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Gout: HELP
Articles by Geraldine M. McCarthy
Based on 19 articles published since 2010
(Why 19 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, G. McCarthy wrote the following 19 articles about Gout.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Calcium crystal deposition diseases - beyond gout. 2018

McCarthy, Geraldine M / Dunne, Aisling. ·School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. g.mccarthy@ucd.ie. · Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. g.mccarthy@ucd.ie. · School of Biochemistry and Immunology and School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. ·Nat Rev Rheumatol · Pubmed #30190520.

ABSTRACT: The most common types of calcium-containing crystals that are associated with joint and periarticular disorders are calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPP) and basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals. Several diverse but difficult-to-treat acute and chronic arthropathies and other clinical syndromes are associated with the deposition of these crystals. Although the pathogenic mechanism of calcium crystal deposition is partially understood, much remains to be investigated, as no drug is available to prevent crystal deposition, permit crystal dissolution or specifically target the pathogenic effects that result in the clinical manifestations. In this Review, the main clinical manifestations of CPP and BCP crystal deposition are discussed, along with the biological effects of these crystals, current therapeutic approaches and future directions in therapy.

2 Review Colchicine: New Insights to an Old Drug. 2015

Stack, John / Ryan, John / McCarthy, Geraldine. ·1Department of Rheumatology, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland; and 2Department of Rheumatology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. ·Am J Ther · Pubmed #24100258.

ABSTRACT: Colchicine is an ancient drug that is used for symptomatic relief in a wide range of inflammatory diseases including gout, Behçet syndrome, and familial Mediterranean fever. Recognition of its antiinflammatory properties and of its unpleasant gastrointestinal side effects date back thousands of years. Despite this, uncertainty remains concerning its mechanism of action and very few randomized controlled trials have been carried out to examine its safety and efficacy to date. Although it is an effective drug, its use is hindered by a very narrow therapeutic index. This review attempts to summarize recent developments concerning the use of colchicine in the treatment of gout with particular focus on its mechanism of action and toxicity.

3 Clinical Trial Increased platelet reactivity as measured by plasma glycoprotein VI in gout. 2018

Conway, Richard / Murphy, Claire-Louise / Madigan, Anne / Kavanagh, Patricia / Geraghty, Liz / Redmond, Niamh / Helbert, Laura / Carey, John J / Dunne, Eimear / Kenny, Dermot / McCarthy, Geraldine M. ·a Department of Rheumatology , Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin Academic Medical Centre , Dublin , Ireland. · b CARD Newman Research Fellow, University College Dublin , Dublin , Ireland. · c Centre for Rheumatology Research , University College London Division of Medicine , London , United Kingdom. · d Clinical Research Centre, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin Academic Medical Centre , Dublin , Ireland. · e Department of Rheumatology , Galway University Hospitals , Galway , Ireland. · f Cardiovascular Biology and Clinical Research Centre, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland , Dublin , Ireland. ·Platelets · Pubmed #29090618.

ABSTRACT: Patients with gout have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The glycoprotein VI (GPVI) receptor is found exclusively on platelets and megakaryocytes, is proteolytically cleaved upon platelet activation, and detectable in plasma as soluble GPVI (sGPVI). Therefore, elevated sGPVI is a marker of platelet activation and a risk marker for cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to assess platelet activation, as measured by plasma sGPVI level in gout. Blood samples were taken from patients with gout or osteoarthritis, and from healthy volunteers. Demographic and clinical data were collected for all participants. Blood samples were processed as double-spun platelet-poor plasma. Plasma sGPVI levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare groups. In total, 91 patients were included, 27 during gout flare, 41 with intercritical gout, 23 with osteoarthritis, and 53 healthy controls. Median (interquartile range) sGPVI levels were 6.51 ng/mL (4.52, 8.41) in gout flare, 3.58 ng/mL (2.11, 5.55) in intercritical gout, 2.73 ng/mL (2.17, 3.72) in osteoarthritis, and 2.19 ng/mL (1.72, 3.31) in healthy controls. Plasma sGPVI levels in both gout groups were significantly increased compared to healthy controls (p < 0.005 for each), in gout flare compared to osteoarthritis (p < 0.005), and in gout flare compared to intercritical gout (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in sGPVI levels in gout patients with and without tophi or in those prescribed colchicine. We conclude that patients with gout exhibit platelet hyperactivity as demonstrated by elevated sGPVI levels. Platelet activation is exacerbated in gout, especially during gout flares.

4 Article Systematic genetic analysis of early-onset gout: ABCG2 is the only associated locus. 2020

Zaidi, Faseeh / Narang, Ravi K / Phipps-Green, Amanda / Gamble, Greg G / Tausche, Anne-Katherin / So, Alexander / Riches, Philip / Andres, Mariano / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Doherty, Michael / Janssen, Matthijs / Joosten, Leo A B / Jansen, Tim L / Kurreeman, Fina / Torres, Rosa J / McCarthy, Geraldine M / Miner, Jeffrey N / Stamp, Lisa K / Merriman, Tony R / Dalbeth, Nicola. ·Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. · Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. · Department of Rheumatology, Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany. · Department of Medicine, Service of Rheumatology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. · Rheumatology and Bone Disease Unit, Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. · Department of Medicine, Sección de Reumatología, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. · Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Cruces, Baracaldo, Biscay, Spain. · Division of Rheumatology, Orthopaedics and Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. · Department of Rheumatology, VieCuri Medical Center, Venlo, The Netherlands. · Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Department of Medical Genetics, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. · Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. · Department of Biochemistry, La Paz University Hospital Health Research Institute (FIBHULP), IdiPaz, Madrid, Spain. · Center for Biomedical Network Research on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), ISCIII, Madrid, Spain. · Department of Rheumatology, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. · Ardea Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA. · Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. ·Rheumatology (Oxford) · Pubmed #31998961.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether serum urate-associated genetic variants are associated with early-onset gout. METHODS: Participants with gout in the Genetics of Gout in Aotearoa study with available genotyping were included (n = 1648). Early-onset gout was defined as the first presentation of gout <40 years of age. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the 10 loci most strongly associated with serum urate were genotyped. Allelic association of the SNPs with early-onset gout was tested using logistic regression in an unadjusted model and in a model adjusted for sex, body mass index, tophus presence, flare frequency, serum creatinine and highest serum urate. The analysis was also done in two replication cohorts: Eurogout (n = 704) and Ardea (n = 755), and data were meta-analysed. RESULTS: In the Genetics of Gout in Aotearoa study, there were 638 (42.4%) participants with early-onset gout. The ABCG2 rs2231142 gout risk T-allele was present more frequently in participants with early-onset gout compared with the later-onset group. For the other SNPs tested, no differences in risk allele number were observed. In the allelic association analysis, the ABCG2 rs2231142 T-allele was associated with early-onset gout in unadjusted and adjusted models. Analysis of the replication cohorts confirmed the association of early-onset gout with the ABCG2 rs2231142 T-allele, but not with other serum urate-associated SNPs. In the meta-analysis, the odds ratio (95% CI) for early-onset gout for the ABCG2 rs2231142 T-allele was 1.60 (1.41, 1.83). CONCLUSION: In contrast to other serum urate-raising variants, the ABCG2 rs2231142 T-allele is strongly associated with early-onset gout.

5 Article Gout, Hyperuricaemia and Crystal-Associated Disease Network (G-CAN) consensus statement regarding labels and definitions of disease states of gout. 2019

Bursill, David / Taylor, William J / Terkeltaub, Robert / Abhishek, Abhishek / So, Alexander K / Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz / Gaffo, Angelo Lino / Rosenthal, Ann / Tausche, Anne-Kathrin / Reginato, Anthony / Manger, Bernhard / Sciré, Carlo / Pineda, Carlos / van Durme, Caroline / Lin, Ching-Tsai / Yin, Congcong / Albert, Daniel Arthur / Biernat-Kaluza, Edyta / Roddy, Edward / Pascual, Eliseo / Becce, Fabio / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Sivera, Francisca / Lioté, Frédéric / Schett, Georg / Nuki, George / Filippou, Georgios / McCarthy, Geraldine / da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, Geraldo / Ea, Hang-Korng / Tupinambá, Helena De Almeida / Yamanaka, Hisashi / Choi, Hyon K / Mackay, James / ODell, James R / Vázquez Mellado, Janitzia / Singh, Jasvinder A / Fitzgerald, John D / Jacobsson, Lennart T H / Joosten, Leo / Harrold, Leslie R / Stamp, Lisa / Andrés, Mariano / Gutierrez, Marwin / Kuwabara, Masanari / Dehlin, Mats / Janssen, Matthijs / Doherty, Michael / Hershfield, Michael S / Pillinger, Michael / Edwards, N Lawrence / Schlesinger, Naomi / Kumar, Nitin / Slot, Ole / Ottaviani, Sebastien / Richette, Pascal / MacMullan, Paul A / Chapman, Peter T / Lipsky, Peter E / Robinson, Philip / Khanna, Puja P / Gancheva, Rada N / Grainger, Rebecca / Johnson, Richard J / Te Kampe, Ritch / Keenan, Robert T / Tedeschi, Sara K / Kim, Seoyoung / Choi, Sung Jae / Fields, Theodore R / Bardin, Thomas / Uhlig, Till / Jansen, Tim / Merriman, Tony / Pascart, Tristan / Neogi, Tuhina / Klück, Viola / Louthrenoo, Worawit / Dalbeth, Nicola. ·Department of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia davebursill@bigpond.com. · Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand. · Wellington Regional Rheumatology Unit, Hutt Valley District Health Board, Lower Hutt, New Zealand. · Department of Rheumatology, UCSD/ VA Medical Center, San Diego, California, USA. · Department of Academic Rheumatology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. · Department of Musculoskeletal Medicine, Service de RMR, Lausanne, Switzerland. · Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatology Unit, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. · Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. · Division of Rheumatology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. · Translational Research Unit, Clement J Zablocki VA Medical Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. · Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital 'Carl Gustav Carus' of the Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany. · Division of Rheumatology, The Warren Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. · Rheumatology and Immunology, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany. · Section of Rheumatology, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy. · Epidemiology Unit, Italian Society for Rheumatology, Milan, Italy. · Department of Rheumatology, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra, Mexico City, Mexico. · Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands. · Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. · Department of Immunology and Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, USA. · Department of Rheumatology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. · Outpatient Rheumatology Clinic, Nutritional and Lifestyle Medicine Centre, ORLIK, Warsaw, Poland. · Research Institute for Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Keele, UK. · Department of Rheumatology, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. · Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain. · Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. · Rheumatology Division, Cruces University Hospital, Baracaldo, Spain. · Department of Medicine, University of the Basque Country, Biscay, Spain. · Investigation Group for Arthritis, Biocruces Health Research Institute, Baracaldo, Spain. · Department of Rheumatology, Hospital General Universitario Elda, Elda, Spain. · Department of Rhumatologie, Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France. · Department of Rhumatologie, INSERM UMR-1132 and Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France. · Department of Internal Medicine III, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg and Universitatsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany. · Insititute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. · Department of Rheumatology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. · School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. · Department of Rheumatology, Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France. · Rheumatology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. · Institute of Rheumatology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. · School of Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan. · Section of Rheumatology and Clinical Epidemiology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. · President and CEO, Aristea Therapeutics, San Diego, California, USA. · Division of Rheumatology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA. · Department of Rheumatology, Hospital General de Mexico and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico. · Department of Medicine at School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. · Medicine Service, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. · Division of Epidemiology at School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. · Department of Medicine/Rheumatology, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. · Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. · Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. · Chief Scientific Officer, Corrona, LLC, Southborough, Massachusetts, USA. · Department of Medicine, Otago University, Christchurch, New Zealand. · Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. · Division of Musculoskeletal and Rheumatic Diseases, Instituto Nacional Rehabilitación, México City, México. · Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA. · Department of Cardiology, Toranomon Hospital, Minato-ku, Japan. · Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden. · Department of Rheumatology, VieCuri Medical Centre, Venlo, The Netherlands. · Division of Rheumatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA. · Department of Rheumatology/Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York City, New York, USA. · College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. · Department of Medicine, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. · Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Detroit, Michigan, USA. · Department of Rheumatology, Copenhagen Center for Arthritis Research, Center for Rheumatology and Spinal Disorders, Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark. · Department of Rheumatology, Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, University of Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. · Service de Rhumatologie, Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, and INSERM UMR-1132 and Université de Paris, Paris, France. · Division of Rheumatology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. · Department of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch, New Zealand. · CEO and CMO, AMPEL BioSolutions, LLC, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. · School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · Department of Rheumatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. · Clinic of Rheumatology, University Hospital 'St. Ivan Rilski', Sofia, Bulgaria. · Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. · Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA. · Division of Rheumatology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA. · Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. · Arthritis Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. · Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. · Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Medical College, Ansan, South Korea. · Weill Cornell Medical College, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York City, New York, USA. · Department of Rheumatology, Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, and INSERM UMR-1132 and Université de Paris, Paris, France. · Department of Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway. · Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. · Department of Rheumatology, Lille Catholic University, Saint-Philibert Hospital, Lomme, France. · Section of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. · Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. · Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. ·Ann Rheum Dis · Pubmed #31501138.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of standardisation in the terminology used to describe gout. The aim of this project was to develop a consensus statement describing the recommended nomenclature for disease states of gout. METHODS: A content analysis of gout-related articles from rheumatology and general internal medicine journals published over a 5-year period identified potential disease states and the labels commonly assigned to them. Based on these findings, experts in gout were invited to participate in a Delphi exercise and face-to-face consensus meeting to reach agreement on disease state labels and definitions. RESULTS: The content analysis identified 13 unique disease states and a total of 63 unique labels. The Delphi exercise (n=76 respondents) and face-to-face meeting (n=35 attendees) established consensus agreement for eight disease state labels and definitions. The agreed labels were as follows: 'asymptomatic hyperuricaemia', 'asymptomatic monosodium urate crystal deposition', 'asymptomatic hyperuricaemia with monosodium urate crystal deposition', 'gout', 'tophaceous gout', 'erosive gout', 'first gout flare' and 'recurrent gout flares'. There was consensus agreement that the label 'gout' should be restricted to current or prior clinically evident disease caused by monosodium urate crystal deposition (gout flare, chronic gouty arthritis or subcutaneous tophus). CONCLUSION: Consensus agreement has been established for the labels and definitions of eight gout disease states, including 'gout' itself. The Gout, Hyperuricaemia and Crystal-Associated Disease Network recommends the use of these labels when describing disease states of gout in research and clinical practice.

6 Article Gout, Hyperuricemia, and Crystal-Associated Disease Network Consensus Statement Regarding Labels and Definitions for Disease Elements in Gout. 2019

Bursill, David / Taylor, William J / Terkeltaub, Robert / Kuwabara, Masanari / Merriman, Tony R / Grainger, Rebecca / Pineda, Carlos / Louthrenoo, Worawit / Edwards, N Lawrence / Andrés, Mariano / Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz / Roddy, Edward / Pascart, Tristan / Lin, Ching-Tsai / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Tedeschi, Sara K / Kim, Seoyoung C / Harrold, Leslie R / McCarthy, Geraldine / Kumar, Nitin / Chapman, Peter T / Tausche, Anne-Kathrin / Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia / Gutierrez, Marwin / da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo / Richette, Pascal / Pascual, Eliseo / Fisher, Mark C / Burgos-Vargas, Ruben / Robinson, Philip C / Singh, Jasvinder A / Jansen, Tim L / Saag, Kenneth G / Slot, Ole / Uhlig, Tillmann / Solomon, Daniel H / Keenan, Robert T / Scire, Carlo Alberto / Biernat-Kaluza, Edyta / Dehlin, Mats / Nuki, George / Schlesinger, Naomi / Janssen, Matthijs / Stamp, Lisa K / Sivera, Francisca / Reginato, Anthony M / Jacobsson, Lennart / Lioté, Frédéric / Ea, Hang-Korng / Rosenthal, Ann / Bardin, Thomas / Choi, Hyon K / Hershfield, Michael S / Czegley, Christine / Choi, Sung Jae / Dalbeth, Nicola. ·University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, and Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. · University of Otago, Wellington, and Hutt Valley District Health Board, Lower Hutt, New Zealand. · Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California, San Diego. · Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, and University of Colorado Denver, Aurora. · University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. · Instituto Nacional Rehabilitación Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra, Mexico City, Mexico. · Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. · University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville. · Hospital Universitario de Alicante and Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain. · State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. · Keele University, Keele, UK. · Lille Catholic University and Saint-Philibert Hospital, Lomme, France. · Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. · University of the Basque Country, Biscay, and Cruces University Hospital and Biocruces Health Research Institute, Baracaldo, Spain. · Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. · Corrona, LLC, Waltham, and University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester. · Mater Misericordiae University Hospital and University College, Dublin, Ireland. · Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan. · Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand. · University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany. · Hospital General de México and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico. · Instituto Nacional Rehabilitación, Mexico City, Mexico. · Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, and INSERM UMR-1132 and Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France. · Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital Boston. · University of Queensland School of Medicine and Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Australia. · Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, and University of Alabama at Birmingham. · Viecuri Medical Centre, Venlo, The Netherlands. · University of Alabama at Birmingham. · Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark. · Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway. · Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina. · University of Ferrara, Ferrara, and Italian Society for Rheumatology, Milan, Italy. · ORLIK, Warsaw, Poland. · Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. · University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. · Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey. · University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. · Hospital General Universitario de Elda, Alicante, Spain. · Warren Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. · Medical College of Wisconsin and the Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee. · Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. · Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany. · University of California, San Diego, and Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, South Korea. · University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. ·Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) · Pubmed #29799677.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The language currently used to describe gout lacks standardization. The aim of this project was to develop a consensus statement on the labels and definitions used to describe the basic disease elements of gout. METHODS: Experts in gout (n = 130) were invited to participate in a Delphi exercise and face-to-face consensus meeting to reach consensus on the labeling and definitions for the basic disease elements of gout. Disease elements and labels in current use were derived from a content analysis of the contemporary medical literature, and the results of this analysis were used for item selection in the Delphi exercise and face-to-face consensus meeting. RESULTS: There were 51 respondents to the Delphi exercise and 30 attendees at the face-to-face meeting. Consensus agreement (≥80%) was achieved for the labels of 8 disease elements through the Delphi exercise; the remaining 3 labels reached consensus agreement through the face-to-face consensus meeting. The agreed labels were monosodium urate crystals, urate, hyperuric(a)emia, tophus, subcutaneous tophus, gout flare, intercritical gout, chronic gouty arthritis, imaging evidence of monosodium urate crystal deposition, gouty bone erosion, and podagra. Participants at the face-to-face meeting achieved consensus agreement for the definitions of all 11 elements and a recommendation that the label "chronic gout" should not be used. CONCLUSION: Consensus agreement was achieved for the labels and definitions of 11 elements representing the fundamental components of gout etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation. The Gout, Hyperuricemia, and Crystal-Associated Disease Network recommends the use of these labels when describing the basic disease elements of gout.

7 Article Monosodium urate crystals reduce osteocyte viability and indirectly promote a shift in osteocyte function towards a proinflammatory and proresorptive state. 2018

Chhana, Ashika / Pool, Bregina / Callon, Karen E / Tay, Mei Lin / Musson, David / Naot, Dorit / McCarthy, Geraldine / McGlashan, Susan / Cornish, Jillian / Dalbeth, Nicola. ·Department of Medicine, Bone & Joint Research Group, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. · Department of Rheumatology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. · Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. · Department of Medicine, Bone & Joint Research Group, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. n.dalbeth@auckland.ac.nz. · Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, 85 Park Rd, Grafton, Auckland, New Zealand. n.dalbeth@auckland.ac.nz. ·Arthritis Res Ther · Pubmed #30201038.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Bone erosion is a frequent complication of gout and is strongly associated with tophi, which are lesions comprising inflammatory cells surrounding collections of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Osteocytes are important cellular mediators of bone remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct effects of MSU crystals and indirect effects of MSU crystal-induced inflammation on osteocytes. METHODS: For direct assays, MSU crystals were added to MLO-Y4 osteocyte cell line cultures or primary mouse osteocyte cultures. For indirect assays, the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was cultured with or without MSU crystals, and conditioned medium from these cultures was added to MLO-Y4 cells. MLO-Y4 cell viability was assessed using alamarBlue® and LIVE/DEAD® assays, and MLO-Y4 cell gene expression and protein expression were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Histological analysis was used to examine the relationship between MSU crystals, inflammatory cells, and osteocytes in human joints affected by tophaceous gout. RESULTS: In direct assays, MSU crystals reduced MLO-Y4 cell and primary mouse osteocyte viability but did not alter MLO-Y4 cell gene expression. In contrast, conditioned medium from MSU crystal-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages did not affect MLO-Y4 cell viability but significantly increased MLO-Y4 cell expression of osteocyte-related factors including E11, connexin 43, and RANKL, and inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Inhibition of COX-2 in MLO-Y4 cells significantly reduced the indirect effects of MSU crystals. In histological analysis, CD68 CONCLUSIONS: MSU crystals directly inhibit osteocyte viability and, through interactions with macrophages, indirectly promote a shift in osteocyte function that favors bone resorption and inflammation. These interactions may contribute to disordered bone remodeling in gout.

8 Article Brief Report: Validation of a Definition of Flare in Patients With Established Gout. 2018

Gaffo, Angelo L / Dalbeth, Nicola / Saag, Kenneth G / Singh, Jasvinder A / Rahn, Elizabeth J / Mudano, Amy S / Chen, Yi-Hsing / Lin, Ching-Tsai / Bourke, Sandra / Louthrenoo, Worawit / Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia / Hernández-Llinas, Hansel / Neogi, Tuhina / Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz / da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo / Amorim, Rodrigo B C / Uhlig, Till / Hammer, Hilde B / Eliseev, Maxim / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Cavagna, Lorenzo / McCarthy, Geraldine M / Stamp, Lisa K / Gerritsen, Martijn / Fana, Viktoria / Sivera, Francisca / Taylor, William. ·University of Alabama at Birmingham and Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama. · University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. · University of Alabama at Birmingham. · Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. · Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. · Hospital General de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico. · Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. · Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, and Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. · Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. · Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway. · Research Institute of Rheumatology of Russia, Moscow, Russia. · University of the Basque Country, Cruces University Hospital, and Biocruces Health Research Institute, Vizcaya, Spain. · University and IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy. · Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. · University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. · Westfries Gasthuis, Hoorn, The Netherlands. · Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Hospital General Universitario Elda, Elda, Spain. · University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. ·Arthritis Rheumatol · Pubmed #29161469.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To perform external validation of a provisional definition of disease flare in patients with gout. METHODS: Five hundred nine patients with gout were enrolled in a cross-sectional study during a routine clinical care visit at 17 international sites. Data were collected to classify patients as experiencing or not experiencing a gout flare, according to a provisional definition. A local expert rheumatologist performed the final independent adjudication of gout flare status. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the diagnostic performance of gout flare definitions. RESULTS: The mean ± SD age of the patients was 57.5 ± 13.9 years, and 89% were male. The definition requiring fulfillment of at least 3 of 4 criteria (patient-defined gout flare, pain at rest score of >3 on a 0-10-point numerical rating scale, presence of at least 1 swollen joint, and presence of at least 1 warm joint) was 85% sensitive and 95% specific in confirming the presence of a gout flare, with an accuracy of 92%. The ROC area under the curve was 0.97. The definition based on a classification and regression tree algorithm (entry point, pain at rest score >3, followed by patient-defined flare "yes") was 73% sensitive and 96% specific. CONCLUSION: The definition of gout flare that requires fulfillment of at least 3 of 4 patient-reported criteria is now validated to be sensitive, specific, and accurate for gout flares, as demonstrated using an independent large international patient sample. The availability of a validated gout flare definition will improve the ascertainment of an important clinical outcome in studies of gout.

9 Article Crystal arthritis: Crystallizing our ideas about gout and osteoarthritis. 2017

McCarthy, Geraldine M / Durcan, Laura. ·School of Medicine and Medical Science, Health Sciences Centre, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland; and at the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Eccles Street, Dublin 7, Ireland. · Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland, St Stephens Green, Dublin 2, Ireland; and at Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Beaumont, Dublin 9, Ireland. ·Nat Rev Rheumatol · Pubmed #29021571.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Article Performance of Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Gout in a Multicenter Study: Comparison With Monosodium Urate Monohydrate Crystal Analysis as the Gold Standard. 2017

Ogdie, Alexis / Taylor, William J / Neogi, Tuhina / Fransen, Jaap / Jansen, Tim L / Schumacher, H Ralph / Louthrenoo, Worawit / Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia / Eliseev, Maxim / McCarthy, Geraldine / Stamp, Lisa K / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Sivera, Francisca / Ea, Hang-Korng / Gerritsen, Martijn / Cagnotto, Giovanni / Cavagna, Lorenzo / Lin, Chingtsai / Chou, Yin-Yi / Tausche, Anne-Kathrin / Lima Gomes Ochtrop, Manuella / Janssen, Matthijs / Chen, Jiunn-Horng / Slot, Ole / Lazovskis, Juris / White, Douglas / Cimmino, Marco A / Uhlig, Till / Dalbeth, Nicola. ·University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. · University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand. · Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. · VieCuri Medical Centre, Venlo, The Netherlands, and Scientific IQ HealthCare, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. · Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico. · Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology of Russia, Moscow, Russia. · University College Dublin and Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. · University of Otago Christchurch, Christchurch, New Zealand. · Hospital Universitario Cruces, BioCruces Health Research Institute, and Basque Country University, Barakaldo, Spain. · Hospital General Universitario de Elda, Alicante, Spain. · Université Paris Diderot, INSERM UMR 1132 and Service de Rhumatologie, Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, Paris, France. · Westfries Gasthuis, Hoorn, The Netherlands. · University of Pavia and IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy, and Skane University Hospital Malmö/Lund, Lund, Sweden. · University of Pavia and IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy. · Taichung Veterans' General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China. · University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany. · Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. · Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. · China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China. · Copenhagen University Hospital Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark. · Riverside Professional Centre, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada. · Waikato District Health Board and Waikato Clinical School, Hamilton, New Zealand. · University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy. · Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway. · University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. ·Arthritis Rheumatol · Pubmed #27748084.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine the performance of ultrasound (US) for the diagnosis of gout using the presence of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals as the gold standard. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria (SUGAR), a large, multicenter observational cross-sectional study of consecutive subjects with at least 1 swollen joint who conceivably may have gout. All subjects underwent arthrocentesis; cases were subjects with confirmed MSU crystals. Rheumatologists or radiologists who were blinded with regard to the results of the MSU crystal analysis performed US on 1 or more clinically affected joints. US findings of interest were double contour sign, tophus, and snowstorm appearance. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with positive US results among subjects with gout. RESULTS: US was performed in 824 subjects (416 cases and 408 controls). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for the presence of any 1 of the features were 76.9%, 84.3%, 83.3%, and 78.2%, respectively. Sensitivity was higher among subjects with a disease duration of ≥2 years and among subjects with subcutaneous nodules on examination (suspected tophus). Associations with a positive US finding included suspected clinical tophus (odds ratio [OR] 4.77 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.23-10.21]), any abnormality on plain radiography (OR 4.68 [95% CI 2.68-8.17]), and serum urate level (OR 1.31 [95% CI 1.06-1.62]). CONCLUSION: US features of MSU crystal deposition had high specificity and high PPV but more limited sensitivity for early gout. The specificity remained high in subjects with early disease and without clinical signs of tophi.

11 Article Intra-articular basic calcium phosphate and monosodium urate crystals inhibit anti-osteoclastogenic cytokine signalling. 2016

Cunningham, C C / Corr, E M / McCarthy, G M / Dunne, A. ·School of Biochemistry & Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland; School of Medicine, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address: cunnincc@tcd.ie. · School of Biochemistry & Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland; School of Medicine, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address: emcorr@tcd.ie. · Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7, Ireland. Electronic address: g.mccarthy@ucd.ie. · School of Biochemistry & Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland; School of Medicine, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address: aidunne@tcd.ie. ·Osteoarthritis Cartilage · Pubmed #27426968.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) and monosodium urate (MSU) crystals are particulates with potent pro-inflammatory effects, associated with osteoarthritis (OA) and gout, respectively. Bone erosion, due to increased osteoclastogenesis, is a hallmark of both arthropathies and results in severe joint destruction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these endogenous particulates on anti-osteoclastogenic cytokine signalling. METHODS: Human osteoclast precursors (OcP) were treated with BCP and MSU crystals prior to stimulation with Interleukin (IL-6) or Interferon (IFN-γ) and the effect on Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-3 and STAT-1 activation in addition to Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activation was examined by immunoblotting. Crystal-induced suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) protein and SH-2 containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP) expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the presence and absence of MAPK inhibitors. RESULTS: Pre-treatment with BCP or MSU crystals for 1 h inhibited IL-6-induced STAT-3 activation in human OcP, while pre-treatment for 3 h inhibited IFN-γ-induced STAT-1 activation. Both crystals activated p38 and extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) MAPKs with BCP crystals also activating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Inhibition of p38 counteracted the inhibitory effect of BCP and MSU crystals and restored STAT-3 phosphorylation. In contrast, STAT-1 phosphorylation was not restored by MAPK inhibition. Finally, both crystals potently induced the expression of SOCS-3 in a MAPK dependent manner, while BCP crystals also induced expression of SHP-1 and SHP-2. CONCLUSION: This study provides further insight into the pathogenic effects of endogenous particulates in joint arthropathies and demonstrates how they may contribute to bone erosion via the inhibition of anti-osteoclastogenic cytokine signalling. Potential targets to overcome these effects include p38 MAPK, SOCS-3 and SHP phosphatases.

12 Article Survey Definitions of Gout for Epidemiologic Studies: Comparison With Crystal Identification as the Gold Standard. 2016

Dalbeth, Nicola / Schumacher, H Ralph / Fransen, Jaap / Neogi, Tuhina / Jansen, Tim L / Brown, Melanie / Louthrenoo, Worawit / Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia / Eliseev, Maxim / McCarthy, Geraldine / Stamp, Lisa K / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Sivera, Francisca / Ea, Hang-Korng / Gerritsen, Martijn / Scire, Carlo A / Cavagna, Lorenzo / Lin, Chingtsai / Chou, Yin-Yi / Tausche, Anne-Kathrin / da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo / Janssen, Matthijs / Chen, Jiunn-Horng / Cimmino, Marco A / Uhlig, Till / Taylor, William J. ·University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. · University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. · Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. · Viecuri Medical Center, Venlo, The Netherlands. · University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand. · Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. · Hospital General de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico. · Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology of Russia, Moscow, Russia. · Geraldine McCarthy, MD, FRCPI, University College Dublin School of Medicine and Medical Science, Dublin, Ireland. · University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. · Hospital Universitario Cruces & BioCruces Health Research Institute, Vizcaya, Spain. · Hospital General Universitario de Elda, Alicante, Spain. · Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UFR de Médecine, INSERM, UMR 1132, Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, and Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France. · Westfries Gasthuis, Hoorn, The Netherlands. · Carlo A. Scire, MD, PhD, Italian Society for Rheumatology, Milan, Italy. · University and IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy. · Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. · University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany. · Universidade de Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. · Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. · China Medical University School of Medicine, Taichung, Taiwan. · University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy. · Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway. ·Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) · Pubmed #27014846.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To identify the best-performing survey definition of gout from items commonly available in epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Survey definitions of gout were identified from 34 epidemiologic studies contributing to the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC) genome-wide association study. Data from the Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria (SUGAR) were randomly divided into development and test data sets. A data-driven case definition was formed using logistic regression in the development data set. This definition, along with definitions used in GUGC studies and the 2015 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) gout classification criteria were applied to the test data set, using monosodium urate crystal identification as the gold standard. RESULTS: For all tested GUGC definitions, the simple definition of "self-report of gout or urate-lowering therapy use" had the best test performance characteristics (sensitivity 82%, specificity 72%). The simple definition had similar performance to a SUGAR data-driven case definition with 5 weighted items: self-report, self-report of doctor diagnosis, colchicine use, urate-lowering therapy use, and hyperuricemia (sensitivity 87%, specificity 70%). Both of these definitions performed better than the 1977 American Rheumatism Association survey criteria (sensitivity 82%, specificity 67%). Of all tested definitions, the 2015 ACR/EULAR criteria had the best performance (sensitivity 92%, specificity 89%). CONCLUSION: A simple definition of "self-report of gout or urate-lowering therapy use" has the best test performance characteristics of existing definitions that use routinely available data. A more complex combination of features is more sensitive, but still lacks good specificity. If a more accurate case definition is required for a particular study, the 2015 ACR/EULAR gout classification criteria should be considered.

13 Article Diagnostic Arthrocentesis for Suspicion of Gout Is Safe and Well Tolerated. 2016

Taylor, William J / Fransen, Jaap / Dalbeth, Nicola / Neogi, Tuhina / Ralph Schumacher, H / Brown, Melanie / Louthrenoo, Worawit / Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia / Eliseev, Maxim / McCarthy, Geraldine / Stamp, Lisa K / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Sivera, Francisca / Ea, Hang-Korng / Gerritsen, Martijn / Scire, Carlo A / Cavagna, Lorenzo / Lin, Chingtsai / Chou, Yin-Yi / Tausche, Anne-Kathrin / da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo / Janssen, Matthijs / Chen, Jiunn-Horng / Slot, Ole / Cimmino, Marco / Uhlig, Till / Jansen, Tim L. ·From the University of Otago, Wellington; University of Auckland, Auckland; Department of Medicine, University of Otago Christchurch, Christchurch, New Zealand; Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen; Amsterdam Rheumatology Immunology Center (ARC), Department of Rheumatology, Westfries Gasthuis, Hoorn; Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, the Netherlands; Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; Servicio de Reumatología, Hospital General de México, México City, México; Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology of Russia, Moscow, Russia; School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin; Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Cruces and BioCruces Health Research Institute, Vizcaya; Department Reumatologia, Hospital General Universitario de Elda, Alicante, Spain; Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UFR de Médecine; Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), UMR 1132, Hôpital Lariboisière; Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpital Lariboisière, Service de Rhumatologie, Centre Viggo Petersen, Pôle Appareil Locomoteur, Paris, France; Epidemiology Unit, Italian Society for Rheumatology (SIR), Milan; Division of Rheumatology, University and IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo Foundation, Pavia; Research Laboratory and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation; Taichung Veterans' General Hospital; School of Medicine, China Medical University; Department of Internal Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; Division of Rheumatology, Department of In ·J Rheumatol · Pubmed #26628602.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of adverse events of diagnostic arthrocentesis in patients with possible gout. METHODS: Consecutive patients underwent arthrocentesis and were evaluated at 6 weeks to determine adverse events. The 95% CI were obtained by bootstrapping. RESULTS: Arthrocentesis was performed in 910 patients, and 887 (97.5%) were evaluated for adverse events. Any adverse event was observed in 12 participants (1.4%, 95% CI 0.6-2.1). There was 1 case (0.1%, 95% CI 0-0.34) of septic arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic arthrocentesis is associated with a low frequency of adverse events. Septic arthritis rarely occurs.

14 Article Development of Preliminary Remission Criteria for Gout Using Delphi and 1000Minds Consensus Exercises. 2016

de Lautour, Hugh / Taylor, William J / Adebajo, Ade / Alten, Rieke / Burgos-Vargas, Ruben / Chapman, Peter / Cimmino, Marco A / da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, Geraldo / Day, Ric / Harrold, Leslie R / Helliwell, Philip / Janssen, Matthijs / Kerr, Gail / Kavanaugh, Arthur / Khanna, Dinesh / Khanna, Puja P / Lin, Chingtsai / Louthrenoo, Worawit / McCarthy, Geraldine / Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia / Mikuls, Ted R / Neogi, Tuhina / Ogdie, Alexis / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Schlesinger, Naomi / Ralph Schumacher, H / Scirè, Carlo A / Singh, Jasvinder A / Sivera, Francisca / Slot, Ole / Stamp, Lisa K / Tausche, Anne-Kathrin / Terkeltaub, Robert / Uhlig, Till / van de Laar, Mart / White, Douglas / Yamanaka, Hisashi / Zeng, Xuejun / Dalbeth, Nicola. ·Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand. · University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand. · University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. · Schlosspark-Klinik, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany. · Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico. · Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand. · Università di Genova, Genova, Italy. · Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. · University of New South Wales and St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia. · University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, and Corrona, LLC, Southborough. · Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, Leeds, UK. · Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. · Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Georgetown and Howard University Hospitals, Washington, DC. · University of California School of Medicine, San Diego. · University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. · University of Michigan and Ann Arbor VA Medical Center, Ann Arbor. · Taichung Veteran's General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. · Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. · Mater Misericordiae University Hospital and University College, Dublin, Ireland. · Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System and University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha. · Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. · University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. · Hospital Universitario Cruces, OSI-EEC, and Biocruces Health Research Institute, Biscay, Spain. · Rutgers University Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey. · IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. · University of Alabama at Birmingham and the Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham. · Hospital General Universitario Elda, Elda, Spain. · Copenhagen University Hospital Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark. · University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. · University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany. · University of California San Diego VA Medical Center, La Jolla. · National Advisory Unit on Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway. · Universiteit Twente, Erschede, The Netherlands. · Waikato DHB and Waikato Clinical School, University of Auckland, Hamilton, New Zealand. · Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan. · Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. · University of Auckland and Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand. ·Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) · Pubmed #26414176.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To establish consensus for potential remission criteria to use in clinical trials of gout. METHODS: Experts (n = 88) in gout from multiple countries were invited to participate in a web-based questionnaire study. Three rounds of Delphi consensus exercises were conducted using SurveyMonkey, followed by a discrete-choice experiment using 1000Minds software. The exercises focused on identifying domains, definitions for each domain, and the timeframe over which remission should be defined. RESULTS: There were 49 respondents (56% response) to the initial survey, with subsequent response rates ranging from 57% to 90%. Consensus was reached for the inclusion of serum urate (98% agreement), flares (96%), tophi (92%), pain (83%), and patient global assessment of disease activity (93%) as measurement domains in remission criteria. Consensus was also reached for domain definitions, including serum urate (<0.36 mm), pain (<2 on a 10-point scale), and patient global assessment (<2 on a 10-point scale), all of which should be measured at least twice over a set time interval. Consensus was not achieved in the Delphi exercise for the timeframe for remission, with equal responses for 6 months (51%) and 1 year (49%). In the discrete-choice experiment, there was a preference towards 12 months as a timeframe for remission. CONCLUSION: These consensus exercises have identified domains and provisional definitions for gout remission criteria. Based on the results of these exercises, preliminary remission criteria are proposed with domains of serum urate, acute flares, tophus, pain, and patient global assessment. These preliminary criteria now require testing in clinical data sets.

15 Article Performance of classification criteria for gout in early and established disease. 2016

Taylor, William J / Fransen, Jaap / Dalbeth, Nicola / Neogi, Tuhina / Schumacher, H Ralph / Brown, Melanie / Louthrenoo, Worawit / Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia / Eliseev, Maxim / McCarthy, Geraldine / Stamp, Lisa K / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Sivera, Francisca / Ea, Hang-Korng / Gerritsen, Martijn / Scire, Carlo / Cavagna, Lorenzo / Lin, Chingtsai / Chou, Yin-Yi / Tausche, Anne-Kathrin / da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo / Janssen, Matthijs / Chen, Jiunn-Horng / Slot, Ole / Cimmino, Marco / Uhlig, Till / Jansen, Tim L. ·Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand. · Department of Rheumatology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands. · Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. · Clinical Epidemiology Research and Training Unit, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. · VA Medical Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. · Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. · Servicio de Reumatología, Hospital General de México, México City, México. · Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology of Russia, Moscow, Russia. · School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Department of Rheumatology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. · Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, Canterbury, New Zealand. · Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Cruces & BioCruces Health Research Institute, Vizcaya, Spain. · Department Reumatologia, Hospital General Universitario de Elda, Alicante, Spain. · University of Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UFR de Médecine, Paris, France INSERM, UMR 1132, Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpital Lariboisière, Service de Rhumatologie, Centre Viggo Petersen, Pôle Appareil Locomoteur, 2, Rue Ambroise Paré, Paris, France. · Department of Rheumatology, Amsterdam Rheumatology Immunology Center (ARC), Westfries Gasthuis, Hoorn, the Netherlands. · Epidemiology Unit, Italian Society for Rheumatology (SIR), Milan, Italy. · Division of Rheumatology, University and IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy. · Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Taiwan, ROC. · Taichung Veterans' General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC. · Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany. · Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. · Department of Rheumatology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, the Netherlands. · School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC Department of Internal Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC. · Centre of Rheumatology and Spine Disorders, Copenhagen University Hospital Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark. · Research Laboratory and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, Genova, Italy. · National Advisory Unit on Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, Department of Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Vinderen, Oslo, Norway. ·Ann Rheum Dis · Pubmed #25351521.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of different classification criteria for gout in early and established disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of consecutive rheumatology clinic patients with joint swelling in which gout was defined by presence or absence of monosodium urate crystals as observed by a certified examiner at presentation. Early disease was defined as patient-reported onset of symptoms of 2 years or less. RESULTS: Data from 983 patients were collected and gout was present in 509 (52%). Early disease was present in 144 gout cases and 228 non-cases. Sensitivity across criteria was better in established disease (95.3% vs 84.1%, p<0.001) and specificity was better in early disease (79.9% vs 52.5%, p<0.001). The overall best performing clinical criteria were the Rome criteria with sensitivity/specificity in early and established disease of 60.3%/84.4% and 86.4%/63.6%. Criteria not requiring synovial fluid analysis had sensitivity and specificity of less than 80% in early and established disease. CONCLUSIONS: Existing classification criteria for gout have sensitivity of over 80% in early and established disease but currently available criteria that do not require synovial fluid analysis have inadequate specificity especially later in the disease. Classification criteria for gout with better specificity are required, although the findings should be cautiously applied to non-rheumatology clinic populations.

16 Article Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria: Identification of Features to Classify Gout. 2015

Taylor, William J / Fransen, Jaap / Jansen, Tim L / Dalbeth, Nicola / Schumacher, H Ralph / Brown, Melanie / Louthrenoo, Worawit / Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia / Eliseev, Maxim / McCarthy, Geraldine / Stamp, Lisa K / Perez-Ruiz, Fernando / Sivera, Francisca / Ea, Hang-Korng / Gerritsen, Martijn / Scire, Carlo / Cavagna, Lorenzo / Lin, Chingtsai / Chou, Yin-Yi / Tausche, Anne Kathrin / Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz / Janssen, Matthijs / Chen, Jiunn-Horng / Slot, Ole / Cimmino, Marco A / Uhlig, Till / Neogi, Tuhina. ·University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand. · Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. · University of Pennsylvania and VA Medical Center, Philadelphia. · Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. · Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico. · Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology, Moscow, Russia. · University College, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. · University of Otago Christchurch, Christchurch, New Zealand. · Hospital Universitario Cruces and BioCruces Health Research Institute, Vizcaya, Spain. · Hospital General Universitario de Elda, Alicante, Spain. · University of Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UFR de Médecine, INSERM, UMR 1132, Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, Paris, France. · Amsterdam Rheumatology Immunology Center, Westfries Gasthuis, Hoorn, The Netherlands. · Italian Society for Rheumatology, Milan, Italy. · University and IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy. · Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Taiwan. · Taichung Veterans' General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. · University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany. · Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. · Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. · China Medical University and China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. · Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark. · University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy. · Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway. · Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. ·Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) · Pubmed #25777045.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine which clinical, laboratory, and imaging features most accurately distinguished gout from non-gout. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of consecutive rheumatology clinic patients with ≥1 swollen joint or subcutaneous tophus. Gout was defined by synovial fluid or tophus aspirate microscopy by certified examiners in all patients. The sample was randomly divided into a model development (two-thirds) and test sample (one-third). Univariate and multivariate association between clinical features and monosodium urate-defined gout was determined using logistic regression modeling. Shrinkage of regression weights was performed to prevent overfitting of the final model. Latent class analysis was conducted to identify patterns of joint involvement. RESULTS: In total, 983 patients were included. Gout was present in 509 (52%). In the development sample (n = 653), the following features were selected for the final model: joint erythema (multivariate odds ratio [OR] 2.13), difficulty walking (multivariate OR 7.34), time to maximal pain <24 hours (multivariate OR 1.32), resolution by 2 weeks (multivariate OR 3.58), tophus (multivariate OR 7.29), first metatarsophalangeal (MTP1) joint ever involved (multivariate OR 2.30), location of currently tender joints in other foot/ankle (multivariate OR 2.28) or MTP1 joint (multivariate OR 2.82), serum urate level >6 mg/dl (0.36 mmoles/liter; multivariate OR 3.35), ultrasound double contour sign (multivariate OR 7.23), and radiograph erosion or cyst (multivariate OR 2.49). The final model performed adequately in the test set, with no evidence of misfit, high discrimination, and predictive ability. MTP1 joint involvement was the most common joint pattern (39.4%) in gout cases. CONCLUSION: Ten key discriminating features have been identified for further evaluation for new gout classification criteria. Ultrasound findings and degree of uricemia add discriminating value, and will significantly contribute to more accurate classification criteria.

17 Article Interactions between tenocytes and monosodium urate monohydrate crystals: implications for tendon involvement in gout. 2014

Chhana, Ashika / Callon, Karen E / Dray, Michael / Pool, Bregina / Naot, Dorit / Gamble, Greg D / Coleman, Brendan / McCarthy, Geraldine / McQueen, Fiona M / Cornish, Jillian / Dalbeth, Nicola. ·Bone & Joint Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. · Department of Histology, Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand. · Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. · Department of Rheumatology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. · Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. ·Ann Rheum Dis · Pubmed #24709860.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Advanced imaging studies have demonstrated that urate deposition in periarticular structures, such as tendons, is common in gout. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals on tenocyte viability and function. METHODS: The histological appearance of tendons in joints affected by advanced gout was examined using light microscopy. In vitro, colorimetric assays and flow cytometry were used to assess cell viability in primary rat and primary human tenocytes cultured with MSU crystals. Real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the relative mRNA expression levels of tendon-related genes, and Sirius red staining was used to measure changes in collagen deposition in primary rat tenocytes. RESULTS: In joint samples from patients with gout, MSU crystals were identified within the tendon, adjacent to and invading into tendon, and at the enthesis. MSU crystals reduced tenocyte viability in a dose-dependent manner. MSU crystals decreased the mRNA expression of tendon collagens, matrix proteins and degradative enzymes and reduced collagen protein deposition by tenocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that MSU crystals directly interact with tenocytes to reduce cell viability and function. These interactions may contribute to tendon damage in people with advanced gout.

18 Article A delphi exercise to identify characteristic features of gout - opinions from patients and physicians, the first stage in developing new classification criteria. 2013

Prowse, Rebecca L / Dalbeth, Nicola / Kavanaugh, Arthur / Adebajo, Adewale O / Gaffo, Angelo L / Terkeltaub, Robert / Mandell, Brian F / Suryana, Bagus P P / Goldenstein-Schainberg, Claudia / Diaz-Torne, Cèsar / Khanna, Dinesh / Lioté, Frederic / Mccarthy, Geraldine / Kerr, Gail S / Yamanaka, Hisashi / Janssens, Hein / Baraf, Herbert F / Chen, Jiunn-Horng / Vazquez-Mellado, Janitzia / Harrold, Leslie R / Stamp, Lisa K / Van De Laar, Mart A / Janssen, Matthijs / Doherty, Michael / Boers, Maarten / Edwards, N Lawrence / Gow, Peter / Chapman, Peter / Khanna, Puja / Helliwell, Philip S / Grainger, Rebecca / Schumacher, H Ralph / Neogi, Tuhina / Jansen, Tim L / Louthrenoo, Worawit / Sivera, Francisca / Taylor, William J / Alten, Rieke. ·University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. ·J Rheumatol · Pubmed #23418379.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To identify a comprehensive list of features that might discriminate between gout and other rheumatic musculoskeletal conditions, to be used subsequently for a case-control study to develop and test new classification criteria for gout. METHODS: Two Delphi exercises were conducted using Web-based questionnaires: one with physicians from several countries who had an interest in gout and one with patients from New Zealand who had gout. Physicians rated a list of potentially discriminating features that were identified by literature review and expert opinion, and patients rated a list of features that they generated themselves. Agreement was defined by the RAND/UCLA disagreement index. RESULTS: Forty-four experienced physicians and 9 patients responded to all iterations. For physicians, 71 items were identified by literature review and 15 more were suggested by physicians. The physician survey showed agreement for 26 discriminatory features and 15 as not discriminatory. The patients identified 46 features of gout, for which there was agreement on 25 items as being discriminatory and 7 items as not discriminatory. CONCLUSION: Patients and physicians agreed upon several key features of gout. Physicians emphasized objective findings, imaging, and patterns of symptoms, whereas patients emphasized severity, functional results, and idiographic perception of symptoms.

19 Article New approaches in the detection of calcium-containing microcrystals in synovial fluid. 2011

Hernandez-Santana, Aaron / Yavorskyy, Alexander / Loughran, Sinéad T / McCarthy, Geraldine M / McMahon, Gillian P. ·Bioanalytical Chemistry & Diagnostics Group, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Ireland. ·Bioanalysis · Pubmed #21585303.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The presence of calcium phosphate crystals such as basic calcium phosphate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in intra-articular fluid is linked to a number of destructive arthropathies and detection of these deposits is often pivotal for early diagnosis and appropriate management of such disease. RESULTS: We describe the use of a calcium-sensitive dye, Fluo-4, to selectively label calcium-containing mineral deposits in synovial fluid, which can then be easily visualized using a standard fluorescence microscope. Furthermore, we have combined the fluorescent properties of the tagged crystals with flow cytometry as a fast and semi-quantitative method of detection. CONCLUSION: Dot-plots were used to quantify differences between various types of arthropathies and confirmed by visual observation of the crystals under a fluorescence microscope.