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Gout: HELP
Articles by Dinesh Khanna
Based on 25 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, D. Khanna wrote the following 25 articles about Gout.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Guideline 2012 American College of Rheumatology guidelines for management of gout. Part 2: therapy and antiinflammatory prophylaxis of acute gouty arthritis. 2012

Khanna, Dinesh / Khanna, Puja P / Fitzgerald, John D / Singh, Manjit K / Bae, Sangmee / Neogi, Tuhina / Pillinger, Michael H / Merill, Joan / Lee, Susan / Prakash, Shraddha / Kaldas, Marian / Gogia, Maneesh / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Taylor, Will / Lioté, Frédéric / Choi, Hyon / Singh, Jasvinder A / Dalbeth, Nicola / Kaplan, Sanford / Niyyar, Vandana / Jones, Danielle / Yarows, Steven A / Roessler, Blake / Kerr, Gail / King, Charles / Levy, Gerald / Furst, Daniel E / Edwards, N Lawrence / Mandell, Brian / Schumacher, H Ralph / Robbins, Mark / Wenger, Neil / Terkeltaub, Robert / Anonymous2310738. ·University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ·Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) · Pubmed #23024029.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Guideline 2012 American College of Rheumatology guidelines for management of gout. Part 1: systematic nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapeutic approaches to hyperuricemia. 2012

Khanna, Dinesh / Fitzgerald, John D / Khanna, Puja P / Bae, Sangmee / Singh, Manjit K / Neogi, Tuhina / Pillinger, Michael H / Merill, Joan / Lee, Susan / Prakash, Shraddha / Kaldas, Marian / Gogia, Maneesh / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Taylor, Will / Lioté, Frédéric / Choi, Hyon / Singh, Jasvinder A / Dalbeth, Nicola / Kaplan, Sanford / Niyyar, Vandana / Jones, Danielle / Yarows, Steven A / Roessler, Blake / Kerr, Gail / King, Charles / Levy, Gerald / Furst, Daniel E / Edwards, N Lawrence / Mandell, Brian / Schumacher, H Ralph / Robbins, Mark / Wenger, Neil / Terkeltaub, Robert / Anonymous2300738. ·University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ·Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) · Pubmed #23024028.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Review Imaging as an Outcome Measure in Gout Studies: Report from the OMERACT Gout Working Group. 2015

Grainger, Rebecca / Dalbeth, Nicola / Keen, Helen / Durcan, Laura / Lawrence Edwards, N / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Diaz-Torne, Cesar / Singh, Jasvinder A / Khanna, Dinesh / Simon, Lee S / Taylor, William J. ·From the Department of Medicine, University of Otago Wellington, Wellington; Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, New Zealand; Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA; Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Cruces and BioCruces Health Research Institute, Vizcaya; Division of Rheumatology, Hospital de la Santa Creu I Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; SDG LLC, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.R. Grainger, PhD, FRACP, Senior Lecturer, Rheumatologist, Department of Medicine, University of Otago Wellington; N. Dalbeth, MD, FRACP, Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, University of Auckland; L. Durcan, Rheumatology Fellow, MD, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital; H. Keen, PhD, Associate Professor, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia; N.L. Edwards, MD, Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Florida; F. Perez-Ruiz, MD, Professor, Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Cruces and BioCruces Health Research Institute; C. Diaz-Torne, PhD, Associate Professor and Rheumatologist; J.A. Singh, MBBS, MPH, Associate Professor of Medicine; Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of Alabama at Birmingham; D. Khanna, MD, MSc, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan; L.S. Simon, MD, Principal Advisor, SDG LLC; W.J. Taylor, PhD, FRACP, Associate Professor and Rheumatologist, Department of Medicine, University of Otago Wellington. ·J Rheumatol · Pubmed #25641895.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The gout working group at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 meeting in 2014 aimed to determine which imaging modalities show the most promise for use as measurement instruments for outcomes in studies of people with chronic gout and to identify the key foci for future research about the performance of these imaging techniques with respect to the OMERACT filter 2.0. METHODS: During the gout session, a systematic literature review of the data addressing imaging modalities including plain radiography (XR), conventional computed tomography (CT), dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US) and the fulfillment of the OMERACT filter 2.0 was presented. RESULTS: The working group identified 3 relevant domains for imaging in gout studies: urate deposition (tophus burden), joint inflammation, and structural joint damage. CONCLUSION: The working group prioritized gaps in the data and identified a research agenda.

4 Review Treatment of acute gout: a systematic review. 2014

Khanna, Puja P / Gladue, Heather S / Singh, Manjit K / FitzGerald, John D / Bae, Sangmee / Prakash, Shraddha / Kaldas, Marian / Gogia, Maneesh / Berrocal, Veronica / Townsend, Whitney / Terkeltaub, Robert / Khanna, Dinesh. ·Division of Rheumatology, University of Michigan, 300 North Ingalls, 7D13, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5422. Electronic address: pkhanna@umich.edu. · Emory University, Atlanta, GA. · Rochester General Health System, Rochester, NY. · David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. · Division of Rheumatology, University of Michigan, 300 North Ingalls, 7D13, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5422. · Division of Rheumatology, University of Michigan, 300 North Ingalls, 7D13, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5422; Taubman Health Science Library, University of Michigan, 300 North Ingalls, 7D13, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5422. · VAMC/UCSD, La Jolla, CA. ·Semin Arthritis Rheum · Pubmed #24650777.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Acute gout is traditionally treated with NSAIDs, corticosteroids, and colchicine; however, subjects have multiple comorbidities that limit the use of some conventional therapies. We systematically reviewed the published data on the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic agents used for the treatment of acute gouty arthritis. METHODS: A systematic search was performed using PubMed and Cochrane database through May 2013. We included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included NSAIDs, corticosteroids, colchicine, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibitors, topical ice, or herbal supplements. RESULTS: Thirty articles were selected for systematic review. The results show that NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors are effective agents for the treatment of acute gout attacks. Systemic corticosteroids have similar efficacy to therapeutic doses of NSAIDs, with studies supporting oral and intramuscular use. ACTH is suggested to be efficacious in acute gout. Oral colchicine demonstrated to be effective, with low-dose colchicine demonstrating a comparable tolerability profile as placebo and a significantly lower side effect profile to high-dose colchicine. The IL-1β inhibitory antibody, canakinumab, was effective for the treatment of acute attacks in subjects refractory to and in those with contraindications to NSAIDs and/or colchicine. However, rilonacept was demonstrated to be not as effective, and there are no RCTs for the use of anakinra. CONCLUSION: NSAIDs, COX-2 selective inhibitors, corticosteroids, colchicine, ACTH, and canakinumab have evidence to suggest efficacy in treatment of acute gout.

5 Review Outcome measures in acute gout: a systematic literature review. 2014

Dalbeth, Nicola / Zhong, Cathy S / Grainger, Rebecca / Khanna, Dinesh / Khanna, Puja P / Singh, Jasvinder A / McQueen, Fiona M / Taylor, William J. ·From the Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland; Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand; Division of Rheumatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; and Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. ·J Rheumatol · Pubmed #24334652.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Five core domains have been endorsed by Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) for acute gout: pain, joint swelling, joint tenderness, patient global assessment, and activity limitation. We evaluated instruments for these domains according to the OMERACT filter: truth, feasibility, and discrimination. METHODS: A systematic search strategy for instruments used to measure the acute gout core domains was formulated. For each method, articles were assessed by 2 reviewers to summarize information according to the specific components of the OMERACT filter. RESULTS: Seventy-seven articles and abstracts met the inclusion criteria. Pain was most frequently reported (76 studies, 20 instruments). The pain instruments used most often were 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) and 5-point Likert scale. Both methods have high feasibility, face and content validity, and within- and between-group discrimination. Four-point Likert scales assessing index joint swelling and tenderness have been used in numerous acute gout studies; these instruments are feasible, with high face and content validity, and show within- and between-group discrimination. Five-point Patient Global Assessment of Response to Treatment (PGART) scales are feasible and valid, and show within- and between-group discrimination. Measures of activity limitations were infrequently reported, and insufficient data were available to make definite assessments of the instruments for this domain. CONCLUSION: Many different instruments have been used to assess the acute gout core domains. Pain VAS and 5-point Likert scales, 4-point Likert scales of index joint swelling and tenderness and 5-point PGART instruments meet the criteria for the OMERACT filter.

6 Clinical Trial Lesinurad, a Selective Uric Acid Reabsorption Inhibitor, in Combination With Febuxostat in Patients With Tophaceous Gout: Findings of a Phase III Clinical Trial. 2017

Dalbeth, Nicola / Jones, Graeme / Terkeltaub, Robert / Khanna, Dinesh / Kopicko, Jeff / Bhakta, Nihar / Adler, Scott / Fung, Maple / Storgard, Chris / Baumgartner, Scott / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando. ·University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. · University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. · University of California, San Diego. · University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. · Ardea Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, California. · AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Gaithersburg, Maryland. · Hospital Universitario Cruces, Baracaldo, Spain. ·Arthritis Rheumatol · Pubmed #28597604.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of lesinurad in combination with febuxostat in a 12-month phase III trial in patients with tophaceous gout. METHODS: Patients with serum urate (UA) ≥8.0 mg/dl (≥6.0 mg/dl with urate-lowering therapy) and ≥1 measurable target tophus were given febuxostat 80 mg/day for 3 weeks before randomization to receive lesinurad (200 or 400 mg daily) or placebo in addition to the febuxostat. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving a serum UA level of <5.0 mg/dl (month 6). The key secondary end point was the proportion of patients with complete resolution of ≥1 target tophus (month 12). Other end points included the percentage change in total target tophi area. Safety assessments included adverse events and laboratory data. RESULTS: Patients (n = 324) were predominantly male, with a mean age of 54.1 years. Significantly more patients achieved the serum UA target by month 6 with the addition of lesinurad 400 mg (76.1%; P < 0.0001), but not 200 mg (56.6%; P = 0.13), to the febuxostat therapy as compared with febuxostat alone (46.8%). At all other time points, significantly more patients in the lesinurad 200 mg group achieved the serum UA target. The number of patients with complete tophus resolution was not different between groups. Treatment with lesinurad (200 mg and 400 mg) plus febuxostat reduced the total target tophi area as compared with febuxostat alone (50.1% and 52.9% versus 28.3%, respectively; P < 0.05). Safety was generally comparable with that of febuxostat alone, except for higher rates of predominantly reversible elevations in the serum creatinine level, particularly with lesinurad 400 mg. CONCLUSION: Treatment with lesinurad in combination with febuxostat demonstrated superior lowering of serum UA levels as compared with febuxostat alone, with clinically relevant added effects on tophi and an acceptable safety profile with lesinurad 200 mg in patients with tophaceous gout warranting additional therapy.

7 Clinical Trial Improved health-related quality of life and physical function in patients with refractory chronic gout following treatment with pegloticase: evidence from phase III randomized controlled trials. 2012

Strand, Vibeke / Khanna, Dinesh / Singh, Jasvinder A / Forsythe, Anna / Edwards, N Lawrence. ·Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 306 Ramona Road, Portola Valley, CA 94028, USA. vstrand@stanford.edu ·J Rheumatol · Pubmed #22660805.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of pegloticase on pain, physical function, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with refractory chronic gout. METHODS: Subjects in 2 replicate, 6-month, randomized controlled phase III trials received intravenous infusions of pegloticase 8 mg twice monthly (biweekly group), pegloticase alternating with placebo (8-mg monthly group), or placebo. Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), patient global assessment of disease activity (PtGA), and pain by visual analog scale were completed at weeks 1 (baseline), 13, 19, and 25. Prespecified pooled analyses of patient-reported outcomes were performed by combining values for each treatment group (biweekly treatment, monthly treatment, and placebo) at Week 25. RESULTS: Of 212 patients enrolled, 157 (74.1%) completed treatment. At entry, mean age was 55.4 years (range 23-89 yrs) and mean plasma uric acid was 9.7 mg/dl; most were male (81.6%) and white (67.5%). Subjects reported an average of 9.8 flares in the previous 18 months. Baseline SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) scores were > 1.5 SD below US normative values. At Week 25, mean changes from baseline in PtGA, pain, HAQ-DI, and PCS scores were statistically significant and exceeded minimum clinically important differences (MCID) in the biweekly treatment group, compared with little to no improvement in placebo group. Statistically significant improvements greater than or equal to MCID were reported in 6 of 8 SF-36 domains. Monthly pegloticase resulted in significantly improved PtGA, HAQ-DI, PCS, and 3 SF-36 domains. CONCLUSION: Pegloticase therapy resulted in statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in PtGA, pain, physical function, and HRQOL.

8 Article Health care utilization in patients with gout: a prospective multicenter cohort study. 2017

Singh, Jasvinder A / Bharat, Aseem / Khanna, Dinesh / Aquino-Beaton, Cleopatra / Persselin, Jay E / Duffy, Erin / Elashoff, David / Khanna, Puja P. ·Department of Medicine at School of Medicine, and Division of Epidemiology at School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Faculty Office Tower 805B, 510 20th Street S, Birmingham, 35294, AL, USA. Jasvinder.md@gmail.com. · Medicine Service, Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA. Jasvinder.md@gmail.com. · Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA. Jasvinder.md@gmail.com. · Medicine Service, Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA. · University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ·BMC Musculoskelet Disord · Pubmed #28569193.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: All published studies of health care utilization in gout have been cross-sectional to date, and most used a patient-reported diagnosis of gout. Our objective was to assess health care utilization and its predictors in patients with physician-confirmed gout in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: In a multi-center prospective cohort study of U.S. veterans with rheumatologist-confirmed gout (N = 186; two centers), we assessed patient self-reported overall and gout-specific health care utilization with the Gout Assessment Questionnaire (GAQ) every 3-months for a 9-month period. Comparisons were made using the student's t test or the chi-square, Wilcoxon rank sum test or Fisher exact test, as appropriate. Mixed effects Poisson regression was used to assess potential correlates of gout-related health care utilization. RESULTS: Mean age was 64.6 years, 98% were men, 13% Hispanic or Latino, 32% were African-American, 6% did not graduate high school, mean serum urate was 8.3 and mean Deyo-Charlson score was 3.1. During the past year, mean gout-related visits were as follows: rheumatologist, 1.5; primary care physician, 2 visits; ≥1 inpatient visits, 7%; ≥1 ER visits, 26%; and urgent care/walk-in visit, 33%. In longitudinal analyses, African-American race and gout flares in the last 3 months were associated with significantly higher rate ratio of gout-related outpatient visits. African-American race and lack of college education were associated with significantly higher rate ratio for gout-related urgent visits and overnight stays. CONCLUSIONS: African-American race and recent gout flares were associated with higher outpatient utilization and African-American race and no college education with higher urgent or inpatient utilization. Future studies should examine whether modifiable predictors of utilization can be targeted to reduce healthcare utilization in patients with gout.

9 Article Racial differences in health-related quality of life and functional ability in patients with gout. 2017

Singh, Jasvinder A / Bharat, Aseem / Khanna, Dinesh / Aquino-Beaton, Cleopatra / Persselin, Jay E / Duffy, Erin / Elashoff, David / Khanna, Puja P. ·Medicine Service, Birmingham VA Medical Center Jasvinder.md@gmail.com. · Department of Medicine, School of Medicine. · Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. · Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN. · Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. · Department of Biostatistics, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System. · Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA. · Department of Medicine, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ·Rheumatology (Oxford) · Pubmed #28028159.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the functional ability by race in patients with gout. METHODS: In a 9-month prospective cohort multicentre study, patients with gout self-reported race, dichotomized as Caucasian or African American (others excluded). We calculated HRQOL/function scores adjusted for age, study site and college education for Short Form-36 (SF-36; generic HRQOL), Gout Impact Scale (GIS; disease-specific HRQOL) and HAQ-disability index (HAQ-DI; functional ability). Longitudinally adjusted scores were computed using multivariable mixed-effect regression models with a random patient effect and fixed sequential visit effect (3-monthly visits). RESULTS: Compared with Caucasians (n = 107), African Americans (n = 60) with gout were younger (61.1 vs 67.3 years) and had higher median baseline serum urate (9.0 vs 7.9 mg/dl) (P < 0.01). African Americans with gout had worse HRQOL scores on three SF-36 domains, the mental component summary (MCS) and two of the five GIS scales than Caucasians [mean (se); P ⩽ 0.02 for all]: SF-36 mental health, 39.7 (1.1) vs 45.2 (0.9); SF-36 role emotional, 42.1 (4.2) vs 51.4 (4.2); SF-36 social functioning, 36.0 (1.1) vs 40.0 (0.9) (P = 0.04); SF-36 MCS, 43.2 (3.1) vs 50.0 (3.2); GIS unmet treatment need, 37.6 (1.6) vs 31.5 (1.4); and GIS concern during attacks, 53.3 (3.7) vs 47.4 (3.7). Differences between the respective HAQ-DI total scores were not statistically significant; 0.98 (0.1) vs 0.80 (1.0) (P = 0.11). Racial differences in SF-36 mental health, role emotional and MCS scales exceeded, and for HAQ-DI approached, the minimal clinically important difference thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: African Americans with gout have significantly worse HRQOL compared with Caucasians. Further research is necessary in the form of studies targeted at African Americans on how best to improve these outcomes.

10 Article Performance of Gout Impact Scale in a longitudinal observational study of patients with gout. 2016

Wallace, Beth / Khanna, Dinesh / Aquino-Beaton, Cleopatra / Singh, Jasvinder A / Duffy, Erin / Elashoff, David / Khanna, Puja P. ·Division of Rheumatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. · Department of Medicine/Division of Rheumatology, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA. · Department of Medicine/Division of Rheumatology, University of Alabama and Birmingham VA, Birmingham, AL. · University of California Los Angeles Department of Medicine Statistics Core, Los Angeles, CA and. · Division of Rheumatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, Department of Medicine/Division of Rheumatology, Ann Arbor VA Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USA pkhanna@med.umich.edu. ·Rheumatology (Oxford) · Pubmed #26888852.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the reliability, validity and responsiveness to change of the Gout Impact Scale (GIS), a disease-specific measure of patient-reported outcomes, in a multicentre longitudinal prospective cohort of gout patients. METHODS: Subjects completed the GIS, a 24-item instrument with five scales: Concern Overall, Medication Side Effects, Unmet Treatment Need, Well-Being during Attack, and Concern Over Attack. The total GIS score was calculated by averaging the GIS scale scores. HAQ-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Short Form (SF)-36 physical and mental component summaries (PCS and MCS) and physician and patient gout severity assessments were also completed. Reliability was assessed with Cronbach's α. Baseline GIS scores were compared in subjects with and without gout attacks in the past 3 months using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate predictors of total GIS. Pearson's correlation coefficients 0.24-0.36 were considered moderate and >0.37 considered large. The effect size for responsiveness to change was interpreted as follows: 0.20-0.49 small, 0.50-0.79 medium and >0.79 large. RESULTS: In 147 subjects, reliability was acceptable for total GIS (0.93) and all GIS scales (0.82-0.94) except Medication Side Effects and Unmet Treatment Need. Total GIS and all scales except Medication Side Effects discriminated between subjects with and without recent gout attacks (P < 0.05). Total GIS showed moderate-to-large correlations with HAQ-DI, SF-36 PCS and MCS (0.33-0.46). Improvement in total GIS tracked with improved physician and patient severity scores. Worsening physician severity score and recent gout attack predicted worsening total GIS. CONCLUSION: Total GIS score is reliable, valid and responsive to change in patients with gout, and differentiates between subjects with and without recent gout attacks.

11 Article A world of hurt: failure to achieve treatment goals in patients with gout requires a paradigm shift. 2016

Khanna, Puja / Khanna, Dinesh / Storgard, Chris / Baumgartner, Scott / Morlock, Robert. ·a Department of Internal Medicine , University of Michigan , Ann Arbor , MI , USA. · b Research & Development, Ardea Biosciences, Inc. , San Diego , CA , USA. · c Medical Affairs, Ardea Biosciences, Inc. , San Diego , CA , USA. · d Health Outcomes, Ardea Biosciences, Inc. , San Diego , CA , USA. ·Postgrad Med · Pubmed #26578028.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Gout continues to be underdiagnosed and poorly managed despite the potential for cure. US and European management guidelines recommend treating to target serum urate (sUA) levels of <6 mg/dL (or <5 mg/dL to durably improve severe symptoms), with use of regular sUA monitoring, but studies suggest relatively poor adherence to these recommendations. This study investigates the real-world state of gout management in the United States by describing the characteristics of a large patient population treated in primary care and rheumatology settings. METHODS: A retrospective chart audit, conducted among 124 primary care physicians and 125 rheumatologists, included 1245 patients with gout. Physicians completed structured case report forms capturing 12 months of sUA laboratory values, flare counts, comorbidities, types and doses of treatment, treatment duration, diagnosis date, physician specialty and socio-demographic factors. Focusing on the xanthine oxidase inhibitors (n = 858), descriptive statistics and multivariate models characterized relationships between patient characteristics, disease control, and treatment. RESULTS: Only 83 (11%) patients achieved disease control, defined as a 12-month average sUA ≤6 mg/dL, no flares, and no tophi. Patients with greatest disease severity (defined as sUA >6 mg/dL, ≥2 flares per year, and tophi) were more likely to have kidney disease and other comorbidities. In a multivariate model, predictors of more severe gout were rheumatologist (vs primary care) management, febuxostat (vs allopurinol) use and presence of comorbid conditions. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the inadequacy of gout management in the real-world setting. Regular monitoring, including sUA measurement as recommended in guidelines, is important to assess gout control. Our analyses also demonstrate that patients with more severe gout are more likely to have comorbid conditions, be treated by a specialist and use newer therapies.

12 Article Development of Preliminary Remission Criteria for Gout Using Delphi and 1000Minds Consensus Exercises. 2016

de Lautour, Hugh / Taylor, William J / Adebajo, Ade / Alten, Rieke / Burgos-Vargas, Ruben / Chapman, Peter / Cimmino, Marco A / da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, Geraldo / Day, Ric / Harrold, Leslie R / Helliwell, Philip / Janssen, Matthijs / Kerr, Gail / Kavanaugh, Arthur / Khanna, Dinesh / Khanna, Puja P / Lin, Chingtsai / Louthrenoo, Worawit / McCarthy, Geraldine / Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia / Mikuls, Ted R / Neogi, Tuhina / Ogdie, Alexis / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Schlesinger, Naomi / Ralph Schumacher, H / Scirè, Carlo A / Singh, Jasvinder A / Sivera, Francisca / Slot, Ole / Stamp, Lisa K / Tausche, Anne-Kathrin / Terkeltaub, Robert / Uhlig, Till / van de Laar, Mart / White, Douglas / Yamanaka, Hisashi / Zeng, Xuejun / Dalbeth, Nicola. ·Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand. · University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand. · University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. · Schlosspark-Klinik, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico. · Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand. · Università di Genova, Genova, Italy. · Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. · University of New South Wales and St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia. · University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, and Corrona, LLC, Southborough. · Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, Leeds, UK. · Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. · Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Georgetown and Howard University Hospitals, Washington, DC. · University of California School of Medicine, San Diego. · University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. · University of Michigan and Ann Arbor VA Medical Center, Ann Arbor. · Taichung Veteran's General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. · Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. · Mater Misericordiae University Hospital and University College, Dublin, Ireland. · Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System and University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha. · Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. · University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. · Hospital Universitario Cruces, OSI-EEC, and Biocruces Health Research Institute, Biscay, Spain. · Rutgers University Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey. · IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. · University of Alabama at Birmingham and the Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham. · Hospital General Universitario Elda, Elda, Spain. · Copenhagen University Hospital Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark. · University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. · University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany. · University of California San Diego VA Medical Center, La Jolla. · National Advisory Unit on Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway. · Universiteit Twente, Erschede, The Netherlands. · Waikato DHB and Waikato Clinical School, University of Auckland, Hamilton, New Zealand. · Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan. · Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. · University of Auckland and Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand. ·Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) · Pubmed #26414176.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To establish consensus for potential remission criteria to use in clinical trials of gout. METHODS: Experts (n = 88) in gout from multiple countries were invited to participate in a web-based questionnaire study. Three rounds of Delphi consensus exercises were conducted using SurveyMonkey, followed by a discrete-choice experiment using 1000Minds software. The exercises focused on identifying domains, definitions for each domain, and the timeframe over which remission should be defined. RESULTS: There were 49 respondents (56% response) to the initial survey, with subsequent response rates ranging from 57% to 90%. Consensus was reached for the inclusion of serum urate (98% agreement), flares (96%), tophi (92%), pain (83%), and patient global assessment of disease activity (93%) as measurement domains in remission criteria. Consensus was also reached for domain definitions, including serum urate (<0.36 mm), pain (<2 on a 10-point scale), and patient global assessment (<2 on a 10-point scale), all of which should be measured at least twice over a set time interval. Consensus was not achieved in the Delphi exercise for the timeframe for remission, with equal responses for 6 months (51%) and 1 year (49%). In the discrete-choice experiment, there was a preference towards 12 months as a timeframe for remission. CONCLUSION: These consensus exercises have identified domains and provisional definitions for gout remission criteria. Based on the results of these exercises, preliminary remission criteria are proposed with domains of serum urate, acute flares, tophus, pain, and patient global assessment. These preliminary criteria now require testing in clinical data sets.

13 Article Achieving serum urate goal: a comparative effectiveness study between allopurinol and febuxostat. 2014

Hatoum, Hind / Khanna, Dinesh / Lin, Swu-Jane / Akhras, Kasem S / Shiozawa, Aki / Khanna, Puja. ·President, Hind T. Hatoum and Company; Adjunct Faculty, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL. ·Postgrad Med · Pubmed #24685969.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Febuxostat is recommended as 1 of 2 first-line urate-lowering therapies (ULT) for treating gout in the 2012 American College of Rheumatology Guidelines. Several efficacy trials have compared febuxostat with allopurinol treatment, but real-world comparative data are limited. METHODS: We compared effectiveness of the 2 agents in reaching serum urate (sUA) level goal (< 6 mg/dL) within 6 months (main endpoint), factors impacting the likelihood of reaching goal, and outcomes in allopurinol patients who were switched to febuxostat therapy after failing to reach sUA level goal. Data from the General Electric Electronic Medical Record database on adult patients with newly diagnosed gout, who had started treatment with allopurinol or febuxostat in 2009 or thereafter were analyzed. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and logistic regressions were used. RESULTS: Allopurinol (n = 17 199) and febuxostat (n = 1190) patients had a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of 63.7 (± 13.37) years; most patients were men and white. Average daily medication doses (mg) in the first 6 months were 184.9 ± 96.7 and 48.4 ± 15.8 for allopurinol- and febuxostat-treated patients, respectively; 4.8% of allopurinol-treated patients switched to febuxostat, whereas 25.7% of febuxostat-treated patients switched to allopurinol. Febuxostat patients had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate levels, more diabetes mellitus, or tophi at baseline (P < 0.05) and 29.2% and 42.2% of patients in the allopurinol and febuxostat groups achieved goal sUA levels (P < 0.0001). Febuxostat was significantly more effective in patients reaching sUA goal (adjusted odds ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.48-2.01). Older patients and women had greater likelihood of reaching sUA goal level; however, patients with higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores, blacks, or those with estimated glomerular filtration rates between 15 to ≤ 60 mL/min had reduced likelihood of attaining goal (P < 0.05). Among allopurinol-treated patients who were switched to febuxostat after failing to reach goal, 244 (48.3%) reached goal on febuxostat (median = 62.5 days), with an average 39% sUA level reduction achieved within 6 months. Patients who did not reach goal had a 14.3% sUA level reduction. CONCLUSIONS: The real-life data support the effectiveness of febuxostat in managing patients with gout.

14 Article OMERACT endorsement of measures of outcome for studies of acute gout. 2014

Singh, Jasvinder A / Taylor, William J / Dalbeth, Nicola / Simon, Lee S / Sundy, John / Grainger, Rebecca / Alten, Rieke / March, Lyn / Strand, Vibeke / Wells, George / Khanna, Dinesh / McQueen, Fiona / Schlesinger, Naomi / Boonen, Annelies / Boers, Maarten / Saag, Kenneth G / Schumacher, H Ralph / Edwards, N Lawrence. ·From Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington; Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; SDG LLC, Cambridge, Massachusetts,; Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA, and Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore; Schlosspark-Klinik Teaching Hospital of the Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany; University of Sydney Institute of Bone and Joint Research and Department of Rheumatology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia; Stanford University Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Portolo Valley, California, USA; University of Ottawa, London, Ontario, Canada; University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; University of Auckland, Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, Grafton, Auckland, New Zealand; Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA; Maastricht University Medical Center, Division of Rheumatology, and Caphri Research Institute, University Maastricht; VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; University of Pennsylvania and Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Rheumatology, University of Florida, Gainsville, Florida, USA. ·J Rheumatol · Pubmed #24334651.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which participants at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 11 meeting agree that instruments used in clinical trials to measure OMERACT core outcome domains in acute gout fulfill OMERACT filter requirements of truth, discrimination, and feasibility; and where future research efforts need to be directed. METHODS: Results of a systematic literature review and analysis of individual-level data from recent clinical studies of acute gout were presented to OMERACT participants. The information was discussed in breakout groups, and opinion was defined by subsequent voting in a plenary session. Endorsement was defined as at least 70% of participants voting in agreement with the proposition (where the denominator excluded those participants who did not vote or who voted "don't know"). RESULTS: The following measures were endorsed for use in clinical trials of acute gout: (1) 5-point Likert scale and/or visual analog scale (0 to 100 mm) to measure pain; (2) 4-point Likert scale for joint swelling; (3) 4-point Likert scale for joint tenderness; and (4) 5-point Likert scale for patient global assessment of response to treatment. Measures for the activity limitations domain were not endorsed. CONCLUSION: Measures of pain, joint swelling, joint tenderness, and patient global assessment in acute gout were endorsed at OMERACT 11. These measures should now be used in clinical trials of acute gout.

15 Article A delphi exercise to identify characteristic features of gout - opinions from patients and physicians, the first stage in developing new classification criteria. 2013

Prowse, Rebecca L / Dalbeth, Nicola / Kavanaugh, Arthur / Adebajo, Adewale O / Gaffo, Angelo L / Terkeltaub, Robert / Mandell, Brian F / Suryana, Bagus P P / Goldenstein-Schainberg, Claudia / Diaz-Torne, Cèsar / Khanna, Dinesh / Lioté, Frederic / Mccarthy, Geraldine / Kerr, Gail S / Yamanaka, Hisashi / Janssens, Hein / Baraf, Herbert F / Chen, Jiunn-Horng / Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia / Harrold, Leslie R / Stamp, Lisa K / Van De Laar, Mart A / Janssen, Matthijs / Doherty, Michael / Boers, Maarten / Edwards, N Lawrence / Gow, Peter / Chapman, Peter / Khanna, Puja / Helliwell, Philip S / Grainger, Rebecca / Schumacher, H Ralph / Neogi, Tuhina / Jansen, Tim L / Louthrenoo, Worawit / Sivera, Francisca / Taylor, William J / Alten, Rieke. ·University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. ·J Rheumatol · Pubmed #23418379.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To identify a comprehensive list of features that might discriminate between gout and other rheumatic musculoskeletal conditions, to be used subsequently for a case-control study to develop and test new classification criteria for gout. METHODS: Two Delphi exercises were conducted using Web-based questionnaires: one with physicians from several countries who had an interest in gout and one with patients from New Zealand who had gout. Physicians rated a list of potentially discriminating features that were identified by literature review and expert opinion, and patients rated a list of features that they generated themselves. Agreement was defined by the RAND/UCLA disagreement index. RESULTS: Forty-four experienced physicians and 9 patients responded to all iterations. For physicians, 71 items were identified by literature review and 15 more were suggested by physicians. The physician survey showed agreement for 26 discriminatory features and 15 as not discriminatory. The patients identified 46 features of gout, for which there was agreement on 25 items as being discriminatory and 7 items as not discriminatory. CONCLUSION: Patients and physicians agreed upon several key features of gout. Physicians emphasized objective findings, imaging, and patterns of symptoms, whereas patients emphasized severity, functional results, and idiographic perception of symptoms.

16 Article Long-term safety of pegloticase in chronic gout refractory to conventional treatment. 2013

Becker, Michael A / Baraf, Herbert S B / Yood, Robert A / Dillon, Aileen / Vázquez-Mellado, Janitzia / Ottery, Faith D / Khanna, Dinesh / Sundy, John S. ·Rheumatology Section, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611-1713, USA. mbecker@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu ·Ann Rheum Dis · Pubmed #23144450.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term safety (up to 3 years) of treatment with pegloticase in patients with refractory chronic gout. METHODS: This open-label extension (OLE) study was conducted at 46 sites in the USA, Canada and Mexico. Patients completing either of two replicate randomised placebo-controlled 6-month trials received pegloticase 8 mg every 2 weeks (biweekly) or every 4 weeks (monthly). Safety was evaluated as the primary outcome, with special interest in gout flares and infusion-related reactions (IRs). Secondary outcomes included urate-lowering and clinical efficacy. RESULTS: Patients (n=149) received a mean±SD of 28±18 pegloticase infusions and were followed for a mean of 25±11 months. Gout flares and IRs were the most frequently reported adverse events; these were least common in patients with a sustained urate-lowering response to treatment and those receiving biweekly treatment. In 10 of the 11 patients with a serious IR, the event occurred when uric acid exceeded 6 mg/dl. Plasma and serum uric acid levels remained <6 mg/dl in most randomised controlled trial (RCT)-defined pegloticase responders throughout the OLE study and were accompanied by sustained and progressive improvements in tophus resolution and flare incidence. CONCLUSIONS: The safety profile of long-term pegloticase treatment was consistent with that observed during 6 months of RCT treatment; no new safety signals were identified. Improvements in clinical status, in the form of flare and tophus reduction initiated during RCT pegloticase treatment in patients maintaining goal range urate-lowering responses were sustained or advanced during up to 2.5 years of additional treatment.

17 Article Tophi and frequent gout flares are associated with impairments to quality of life, productivity, and increased healthcare resource use: Results from a cross-sectional survey. 2012

Khanna, Puja P / Nuki, George / Bardin, Thomas / Tausche, Anne-Kathrin / Forsythe, Anna / Goren, Amir / Vietri, Jeffrey / Khanna, Dinesh. ·University of Michigan, MI, USA. ·Health Qual Life Outcomes · Pubmed #22999027.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of gout is increasing, and most research on the associated burden has focused on serum urate (sUA) levels. The present study quantifies the impact of the presence of tophi and frequency of acute gout attacks on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), productivity, and healthcare resource utilization. METHODS: Patients with self-reported gout (n=620; 338 in US and 282 across France, Germany, and UK) were contacted based on inclusion in the 2010 US and EU National Health and Wellness Surveys (Kantar Health) and the Lightspeed Research ailment panel. Respondents were categorized into mutually-exclusive groups based on number of gout flares experienced in the past 12 months (0/don't recall, 1-2, 3, 4-5, 6+), current presence of tophi (none, 1+, or not sure), and sUA level awareness (yes, no). HRQOL (SF-12v2), healthcare provider visits in the last 6 months, and work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI) were compared across groups. RESULTS: Most patients were males, mean age of 61 years, who reported experiencing at least one acute gout flare in the past 12 months, and 12.3% (n=76) reported presence of tophi. Among the 27.7% (n=172) of patients who were aware of their sUA levels, higher sUA was associated with more flares and tophi. Decreased HRQOL was associated with more frequent flares and presence of tophi. In multivariable models predicting outcomes based on presence of tophi and number of flares, both flares (≥4) and tophi (≥1) were associated with HRQOL decrements on physical and mental component summary scores and health utilities (all p<0.05), after adjustment for age, gender, and time since diagnosis. Flares were also associated with greater activity impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Impairments associated with gout flares and presence of tophi, across patients in the US and EU, underscore the importance of effective management of this potentially curable condition.

18 Article Minimally important differences of the gout impact scale in a randomized controlled trial. 2011

Khanna, Dinesh / Sarkin, Andrew J / Khanna, Puja P / Shieh, Marian M / Kavanaugh, Arthur F / Terkeltaub, Robert A / Lee, Susan J / Singh, Jasvinder A / Hirsch, Jan D. ·Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 90095, USA. dkhanna@mednet.ucla.edu ·Rheumatology (Oxford) · Pubmed #21372003.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The Gout Impact Scale (GIS) is a gout-specific quality of life instrument that assesses impact of gout during an attack and impact of overall gout. The GIS has five scales and each is scored from 0 to 100 (worse health). Our objective was to assess minimally important differences (MIDs) for the GIS administered in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) assessing rilonacept vs placebo for prevention of gout flares during initiation of allopurinol therapy. METHODS: Trial subjects (n = 83) included those with two or more gout flares (self-reported) in the past year. Of these, 73 had data for Weeks 8 vs 4 and formed the MID analysis group and were analysed irrespective of the treatment assignment. Subjects completed the GIS and seven patient-reported anchors. Subjects with a one-step change (e.g. from very poor to poor) were considered as the MID group for each anchor. The mean change in GIS scores and effect size (ES) was calculated for each anchor's MID group. The average of these created the overall summary MID statistics for each GIS. An ES of 0.2-0.5 was considered to represent MID estimates. Results. Trial subjects (n = 73) were males (96.0%), White (90.4%), with mean age of 50.5 years and serum uric acid of 9.0 mg/dl. The mean change score for the MID improvement group for scales ranged from -5.24 to -7.61 (0-100 scale). The ES for the MID improvement group for the four scales ranged from 0.22 to 0.38. CONCLUSION: The MID estimates for GIS scales are between 5 and 8 points (0-100 scale). This information can aid in interpreting the GIS results in future gout RCTs. Trial Registration. Clinicaltrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00610363.

19 Article Long-term therapy for chronic gout results in clinically important improvements in the health-related quality of life: short form-36 is responsive to change in chronic gout. 2011

Khanna, Puja P / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Maranian, Paul / Khanna, Dinesh. ·Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. pkhanna@mednet.ucla.edu ·Rheumatology (Oxford) · Pubmed #21147824.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Short Form-36 (SF-36) is a validated outcome measure to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with gout. We assessed responsiveness to change of SF-36 in patients with gout. METHODS: SF-36 was administered at baseline and at yearly intervals. We assessed the minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) at the first and second year. We also assessed the responsiveness to change (effect size) and interpreted it based on Cohen's criteria. We modelled the improvement (defined as ≥MCID) in SF-36 scales and summary scores. Covariates included age, presence of tophi, comorbidities, baseline joint involvement, baseline serum urate, change in serum urate and the number of flares from baseline to 12 months. RESULTS: Of 99 subjects, 96 were male, mean age was 57.1 years, disease duration was 8.2 years and 40.4% had tophi. Ninety-two patients were treated with urate-lowering therapy (ULT) and daily colchicine, and seven were only on colchicine. Baseline mean serum urate level was 8.9 mg/dl and mean number of flares was 4.7 over last year. ULTs were associated with reduction in serum uric acid and number of flares (P < 0.001 for both) over 12 months. Therapy was associated with 22-70% of the patients achieving MCID in SF-36 scores at 12 months. Effect size estimates ranged from negligible to large (SF-36 mental component summary 0.08-bodily pain 1.09). Reduction in flares independently predicted improvements in three SF-36 physical scales (P = 0.001-0.06). Improvement in SF-36 scores was maintained at 2 years. CONCLUSION: In our real-life observational cohort, chronic urate lowering therapy and colchicine was associated with clinically meaningful improvements in HRQOL at 1 year and then maintained at 2 years. SF-36, especially physical domains and physical component summary, are responsive to change in gout.

20 Article Health care utilization in patients with gout. 2011

Singh, Jasvinder A / Sarkin, A / Shieh, M / Khanna, D / Terkeltaub, R / Lee, S J / Kavanaugh, A / Hirsch, J D. ·Birmingham VA Medical Center and University of Alabama 35294, USA. Jasvinder.md@gmail.com ·Semin Arthritis Rheum · Pubmed #20828793.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To study health care utilization patterns in patients with gout. METHODS: In a gout population from primary care and rheumatology clinics in 3 U.S. metropolitan cities, we collected data on gout-related utilization (primary care, rheumatology, urgent care, emergency room, and other) in the past year. We evaluated the association of comorbidities, age, gender, gout characteristics (time since last gout attack and tophi), and gout severity ratings (mean of serum uric acid, patient-rated, and physician-rated gout severity) and with emergency/urgent care and primary care utilization using regression and correlation analyses. RESULTS: Of the 296 patients who reported visiting at least 1 type of health practitioner for gout in the past year, the percentage of patients utilizing the service at least once and annual utilization rates among utilizers were as follows: primary care physician, 60%, 3.0 ± 3.4; nurse practitioner/physician assistant, 26%, 2.7 ± 2.5; rheumatologist, 51%, 3.7 ± 5.7; urgent care, 23%, 2.1 ± 2.2; emergency room, 20%, 2.0 ± 1.7; and hospitalization, 7%, 2.1 ± 1.4. Higher overall gout severity was associated with greater use of each resource type and with overall gout-related utilization. Nonemergency/nonurgent care utilization (primary care physician, nurse practitioner, physician's assistant, and rheumatologist for gout) was the strongest predictor of gout-related emergency/urgent care utilization. Patients with more comorbidities had greater gout-related primary care utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Overall gout severity was associated with all types of gout-related utilization. This may help to screen high utilizers for targeted behavioral and therapeutic interventions. Having a higher number of comorbid conditions was a risk factor for higher gout-related primary care utilization.

21 Article Predictors of doctor-rated and patient-rated gout severity: gout impact scales improve assessment. 2010

Sarkin, Andrew J / Levack, Ashley E / Shieh, Marian M / Kavanaugh, Arthur F / Khanna, Dinesh / Singh, Jasvinder A / Terkeltaub, Robert A / Lee, Susan J / Hirsch, Jan D. ·Health Services Research Center, University of California, San Diego, California, USA. asarkin@ucsd.edu ·J Eval Clin Pract · Pubmed #20722884.

ABSTRACT: RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to describe the factors associated with doctor-rated and patient-rated gout severity to explain how doctor assessment involving patient-reported outcomes can improve the clinical management of gout. METHODS: Patients completed a newly validated gout-specific health-related quality of life instrument, the Gout Impact Scale (GIS) and other questions regarding their gout. Both patients and their doctors gave an overall gout severity assessment. We conducted correlation analyses between each predictor of interest and the two different severity ratings (doctor-rated severity and patient-rated severity). Stepwise multiple regressions were performed to determine the best predictors for doctor-rated and patient-rated severity, respectively. RESULTS: Doctor-rated severity more closely correlated with objective clinical and laboratory findings, particularly the presence of tophi, which was not a leading factor in patient-rated severity assessments. Patient-rated severity more closely correlated with the domains of the GIS, which expressed the impact of gout on health-related quality of life. CONCLUSION: Doctors might have a better understanding of their patients' level of disease impact if they incorporate an instrument such as the GIS in their evaluation of gout severity and their decisions regarding aggressiveness of treatment. The increased use of patient-reported outcomes measures has the potential to improve quality of care and patient satisfaction, as well as reduce costs of health care utilization.

22 Article Perceptions of disease and health-related quality of life among patients with gout. 2009

Lee, Susan J / Hirsch, Jan D / Terkeltaub, Robert / Khanna, Dinesh / Singh, Jasvinder A / Sarkin, Andrew / Kavanaugh, Arthur. ·San Diego Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA. s2lee@ucsd.edu ·Rheumatology (Oxford) · Pubmed #19307257.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of gout on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients in three large US cities. METHODS: Gout patients completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and a series of questions regarding their gout, comorbidities and demographics. Their physicians confirmed the gout diagnosis and evaluated the severity of patient's gout. The differences in mean norm-based SF-36 scores between the US norms and gout patients and between subgroups of gout patients were calculated. The relative weight and significance of gout-related characteristics associated with patients' HRQoL were also calculated. RESULTS: The majority of the patients were males with a mean age of 62.2 years and median disease duration of 13.8 years. Most were overweight/obese with several comorbidities. Half of the patients experienced three or more gout attacks per year with a typical gout attack involving five joints and lasting for at least 4 days. The Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) was significantly lower for gout patients (P < 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). Among gout patients, the mean PCS and MCS were lower for those with more frequent gout attacks and greater number of affected joints (P < 0.005 and P < 0.001, respectively). After adjusting for age, gender and comorbidities, the number of joints involved during a typical and the worst gout attack had the greatest impact on patient's PCS and MCS. CONCLUSION: Gout patients had clinically significant lower HRQoL than their age-matched US norm. Comorbidities and several additional gout-related factors significantly impacted the overall HRQoL.

23 Article Evaluation of an instrument assessing influence of Gout on health-related quality of life. 2008

Hirsch, Jan D / Lee, Susan J / Terkeltaub, Robert / Khanna, Dinesh / Singh, Jasvinder / Sarkin, Andrew / Harvey, Jodi / Kavanaugh, Arthur. ·Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0714, USA. janhirsch@ucsd.edu ·J Rheumatol · Pubmed #18925685.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability and validity of an instrument assessing the influence of gout (acute and chronic) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: Focus groups were used to examine the content of an existing Gout Assessment Questionnaire (GAQ1.0). GAQ2.0 was developed, consisting of a section describing the impact of gout on HRQOL [Gout Impact (GI)] and 4 sections describing subjects' gout overall and demographic data. The GAQ2.0 and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Version 2 (SF-36v2) were completed by gout patients in 3 US cities. GI scales were examined using clinical judgment, review of item statistics, Rasch analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. RESULTS: Subjects (n = 308) were predominantly male (90.2%), Caucasian (75.9%), with a mean age 62.2 +/- 11.8 years. Half the subjects (49.7%) reported > or = 3 attacks in the past year. Two-week test-retest reliability for each scale was good (0.77 to 0.89) for all 5 GI scales. All scales achieved high sufficient (0.86 to 0.89) or excellent (0.93 to 0.97) ratings based on 10-item adjusted alpha coefficients. Correlations and tests among known groups indicated subjects with more severe gout had higher GI scores (i.e., greater gout impact). GI scores correlated more highly with patient-reported measures of gout severity than the SF-36v2 and several traditional measures of gout severity. CONCLUSION: The GAQ2.0 is an instrument for measuring the impact of gout on HRQOL. The GI section exhibited acceptable reliability and validity characteristics. Future studies should assess GI responsiveness, minimally important differences, and psychometric properties in other patient populations.

24 Article The disutility of chronic gout. 2008

Khanna, Dinesh / Ahmed, Mansoor / Yontz, Dustin / Ginsburg, Shaari S / Park, Grace S / Leonard, Anthony / Tsevat, Joel. ·Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, 1000 Veteran Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. dkhanna@mednet.ucla.edu ·Qual Life Res · Pubmed #18500578.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Gout is a chronic painful inflammatory arthritis. Data regarding the impact of gout on health-related quality of life, however, are limited. METHODS: We interviewed patients with chronic stable gout. Health status was measured by using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and physical component summary (MCS) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Direct preference-based measures included a health rating scale (RS), the time tradeoff (TTO), and standard gamble (SG) for one's current health state with gout and current health state without gout; indirect preference-based measures included the SF-6D and the EQ-5D. Disutilities for gout were assessed by subtracting preference scores for current health states with gout from those for current health without gout and were compared between patients ranking gout as their top health concern versus the rest of the patients. RESULTS: Of the 80 interviewees, 72 (90%) were male, 55 (69%) were Caucasian, and the mean (SD) age was 60 (11) years. The mean SF-36 PCS and MCS scores were 38.9 and 48.6, respectively. The mean (SD) SF-6D score was 0.68 (0.13) and the mean (SD) EQ-5D score was 0.73 (0.23). The mean (SD) RS disutility for gout was 0.05 (0.12), the mean TTO disutility was 0.03 (0.12), and the mean SG disutility was 0.02 (0.11). The RS disutilities of subject patients who ranked gout as their top concern (n = 17) trended towards being statistically significantly larger than those of the remaining patients, P = 0.06 but their TTO and SG disutilities were similar to those of the remaining patients. CONCLUSION: Although physical functioning of patients with gout is often compromised, patients with chronic stable gout do not assign a large disutility to gout per se. Still, patients who rank their gout as their top health concern tend to assign greater RS disutility to gout than do other patients.

25 Article Willingness to pay for a cure in patients with chronic gout. 2008

Khanna, Dinesh / Ahmed, Mansoor / Yontz, Dustin / Ginsburg, Shaari S / Tsevat, Joel. ·Division of Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA. dkhanna@mednet.ucla.edu ·Med Decis Making · Pubmed #18349436.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Gout is a chronic painful inflammatory arthritis. The authors interviewed patients with chronic stable gout to assess their hypothetical willingness to pay (WTP) to be cured of their gout. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with gout were asked how much money they would be willing to pay every month out of pocket or as a co-pay to cure their gout. To assess determinants of WTP amounts, the authors performed stepwise multivariable linear regression analysis, controlling for demographics, health status, and relative concern about gout. RESULTS: Of the 78 patients, 70 (90%) were male, 54 (69%) were Caucasian, 21 (27%) were African American, and 32 (41%) had annual incomes < $25,000. The median WTP amount was $25 ($0, $75) per month, and the mean (s) was $52 ($74) per month (range, $0-$350); 23 (30%) patients were unwilling to pay any amount. Patients who rated their gout as their top health concern were willing to pay a median of $63 ($25, $100) per month. In multivariable analysis, gout as the top health concern, greater frequency of gouty attacks over the past 1 y, and younger age were significantly associated with WTP amounts (R(2) =0:19 ). CONCLUSION: Many patients with chronic gout would be willing to pay money every month in perpetuity to be cured of their gout. Younger patients, patients whose main health concern is gout, and patients with frequent attacks are willing to pay the most.