±0.97) was less than that in the other groups, but pain reduction was similar among groups at 72 hours. Treatment with rilonacept was well-tolerated with no reported serious AEs related to rilonacept. Across all groups, the most frequent AEs were headache and dizziness. CONCLUSIONS: Although generally well-tolerated, rilonacept in combination with indomethacin and rilonacept alone did not provide additional pain relief over 72 hours relative to indomethacin alone in patients with acute gout flare. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT00855920.

6 Clinical Trial Reduction of plasma urate levels following treatment with multiple doses of pegloticase (polyethylene glycol-conjugated uricase) in patients with treatment-failure gout: results of a phase II randomized study. 2008

Sundy, John S / Becker, Michael A / Baraf, Herbert S B / Barkhuizen, Andre / Moreland, Larry W / Huang, William / Waltrip, Royce W / Maroli, Allan N / Horowitz, Zeb / Anonymous38290607. ·Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. john.sundy@duke.edu ·Arthritis Rheum · Pubmed #18759308.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of pegloticase in achieving and maintaining plasma urate levels of <6 mg/dl in gout patients in whom other treatments have failed, and to assess the pharmacokinetics and safety of pegloticase. METHODS: Forty-one patients were randomized to undergo 12-14 weeks of treatment with pegloticase at 1 of 4 dosage levels: 4 mg every 2 weeks, 8 mg every 2 weeks, 8 mg every 4 weeks, or 12 mg every 4 weeks. Plasma uricase activity, plasma urate, and antipegloticase antibodies were measured, pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed, and adverse events were recorded. RESULTS: The mean plasma urate level was reduced to Pegloticase, administered in multiple doses, was effective in rapidly reducing and maintaining plasma urate levels at

7 Article Update on imaging in gout: contrasting and comparing the role of dual-energy computed tomography to traditional diagnostic and monitoring techniques. 2018

Bayat, Sara / Baraf, Herbert S B / Rech, Juergen. ·Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 3, Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Germany. · Center for Rheumatology and Bone Research, Wheaton; and Division of Rheumatology, The George Washington University, USA. · Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 3, Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Germany. juergen.rech@uk-erlangen.de. ·Clin Exp Rheumatol · Pubmed #30296979.

ABSTRACT: In this systematic literature review, we update imaging modalities in gout, with a focus on newer technologies, particularly Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). Conventional radiography (CR), ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and dual-energy CT (DECT) have been used to evaluate different stages and clinical manifestations of gout and hyperuricaemia. We compare and contrast these modalities across the spectrum of this disease and of clinical scenarios and objectives (1).

8 Article Exploratory study of radiographic change in patients with tophaceous gout treated with intensive urate-lowering therapy. 2014

Dalbeth, Nicola / Doyle, Anthony J / McQueen, Fiona M / Sundy, John / Baraf, Herbert S B. ·University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. ·Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) · Pubmed #23836458.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Tophi are strongly associated with structural damage in gout, and urate-lowering therapy reduces tophus size. Pegloticase leads to dramatic reductions in serum urate and subcutaneous tophi in treatment responders. The aim of this analysis was to examine whether profound urate lowering can alter radiographic findings in gout. METHODS: Serial plain radiographs of the hands and feet were obtained from 8 patients with tophaceous gout treated with pegloticase. Radiographs were scored for erosion and joint space narrowing (JSN) according to the gout-modified Sharp/van der Heijde method. Scorers were blinded to each other's scores and to the clinical characteristics of the patients (including the clinical response to pegloticase). A detailed qualitative site-by-site analysis was undertaken to define additional changes observed from baseline. RESULTS: All patients experienced a profound urate-lowering response (serum urate level <1 mg/dl) during pegloticase treatment. For the entire group, the median total radiographic scores reduced from 69.25 (range 1.5-138) at baseline to 57.25 (range 1.5-110) at 12 months (P = 0.02). Median erosion scores reduced over 1 year (P = 0.008), but JSN scores did not change (P = 0.50). Further reductions were observed in total scores and erosion scores in 5 patients with 24-month followup films (one-way analysis of variance P = 0.009 for total score, 0.02 for erosion, and 0.95 for JSN). Qualitative site-by-site analysis identified regression of soft tissue masses, increased sclerosis, and filling in of erosions in the followup films. CONCLUSION: This exploratory study suggests that profound urate lowering can lead to improvement in structural damage, particularly bone erosion, in patients with tophaceous gout.

9 Article Long-term safety of pegloticase in chronic gout refractory to conventional treatment. 2013

Becker, Michael A / Baraf, Herbert S B / Yood, Robert A / Dillon, Aileen / Vázquez-Mellado, Janitzia / Ottery, Faith D / Khanna, Dinesh / Sundy, John S. ·Rheumatology Section, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611-1713, USA. mbecker@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu ·Ann Rheum Dis · Pubmed #23144450.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term safety (up to 3 years) of treatment with pegloticase in patients with refractory chronic gout. METHODS: This open-label extension (OLE) study was conducted at 46 sites in the USA, Canada and Mexico. Patients completing either of two replicate randomised placebo-controlled 6-month trials received pegloticase 8 mg every 2 weeks (biweekly) or every 4 weeks (monthly). Safety was evaluated as the primary outcome, with special interest in gout flares and infusion-related reactions (IRs). Secondary outcomes included urate-lowering and clinical efficacy. RESULTS: Patients (n=149) received a mean±SD of 28±18 pegloticase infusions and were followed for a mean of 25±11 months. Gout flares and IRs were the most frequently reported adverse events; these were least common in patients with a sustained urate-lowering response to treatment and those receiving biweekly treatment. In 10 of the 11 patients with a serious IR, the event occurred when uric acid exceeded 6 mg/dl. Plasma and serum uric acid levels remained <6 mg/dl in most randomised controlled trial (RCT)-defined pegloticase responders throughout the OLE study and were accompanied by sustained and progressive improvements in tophus resolution and flare incidence. CONCLUSIONS: The safety profile of long-term pegloticase treatment was consistent with that observed during 6 months of RCT treatment; no new safety signals were identified. Improvements in clinical status, in the form of flare and tophus reduction initiated during RCT pegloticase treatment in patients maintaining goal range urate-lowering responses were sustained or advanced during up to 2.5 years of additional treatment.

10 Article Efficacy and tolerability of pegloticase for the treatment of chronic gout in patients refractory to conventional treatment: two randomized controlled trials. 2011

Sundy, John S / Baraf, Herbert S B / Yood, Robert A / Edwards, N Lawrence / Gutierrez-Urena, Sergio R / Treadwell, Edward L / Vázquez-Mellado, Janitzia / White, William B / Lipsky, Peter E / Horowitz, Zeb / Huang, William / Maroli, Allan N / Waltrip, Royce W / Hamburger, Steven A / Becker, Michael A. ·Duke Clinical Research Unit, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA. ·JAMA · Pubmed #21846852.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Patients with chronic disabling gout refractory to conventional urate-lowering therapy need timely treatment to control disease manifestations related to tissue urate crystal deposition. Pegloticase, monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated mammalian recombinant uricase, was developed to fulfill this need. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of pegloticase in managing refractory chronic gout. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Two replicate, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (C0405 and C0406) were conducted between June 2006 and October 2007 at 56 rheumatology practices in the United States, Canada, and Mexico in patients with severe gout, allopurinol intolerance or refractoriness, and serum uric acid concentration of 8.0 mg/dL or greater. A total of 225 patients participated: 109 in trial C0405 and 116 in trial C0406. INTERVENTION: Twelve biweekly intravenous infusions containing either pegloticase 8 mg at each infusion (biweekly treatment group), pegloticase alternating with placebo at successive infusions (monthly treatment group), or placebo (placebo group). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Primary end point was plasma uric acid levels of less than 6.0 mg/dL in months 3 and 6. RESULTS: In trial C0405 the primary end point was reached in 20 of 43 patients in the biweekly group (47%; 95% CI, 31%-62%), 8 of 41 patients in the monthly group (20%; 95% CI, 9%-35%), and in 0 patients treated with placebo (0/20; 95% CI, 0%-17%; P < .001 and <.04 for comparisons between biweekly and monthly groups vs placebo, respectively). Among patients treated with pegloticase in trial C0406, 16 of 42 in the biweekly group (38%; 95% CI, 24%-54%) and 21 of 43 in the monthly group (49%; 95% CI, 33%-65%) achieved the primary end point; no placebo-treated patients reached the primary end point (0/23; 95% CI, 0%-15%; P = .001 and < .001, respectively). When data in the 2 trials were pooled, the primary end point was achieved in 36 of 85 patients in the biweekly group (42%; 95% CI, 32%-54%), 29 of 84 patients in the monthly group (35%; 95% CI, 24%-46%), and 0 of 43 patients in the placebo group (0%; 95% CI, 0%-8%; P < .001 for each comparison). Seven deaths (4 in patients receiving pegloticase and 3 in the placebo group) occurred between randomization and closure of the study database (February 15, 2008). CONCLUSION: Among patients with chronic gout, elevated serum uric acid level, and allopurinol intolerance or refractoriness, the use of pegloticase 8 mg either every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks for 6 months resulted in lower uric acid levels compared with placebo. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00325195.

11 Article Resolution of gouty tophi after twelve weeks of pegloticase treatment. 2008

Baraf, Herbert S B / Matsumoto, Alan K / Maroli, Allan N / Waltrip, Royce W. ·Center for Rheumatology and Bone Research, Wheaton, MD, USA. ·Arthritis Rheum · Pubmed #18975338.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --