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Gout: HELP
Articles by Barbara Hunt
Based on 12 articles published since 2010
(Why 12 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, B. Hunt wrote the following 12 articles about Gout.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Clinical Trial Efficacy and Safety of Febuxostat Extended and Immediate Release in Patients With Gout and Renal Impairment: A Phase III Placebo-Controlled Study. 2019

Saag, Kenneth G / Becker, Michael A / Whelton, Andrew / Hunt, Barbara / Castillo, Majin / Kisfalvi, Krisztina / Gunawardhana, Lhanoo. ·Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama, and University of Alabama at Birmingham. · University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. · Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. · Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Deerfield, Illinois. ·Arthritis Rheumatol · Pubmed #30073793.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of febuxostat extended release (XR) and immediate release (IR) in patients with gout and normal or impaired renal function. METHODS: This was a 3-month, phase III, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients (n = 1,790) with a history of gout and normal or impaired (mild-to-severe) renal function were randomized to receive placebo, febuxostat IR 40 or 80 mg, or febuxostat XR 40 or 80 mg once daily (1:1:1:1:1 ratio). End points included proportions of patients with a serum urate (UA) level of <5.0 mg/dl at month 3 (primary end point), a serum UA level of <6.0 mg/dl at month 3, and ≥1 gout flare requiring treatment over 3 months (secondary end points). RESULTS: Both febuxostat formulations led to significantly greater proportions of patients achieving a serum UA level of <5.0 mg/dl or <6.0 mg/dl at month 3 (P < 0.001 for all comparisons versus placebo). Equivalent doses of febuxostat XR and IR had similar treatment effects on serum UA level end points; however, a significantly greater proportion of patients achieved a serum UA level of <5.0 mg/dl with XR 40 mg versus IR 40 mg. Similar proportions of patients experienced ≥1 gout flare across treatment groups. Rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were low and evenly distributed between treatment arms. A preplanned subgroup analysis demonstrated that febuxostat formulations were well tolerated and generally effective on serum UA level end points (versus placebo) across all renal function subgroups. CONCLUSION: Both formulations of febuxostat (XR and IR) were well tolerated and effective in patients with gout and normal or impaired renal function, including patients with severe renal impairment.

2 Clinical Trial Efficacy and safety of febuxostat extended release and immediate release in patients with gout and moderate renal impairment: phase II placebo-controlled study. 2018

Gunawardhana, Lhanoo / Becker, Michael A / Whelton, Andrew / Hunt, Barbara / Castillo, Majin / Saag, Kenneth. ·Takeda Pharmaceuticals, One Takeda Parkway, Deerfield, IL, 60015, USA. lhanoo.gunawardhana@takeda.com. · University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA. · Johns Hopkins University, 1737 Beaver Brook Lane, Hunt Valley, MD, 21030, USA. · Takeda Pharmaceuticals, One Takeda Parkway, Deerfield, IL, 60015, USA. · Birmingham VA Medical Center, 700 S. 19th Street, Birmingham, AL, 35233, USA. · University of Alabama at Birmingham, Faculty Office Tower, Suite 820, 1720 2nd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA. ·Arthritis Res Ther · Pubmed #29848361.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Febuxostat immediate release (IR), a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is indicated for the management of hyperuricemia in patients with gout by lowering urate levels. An extended release (XR) formulation of febuxostat was developed to provide equal or superior efficacy on urate lowering compared with the IR formulation and potentially lower the risk of treatment-initiated gout flares due to an altered pattern of drug exposure. The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of febuxostat XR and IR formulations in patients with gout and moderate renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtrate rate ≥ 30 and < 60 ml/min). METHODS: This was an exploratory, 3-month, phase II, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind proof-of-concept study. Patients (n = 189) were randomized 1:1:1:1:1 to receive placebo or febuxostat IR 40 mg, XR 40 mg, IR 80 mg, or XR 80 mg once daily. Endpoints included: proportion of patients with serum uric acid (sUA) < 5.0 mg/dl at month 3 (primary endpoint), proportion of patients with sUA < 6.0 mg/dl at month 3, and proportion of patients with ≥ 1 gout flare requiring treatment over 3 months. RESULTS: At month 3, all febuxostat treatment groups were associated with greater proportions of patients achieving sUA < 5.0 mg/dl (p < 0.05 vs placebo). A greater proportion of patients receiving XR 40 mg achieved sUA < 5.0 mg/dl versus those receiving IR 40 mg (p = 0.034); proportions were similar in the IR 80 mg and XR 80 mg groups. Higher proportions of febuxostat-treated patients achieved sUA < 6.0 mg/dl at month 3 (p < 0.05 vs placebo) and experienced ≥ 1 gout flare (significant for all comparisons, except XR 40 mg). Incidences of treatment-related adverse events were low across all treatment groups; the majority were mild or moderate with no apparent trends correlating with IR or XR doses. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event was hypertension. One death (unrelated to the study drug) was reported. CONCLUSIONS: These exploratory data demonstrate that febuxostat (XR and IR) formulations were effective and well tolerated in patients with gout and moderate renal impairment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02128490 Registered on 29 April 2014.

3 Clinical Trial Effects of Febuxostat in Early Gout: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. 2017

Dalbeth, Nicola / Saag, Kenneth G / Palmer, William E / Choi, Hyon K / Hunt, Barbara / MacDonald, Patricia A / Thienel, Ulrich / Gunawardhana, Lhanoo. ·University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. · University of Alabama at Birmingham. · Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston. · Takeda Development Center Americas, Deerfield, Illinois. · RRD International, Rockville, Maryland. ·Arthritis Rheumatol · Pubmed #28975718.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of treatment with febuxostat versus placebo on joint damage in hyperuricemic subjects with early gout (1 or 2 gout flares). METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 314 subjects with hyperuricemia (serum uric acid [UA] level of ≥7.0 mg/dl) and early gout were randomized 1:1 to receive once-daily febuxostat 40 mg (increased to 80 mg if the serum UA level was ≥6.0 mg/dl on day 14) or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the mean change from baseline to month 24 in the modified Sharp/van der Heijde erosion score for the single affected joint. Additional efficacy end points included change from baseline to month 24 in the Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring (RAMRIS) scores for synovitis, erosion, and edema in the single affected joint, the incidence of gout flares, and serum UA levels. Safety was assessed throughout the study. RESULTS: Treatment with febuxostat did not lead to any notable changes in joint erosion over 2 years. In both treatment groups, the mean change from baseline to month 24 in the modified Sharp/van der Heijde erosion score for the single affected joint was minimal, with no between-group differences. However, treatment with febuxostat significantly improved the RAMRIS synovitis score at month 24 compared with placebo treatment (change from baseline -0.43 versus -0.07; P <0.001), decreased the overall incidence of gout flares (29.3% versus 41.4%; P < 0.05), and improved serum UA control (62.8% versus 5.7%; P < 0.001). No major safety concerns were reported. CONCLUSION: Urate-lowering therapy with febuxostat improved magnetic resonance imaging-determined synovitis and reduced the incidence of gout flares in subjects with early gout.

4 Clinical Trial Cardiovascular safety of febuxostat and allopurinol in patients with gout and cardiovascular comorbidities. 2012

White, William B / Chohan, Saima / Dabholkar, Aruna / Hunt, Barbara / Jackson, Robert. ·University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, 06030-3940, USA. wwhite@nso1.uchc.edu ·Am Heart J · Pubmed #22795277.

ABSTRACT: Comprehensive safety evaluation of new drugs for noncardiac indications is needed in the area of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, particularly in populations with high CV risk such as gout. Febuxostat is a potent nonpurine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase approved for the treatment of gout. Long-term CV safety of febuxostat is being established in a randomized, allopurinol-controlled clinical study in patients with gout who have increased CV risk using an analytical approach that provides 90% power to meet a noninferiority margin of 1.3 for the hazard ratio (HR) (febuxostat relative to allopurinol). The primary CV end point for this trial is a composite of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and unstable angina requiring urgent coronary revascularization. Approximately 7,500 men and women with gout and CV disease are being recruited and will be followed up for up to 5 years postrandomization. The statistical plan for the trial uses a design that evaluates the HR of febuxostat to allopurinol based on the primary CV composite end point when there are a maximum of 624 CV events. Interim analyses will be conducted when approximately 25%, 50%, and 75% of events have occurred. At each analysis, if the upper 1-sided confidence limit of the HR is <1.3, the study will be stopped, and the noninferiority of febuxostat relative to allopurinol with regard to CV risk will be declared. The CARES trial will define the CV safety profile of febuxostat and allopurinol in gout patients at high risk for CV events.

5 Clinical Trial The efficacy and safety of febuxostat for urate lowering in gout patients ≥65 years of age. 2012

Jackson, Robert L / Hunt, Barbara / MacDonald, Patricia A. ·Takeda Global Research & Development Centers, Inc, One Takeda Parkway, Deerfield, Illinois 60015, USA. Robert.Jackson@takeda.com ·BMC Geriatr · Pubmed #22436129.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The incidence of gout rises with increasing age. Management of elderly (≥65 years) gout patients can be challenging due to high rates of comorbidities, such as renal impairment and cardiovascular disease, and concomitant medication use. However, there is little data specifically addressing the efficacy and safety of available urate-lowering therapies (ULT) in the elderly. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to examine the efficacy and safety of ULT with febuxostat or allopurinol in a subset of elderly subjects enrolled in the CONFIRMS trial. METHODS: Hyperuricemic (serum urate [sUA] levels ≥ 8.0 mg/dL) gout subjects were enrolled in the 6-month, double-blind, randomized, comparative CONFIRMS trial and randomized, 1:1:1, to receive febuxostat, 40 mg or 80 mg, or allopurinol (200 mg or 300 mg based on renal function) once daily. Flare prophylaxis was provided throughout the study duration.Study endpoints were the percent of elderly subjects with sUA <6.0 mg/dL at the final visit, overall and by renal function status, percent change in sUA from baseline to final visit, flare rates, and rates of adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Of 2,269 subjects enrolled, 374 were elderly. Febuxostat 80 mg was significantly more efficacious (82.0%) than febuxostat 40 mg (61.7%; p < 0.001) or allopurinol (47.3%; p < 0.001) for achieving the primary efficacy endpoint. Febuxostat 40 mg was also superior to allopurinol in this population (p = 0.029). In subjects with mild-to-moderate renal impairment, significantly greater ULT efficacy was observed with febuxostat 40 mg (61.6%; p = 0.028) and febuxostat 80 mg (82.5%; p < 0.001) compared to allopurinol 200/300 mg (46.9%). Compared to allopurinol 200/300 mg, the mean percent change in sUA from baseline was significantly greater for both febuxostat 80 mg (p < 0.001) and febuxostat 40 mg (p = 0.011) groups. Flare rates declined steadily in all treatment groups. Rates of AEs were low and comparable across treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that either dose of febuxostat is superior to commonly prescribed fixed doses of allopurinol (200/300 mg) in subjects ≥65 years of age with high rates of renal dysfunction. In addition, in this high-risk population, ULT with either drug was well tolerated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT#00430248.

6 Clinical Trial Febuxostat in gout: serum urate response in uric acid overproducers and underexcretors. 2011

Goldfarb, David S / MacDonald, Patricia A / Hunt, Barbara / Gunawardhana, Lhanoo. ·New York Veterans Affairs Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. david.goldfarb@nyumc.org ·J Rheumatol · Pubmed #21572152.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Hyperuricemia of gout can arise due to either overproduction or underexcretion of uric acid. Not all available urate-lowering therapies are equally effective and safe for use in patients with renal disease. The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to determine the effectiveness of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat in reducing serum urate (sUA) levels in gouty patients who were either overproducers or underexcretors. METHODS: Gouty subjects 18 to 85 years of age with sUA ≥ 8.0 mg/dl at baseline were enrolled in a Phase 2, 28-day, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and randomized to receive febuxostat 40 mg, 80 mg, or 120 mg daily, or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of subjects with sUA < 6.0 mg/dl at Day 28. Secondary efficacy endpoints included percentage reductions in sUA and urinary uric acid (uUA) from baseline to Day 28. RESULTS: Of the 153 subjects, 118 (77%) were underexcretors (uUA ≤ 800 mg/24 h) and 32 (21%) were overproducers (uUA > 800 mg/24 h); baseline uUA data were missing for 3 subjects. Treatment with febuxostat led to the majority of subjects achieving sUA < 6.0 mg/dl at Day 28. Treatment with any dose of febuxostat led to significantly greater percentage reductions in uUA than that observed in the placebo group, for both underexcretors and overproducers. CONCLUSION: Febuxostat is a highly efficacious urate-lowering therapy in patients with gout regardless of overproduction or underexcretion status.

7 Clinical Trial Renal function in gout: long-term treatment effects of febuxostat. 2011

Whelton, Andrew / Macdonald, Patricia A / Zhao, Lin / Hunt, Barbara / Gunawardhana, Lhanoo. ·Universal Clinical Research Center, Inc., 1737 Beaver Brook Lane, Hunt Valley, MD 21030-1603, USA. huntvalley@aol.com ·J Clin Rheumatol · Pubmed #21169856.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The association between hyperuricemia, gout, and impaired renal function has long been recognized. Recent data provide evidence for the causal relationship between elevated serum urate (sUA) and renal changes, leading to declines in glomerular filtration rates. In healthy adults, glomerular filtration rate wanes with age. Urate-lowering therapy (ULT) with allopurinol has been shown to stabilize or reverse this. OBJECTIVE: Here we examine the long-term effects of ULT with febuxostat on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the Febuxostat Open-label Clinical trial of Urate-lowering efficacy and Safety study, during which 116 hyperuricemic gout subjects received daily doses of febuxostat (40, 80, or 120 mg) for up to 5 years. sUA concentrations and eGFR were assessed regularly. Results were stratified by mean change in sUA from baseline. Mathematical modeling was used to predict the effect of sUA reduction on eGFR. RESULTS: Maintenance or improvement in eGFR was inversely correlated with the quantitative reduction in sUA from baseline. For every 1 mg/dL decrease in sUA, the model projected an expected improvement in eGFR of 1 mL/min from the untreated value. CONCLUSION: Individuals with the greatest reductions in sUA may experience reduced rates of renal deterioration or even stabilization of renal function. Further studies examining the impact of long-term ULT on renal function in hyperuricemic gout patients are needed to both confirm our results and verify if improvements in renal function are feasible in such patients.

8 Clinical Trial Effect of prophylaxis on gout flares after the initiation of urate-lowering therapy: analysis of data from three phase III trials. 2010

Wortmann, Robert L / Macdonald, Patricia A / Hunt, Barbara / Jackson, Robert L. ·Section of Rheumatology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA. Robert.L.Wortmann@Hitchcock.org ·Clin Ther · Pubmed #21353107.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Use of urate-lowering therapy (ULT), such as febuxostat or allopurinol, is recommended for the long-term management of hyperuricemia in patients with gout to reduce the incidence of acute flares. Because of the paradoxical relationship between early use of ULT and the increased incidence of gout flares, prophylaxis with either low-dose colchicine or NSAIDs has been recommended, although there have been concerns about the long-term prophylactic use of these agents. OBJECTIVES: The present analysis examined flare rates during the 3 Phase III trials of febuxostat based on mean postbaseline serum urate (sUA) concentrations and duration of prophylaxis. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed by prophylaxis with colchicine or naproxen. METHODS: This investigator-initiated, post hoc reanalysis of data on gout flares from the 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase III trials evaluated the proportion of patients requiring treatment for gout flares at 4-week intervals based on mean postbaseline sUA concentrations <6.0 and ≥ 6.0 mg/dL. The 3 trials enrolled males or females aged 18-85 years who had a diagnosis of gout and a baseline sUA concentration ≥ 8.0 mg/dL. Patients received ULT (febuxostat or allopurinol) or placebo for 6 months or 1 year and flare prophylaxis with colchicine 0.6 mg/d or naproxen 250 mg BID for 8 weeks or 6 months. The prophylactic regimen was chosen at the discretion of the investigator, based on renal function and known intolerance to either drug. Patients with an estimated creatinine clearance <50 mL/min were not to receive naproxen. AEs were summarized based on prophylaxis with colchicine or naproxen. RESULTS: The 3 trials enrolled a total of 4101 patients with gout. The majority were white (80.1%), male (94.5%), and obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) (62.8%). The mean duration of gout ranged from 10.9-11.9 years, and the mean baseline sUA concentration ranged from 9.6-9.9 mg/dL. Flare rates increased sharply (up to 40%) at the end of 8 weeks of prophylaxis and then declined gradually, whereas flare rates were consistently low (range, 3%-5%) at the end of 6 months of prophylaxis. Mean postbaseline sUA concentrations were correlated with flare rates; by the end of each study, patients with a mean postbaseline sUA concentration <6.0 mg/dL had fewer flares than did those with a mean postbaseline sUA concentration ≥ 6.0 mg/dL. There were differences in rates of AEs between prophylaxis groups, but the rates did not increase with increased duration of prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: This analysis of gout flare data from the 3 Phase III trials of febuxostat found that flare prophylaxis for up to 6 months during the initiation of ULT appeared to provide greater benefit than flare prophylaxis for 8 weeks, with no increase in AEs.

9 Article Cardiovascular Safety of Febuxostat or Allopurinol in Patients with Gout. 2018

White, William B / Saag, Kenneth G / Becker, Michael A / Borer, Jeffrey S / Gorelick, Philip B / Whelton, Andrew / Hunt, Barbara / Castillo, Majin / Gunawardhana, Lhanoo / Anonymous4290939. ·From the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington (W.B.W.) · the University of Alabama, Birmingham (K.G.S.) · University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago (M.A.B.), and Takeda Development Center Americas, Deerfield (B.H., M.C., L.G.) - both in Illinois · the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn (J.S.B.) · Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids (P.B.G.) · and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore (A.W.). ·N Engl J Med · Pubmed #29527974.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk is increased in patients with gout. We compared cardiovascular outcomes associated with febuxostat, a nonpurine xanthine oxidase inhibitor, with those associated with allopurinol, a purine base analogue xanthine oxidase inhibitor, in patients with gout and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, noninferiority trial involving patients with gout and cardiovascular disease; patients were randomly assigned to receive febuxostat or allopurinol and were stratified according to kidney function. The trial had a prespecified noninferiority margin of 1.3 for the hazard ratio for the primary end point (a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or unstable angina with urgent revascularization). RESULTS: In total, 6190 patients underwent randomization, received febuxostat or allopurinol, and were followed for a median of 32 months (maximum, 85 months). The trial regimen was discontinued in 56.6% of patients, and 45.0% discontinued follow-up. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, a primary end-point event occurred in 335 patients (10.8%) in the febuxostat group and in 321 patients (10.4%) in the allopurinol group (hazard ratio, 1.03; upper limit of the one-sided 98.5% confidence interval [CI], 1.23; P=0.002 for noninferiority). All-cause and cardiovascular mortality were higher in the febuxostat group than in the allopurinol group (hazard ratio for death from any cause, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.47]; hazard ratio for cardiovascular death, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.03 to 1.73]). The results with regard to the primary end point and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the analysis of events that occurred while patients were being treated were similar to the results in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with gout and major cardiovascular coexisting conditions, febuxostat was noninferior to allopurinol with respect to rates of adverse cardiovascular events. All-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were higher with febuxostat than with allopurinol. (Funded by Takeda Development Center Americas; CARES ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01101035 .).

10 Article Impact of Febuxostat on Renal Function in Gout Patients With Moderate-to-Severe Renal Impairment. 2016

Saag, Kenneth G / Whelton, Andrew / Becker, Michael A / MacDonald, Patricia / Hunt, Barbara / Gunawardhana, Lhanoo. ·Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama, and University of Alabama at Birmingham. · Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. · University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. · Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Deerfield, Illinois. ·Arthritis Rheumatol · Pubmed #26894653.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Renal impairment is a risk factor for gout and a barrier to optimal gout management. We undertook this exploratory study to obtain data that have been heretofore limited regarding the safety and efficacy of febuxostat in patients with moderate-to-severe renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] 15-50 ml/minute/1.73 m(2) ). METHODS: Ninety-six gout patients with moderate-to-severe renal impairment were enrolled in a 12-month multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 30 mg febuxostat twice daily, 40/80 mg febuxostat once daily, or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the change in serum creatinine (Cr) level from baseline to month 12. Secondary end points included the change in estimated GFR from baseline to month 12 and the proportion of patients with a serum uric acid (UA) level of <6.0 mg/dl at month 12. RESULTS: At month 12, there were no significant differences in the change in serum Cr level from baseline, or in the change in estimated GFR from baseline, in either febuxostat group compared to the placebo group. The proportion of patients with a serum UA level of <6.0 mg/dl at month 12 was significantly greater in both febuxostat groups compared to the placebo group (both P < 0.001). At least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) occurred in 78.1% of patients receiving 30 mg febuxostat twice daily, 87.5% of patients receiving 40/80 mg febuxostat once daily, and 78.1% of patients receiving placebo. TEAEs most frequently involved the categories of renal failure and impairment and renal function analyses. CONCLUSION: Febuxostat proved to be efficacious in serum UA reduction and was well tolerated in gout patients with moderate-to-severe renal impairment. Patients randomly assigned to receive febuxostat demonstrated significantly lower serum UA levels and no significant deterioration in renal function.

11 Article Diabetes and gout: efficacy and safety of febuxostat and allopurinol. 2013

Becker, M A / MacDonald, P A / Hunt, B J / Jackson, R L. ·Pritzker School of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. ·Diabetes Obes Metab · Pubmed #23683134.

ABSTRACT: AIM: Assess influences of demographics and co-morbidities of gout patients with or without diabetes on safety and efficacy of urate-lowering agents. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of 312 diabetic and 1957 non-diabetic gout patients [baseline serum urate levels (sUA) ≥8.0 mg/dl] enrolled in a 6-month randomized controlled trial comparing urate-lowering efficacy (ULE) and safety of daily xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOIs) febuxostat (40 mg or 80 mg) and allopurinol (200 mg or 300 mg). We compared baseline demographic, gout and co-morbid characteristics, ULE, and safety of XOI treatment in diabetic and non-diabetic gout patients. ULE was measured by the proportion of diabetic and non-diabetic patients in each treatment group achieving final visit sUA < 6.0 mg/dl. Safety was monitored throughout the trial. RESULTS: Diabetic gout patients were older, more frequently female, and had longer gout duration. Co-morbidities were more frequent among diabetic patients: cardiovascular disease; impaired renal function; hyperlipidemia; and obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m²) (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Febuxostat 80 mg ULE exceeded that of febuxostat 40 mg or allopurinol (p < 0.050) at all levels of renal function, achieving sUA goal range in the majority of diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Diabetics and non-diabetics reported self-limiting diarrhoea and URIs as the most common adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Despite higher co-morbidity rates in diabetic patients, febuxostat and allopurinol were safe in both groups at the doses tested. Febuxostat 80 mg achieved sUA <6.0 mg/dl more often than febuxostat 40 mg or allopurinol at commonly prescribed doses.

12 Article Treating hyperuricemia of gout: safety and efficacy of febuxostat and allopurinol in older versus younger subjects. 2011

Becker, Michael A / MacDonald, Patricia A / Hunt, Barbara / Gunawardhana, Lhanoo. ·University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. mbecker@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu ·Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids · Pubmed #22132950.

ABSTRACT: Despite an increasing incidence of gout in older age patients with multiple metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities, there are limited data addressing whether currently available urate-lowering therapy is comparably effective and safe in older (≥65 years of age) versus younger (<65 years of age) patients. In this secondary analysis of data from the CONFIRMS trial, we found that among 374 older subjects, urate-lowering therapy with approved doses of febuxostat or commonly prescribed doses of allopurinol was at least comparable to that in 1894 younger subjects and was well tolerated despite high rates of renal impairment and cardiovascular comorbidities in the older subjects.