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Hepatitis HELP
Based on 53,337 articles published since 2009
|||| 18 

These are the 53337 published articles about Hepatitis that originated from Worldwide during 2009-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline APASL clinical practice recommendation: how to treat HCV-infected patients with renal impairment? 2019

Kanda, Tatsuo / Lau, George K K / Wei, Lai / Moriyama, Mitsuhiko / Yu, Ming-Lung / Chuang, Wang-Long / Ibrahim, Alaaeldin / Lesmana, Cosmas Rinaldi Adithya / Sollano, Jose / Kumar, Manoj / Jindal, Ankur / Sharma, Barjesh Chander / Hamid, Saeed S / Dokmeci, A Kadir / Mamun-Al-Mahtab, ? / McCaughan, Geofferey W / Wasim, Jafri / Crawford, Darrell H G / Kao, Jia-Horng / Yokosuka, Osamu / Sarin, Shiv Kumar / Omata, Masao. ·Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. · Humanity and Health Medical Center, Hong Kong, SAR, China. · Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Hepatology Institute, Beijing, China. · Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. · Hepatobiliary Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. · GI/Liver Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Benha, Benha, Egypt. · Digestive Disease and GI Oncology Centre, Medistra Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. · Hepatobiliary Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia. · University Santo Tomas Hospital, Manila, Philippines. · Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India. · Department of Gastroenterology, G.B. Pant Hospital, New Delhi, India. · Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University and Hospital, Stadium Road, Karachi, 74800, Pakistan. · Department of Gastroenterology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. · Department of Hepatology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh. · Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Centenary Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. · School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, QLD, 4102, Australia. · National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. · Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan. · Yamanashi Prefectural Central Hospital, 1-1-1 Fujimi, Kofu-shi, Yamanashi, 400-8506, Japan. momata-tky@umin.ac.jp. · The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan. momata-tky@umin.ac.jp. ·Hepatol Int · Pubmed #30539517.

ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and those on hemodialysis due to nosocomial infections and past blood transfusions. While a majority of HCV-infected patients with end-stage renal disease are asymptomatic, some may ultimately experience decompensated liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. Administration of a combination of elbasvir/grazoprevir for 12 weeks leads to high sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in patients with HCV genotypes (GTs) 1a, 1b or 4 and stage 4 or 5 CKD. Furthermore, a combination of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir for 8-16 weeks also results in high SVR rates in patients with all HCV GTs and stage 4 or 5 CKD. However, these regimens are contraindicated in the presence of advanced decompensated cirrhosis. Although sofosbuvir and/or ribavirin are not generally recommended for HCV-infected patients with severe renal impairment, sofosbuvir-based regimens may be appropriate for those with mild renal impairment. To eliminate HCV worldwide, HCV-infected patients with renal impairment should be treated with interferon-free therapies.

2 Guideline Update: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of Hepatitis A Vaccine for Postexposure Prophylaxis and for Preexposure Prophylaxis for International Travel. 2018

Nelson, Noele P / Link-Gelles, Ruth / Hofmeister, Megan G / Romero, José R / Moore, Kelly L / Ward, John W / Schillie, Sarah F. · ·MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep · Pubmed #30383742.

ABSTRACT: Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with hepatitis A (HepA) vaccine or immune globulin (IG) effectively prevents infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) when administered within 2 weeks of exposure. Preexposure prophylaxis against HAV infection through the administration of HepA vaccine or IG provides protection for unvaccinated persons traveling to or working in countries that have high or intermediate HAV endemicity. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Hepatitis Vaccines Work Group conducted a systematic review of the evidence for administering vaccine for PEP to persons aged >40 years and reviewed the HepA vaccine efficacy and safety in infants and the benefits of protection against HAV before international travel. The February 21, 2018, ACIP recommendations update and supersede previous ACIP recommendations for HepA vaccine for PEP and for international travel. Current recommendations include that HepA vaccine should be administered to all persons aged ≥12 months for PEP. In addition to HepA vaccine, IG may be administered to persons aged >40 years depending on the provider's risk assessment. ACIP also recommended that HepA vaccine be administered to infants aged 6-11 months traveling outside the United States when protection against HAV is recommended. The travel-related dose for infants aged 6-11 months should not be counted toward the routine 2-dose series. The dosage of IG has been updated where applicable (0.1 mL/kg). HepA vaccine for PEP provides advantages over IG, including induction of active immunity, longer duration of protection, ease of administration, and greater acceptability and availability.

3 Guideline Updated clinical practice guidelines on pregnancy care. 2018

Homer, Caroline Se / Oats, Jeremy / Middleton, Philippa / Ramson, Jenny / Diplock, Samantha. ·Centre for Midwifery, Child and Family Health, UTS Sydney, Sydney, NSW caroline.homer@uts.edu.au. · Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC. · Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA. · Ampersand Health Science Writing, Tanja, NSW. · Department of Health, Canberra, ACT. ·Med J Aust · Pubmed #30376663.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The clinical practice guidelines on pregnancy care have been developed to provide reliable and standardised guidance for health professionals providing antenatal care in Australia. They were originally released as the Clinical Practice Guidelines: Antenatal Care in two separate editions (modules 1 and 2) in 2012 and 2014. These modules have now been combined and updated to form a single set of consolidated guidelines that were publicly released in February 2018 as the Clinical Practice Guidelines: Pregnancy Care. Eleven topics have been updated and new guidance on substance use in pregnancy has been added. Main recommendations: The updated guidelines include the following key changes to practice: recommend routine testing for hepatitis C at the first antenatal visit; recommend against routine testing for vitamin D status in the absence of a specific indication; recommend discussing weight change, diet and physical activity with all pregnant women; and recommend offering pregnant women the opportunity to be weighed at every antenatal visit and encouraging women to self-monitor weight gain. Changes in management as a result of the guidelines: The guidelines will enable pregnant women diagnosed with hepatitis C to be identified and thus avoid invasive procedures that increase the risk of mother-to-baby transmission. Women can be treated postpartum, reducing the risk of liver disease and removing the risk of perinatal infection for subsequent pregnancies. Routine testing of all pregnant women for vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation is not supported by evidence and should cease as the benefits and harms of vitamin D supplementation remain unclear. The recommendation for health professionals to provide advice to pregnant women about weight, diet and physical activity, and the opportunity to be weighed will help women to make changes leading to better health outcomes for themselves and their babies.

4 Guideline Guidelines on treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. Spanish Association for the Study of the Liver (AEEH). 2018

Calleja, Jose L / Macias, Juan / Forns, Xavier / Garcia, Federico / Berenguer, Marina / Garcia Deltoro, Miguel / Buti, Maria / Granados, Rafael / Carrion, Jose A / Morano, Luis / Fernandez, Inmaculada / Coste, Pablo / Pineda, Juan A. ·Servicio de Gastroenterología y Hepatología, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Instituto de Investigación Puerta de Hierro, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Majadahonda, Madrid, España. Electronic address: joseluis.calleja@uam.es. · Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología, Hospital Universitario de Valme, Sevilla, España; Grupo para el Estudio de las Hepatitis Víricas, Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, Madrid, España. · Servicio de Hepatología, Hospital Clínic, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, España. · Grupo para el Estudio de las Hepatitis Víricas, Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, Madrid, España; Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario San Cecilio, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs), Red de Investigación en SIDA (Retic ISCiii RD16/0025), Granada, España. · Unidad de Hepatología, Hospital Universitari i Politécnic La Fe, IIS La Fe, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, España. · Grupo para el Estudio de las Hepatitis Víricas, Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, Madrid, España; Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia, España. · Servicio de Hepatología, Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Barcelona, España. · Grupo para el Estudio de las Hepatitis Víricas, Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, Madrid, España; Servicio de Medicina Interna, Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrín, Las Palmas, España. · Sección de Hepatología, Servicio de Digestivo, Hospital del Mar, Instituto Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas (IMIM), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, España. · Grupo para el Estudio de las Hepatitis Víricas, Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, Madrid, España; Unidad de Patología Infecciosa, Hospital Universitario Álvaro Cunqueiro, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Galicia Sur (IISGS), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Vigo, Pontevedra, España. · Unidad de Hepatología, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, España. · Servicio de Gastroenterología y Hepatología, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Instituto de Investigación Puerta de Hierro, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Majadahonda, Madrid, España. ·Gastroenterol Hepatol · Pubmed #30270150.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Guideline Management of hepatitis C virus infection in patients with chronic kidney disease: position statement of the joint committee of Italian association for the study of the liver (AISF), Italian society of internal medicine (SIMI), Italian society of infectious and tropical disease (SIMIT) and Italian society of nephrology (SIN). 2018

Minutolo, Roberto / Aghemo, Alessio / Chirianni, Antonio / Fabrizi, Fabrizio / Gesualdo, Loreto / Giannini, Edoardo G / Maggi, Paolo / Montinaro, Vincenzo / Paoletti, Ernesto / Persico, Marcello / Perticone, Francesco / Petta, Salvatore / Puoti, Massimo / Raimondo, Giovanni / Rendina, Maria / Zignego, Anna Linda / Anonymous2741138. ·Division of Nephrology, Department of Scienze Mediche, Chirurgiche, Neurologiche, Metaboliche e dvecchiamento, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via M. Longo 50, 80138 Naples, Italy. Electronic address: roberto.minutolo@unicampania.it. · Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Milan, Italy; Division of Internal Medicine and Hepatology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Milan, Italy. · Third Department of Infectious Diseases Azienda Ospedaliera Ospedali dei Colli, Naples, Italy. · Division of Nephrology, Maggiore Hospital and IRCCS Foundation, Milan, Italy. · Division of Nephrology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico di Bari, Bari, Italy. · Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy. · Infectious Disease Clinic, University of Bari, Bari, Italy. · Nephrology, Dialysis, and Transplantation, University of Genoa and Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy. · Internal Medicine and Hepatology Unit, AOU San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d'Aragona, Salerno, Italy. · Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy. · Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unit, Di.Bi.M.I.S., University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy. · Division of Infectious Diseases, Niguarda Cà Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy. · Department of Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, University of Messina, Messina, Italy. · Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Section of Gastroenterology, University Hospital, Bari, Italy. · Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Interdepartmental Hepatology Center MaSVE, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. ·Dig Liver Dis · Pubmed #30266305.

ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is now considered a systemic disease due to the occurrence of extra-hepatic manifestations. Among these, the renal involvement is frequent. HCV infection, in fact, is strongly associated with proteinuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and negatively affects the prognosis of renal patients. In the last few years, availability of more specific and effective drugs against HCV has dramatically changed the clinical course of this disease. These drugs may provide further advantages in the CKD population as a whole by reducing progression of renal disease, mortality rate and by increasing the survival of graft in renal transplant recipients. The strict pathogenetic and prognostic link between HCV infection and CKD requires an ongoing relationship among the healthcare professionals involved in the treatment of both HCV infection and CKD. Therefore, Scientific Societies involved in the care of this high-risk population in Italy have organized a joint expert panel. The aim of the panel is to produce a position statement that can be used in daily clinical practice for the management of HCV infected patients across the whole spectrum of renal disease, from the conservative phase to renal replacement treatments (dialysis and transplantation). Sharing specific evidence-based expertise of different professional healthcare is the first step to obtain a common ground of knowledge on which to instate a model for multidisciplinary management of this high-risk population. Statements cover seven areas including epidemiology of CKD, HCV-induced glomerular damage, HCV-related renal risk, staging of liver disease in patients with CKD, prevention of transmission of HCV in hemodialysis units, treatment of HCV infection and management of HCV in kidney transplantation.

6 Guideline 2017 KASL clinical practice guidelines management of hepatitis C: Treatment of chronic hepatitis C. 2018

Anonymous4621236. · ·Clin Mol Hepatol · Pubmed #30092624.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Guideline [Prophylaxis, diagnosis and therapy of hepatitis-C-virus (HCV) infection: the German guidelines on the management of HCV infection - AWMF-Register-No.: 021/012]. 2018

Sarrazin, Christoph / Zimmermann, Tim / Berg, Thomas / Neumann, Ulf Peter / Schirmacher, Peter / Schmidt, Hartmut / Spengler, Ulrich / Timm, Jörg / Wedemeyer, Heiner / Wirth, Stefan / Zeuzem, Stefan / Anonymous2771383 / Anonymous2781383 / Anonymous2791383 / Anonymous2801383 / Anonymous2811383 / Anonymous2821383 / Anonymous2831383 / Anonymous2841383 / Anonymous2851383 / Anonymous2861383 / Anonymous2871383 / Anonymous2881383 / Anonymous2891383 / Anonymous2901383. ·Medizinische Klinik II mit Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie, Infektiologie, Diabetologie und Ernährungsmedizin, St. Josefs-Hospital, Wiesbaden, Germany. · Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, I. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Mainz, Germany. · Klinik für Gastroenterologie und Rheumatologie, Sektion Hepatologie, Universitätsklinikum Leipzig, Germany. · Klinik für Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Medizinische Fakultät der RWTH Aachen, Germany. · Pathologisches Institut, Ruprecht Karls Universität Heidelberg Medizinische Fakultät Heidelberg, Germany. · Medizinische Klinik B für Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Westfälische Wilhelms Universität Münster Medizinische Fakultät, Münster, Germany. · Gastroenterologie, Uniklinik Bonn, Germany. · Institut für Virologie, Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Germany. · Klinik für Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Germany. · Helios Klinikum Wuppertal, Germany. · Medizinische Klinik I, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ·Z Gastroenterol · Pubmed #29945279.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Guideline Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. 2018

Schillie, Sarah / Vellozzi, Claudia / Reingold, Arthur / Harris, Aaron / Haber, Penina / Ward, John W / Nelson, Noele P. ·Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC. · University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California. · Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC. ·MMWR Recomm Rep · Pubmed #29939980.

ABSTRACT: HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV) IS TRANSMITTED VIA BLOOD OR SEXUAL CONTACT. PERSONS WITH CHRONIC HBV INFECTION ARE AT INCREASED RISK FOR CIRRHOSIS AND LIVER CANCER AND REQUIRE MEDICAL CARE. THIS REPORT UPDATES AND SUMMARIZES PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON IMMUNIZATION PRACTICES (ACIP) AND CDC REGARDING THE PREVENTION OF HBV INFECTION IN THE UNITED STATES. ACIP RECOMMENDS TESTING ALL PREGNANT WOMEN FOR HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN (HBSAG), AND TESTING HBSAG-POSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN FOR HEPATITIS B VIRUS DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (HBV DNA); ADMINISTRATION OF HEPB VACCINE AND HEPATITIS B IMMUNE GLOBULIN (HBIG) FOR INFANTS BORN TO HBV-INFECTED WOMEN WITHIN 12 HOURS OF BIRTH, FOLLOWED BY COMPLETION OF THE VACCINE SERIES AND POSTVACCINATION SEROLOGIC TESTING; UNIVERSAL HEPATITIS B VACCINATION WITHIN 24 HOURS OF BIRTH, FOLLOWED BY COMPLETION OF THE VACCINE SERIES; AND VACCINATION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AGED <19 YEARS WHO HAVE NOT BEEN VACCINATED PREVIOUSLY. ACIP RECOMMENDS VACCINATION OF ADULTS AT RISK FOR HBV INFECTION, INCLUDING UNIVERSAL VACCINATION OF ADULTS IN SETTINGS IN WHICH A HIGH PROPORTION HAVE RISK FACTORS FOR HBV INFECTION AND VACCINATION OF ADULTS REQUESTING PROTECTION FROM HBV WITHOUT ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF A SPECIFIC RISK FACTOR. THESE RECOMMENDATIONS ALSO PROVIDE CDC GUIDANCE FOR POSTEXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS FOLLOWING OCCUPATIONAL AND OTHER EXPOSURES. THIS REPORT ALSO BRIEFLY SUMMARIZES PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY OF LIVER DISEASEST GUIDELINES FOR MATERNAL ANTIVIRAL THERAPY TO REDUCE PERINATAL HBV TRANSMISSION.

9 Guideline The Mexican consensus on the treatment of hepatitis C. 2018

Aiza-Haddad, I / Ballesteros-Amozurrutia, A / Borjas-Almaguer, O D / Castillo-Barradas, M / Castro-Narro, G / Chávez-Tapia, N / Chirino-Sprung, R A / Cisneros-Garza, L / Dehesa-Violante, M / Flores-Calderón, J / Flores-Gaxiola, A / García-Juárez, I / González-Huezo, M S / González-Moreno, E I / Higuera-de la Tijera, F / Kershenobich-Stalnikowitz, D / López-Méndez, E / Malé-Velázquez, R / Marín-López, E / Mata-Marín, J A / Méndez-Sánchez, N / Monreal-Robles, R / Moreno-Alcántar, R / Muñoz-Espinosa, L / Navarro-Alvarez, S / Pavia-Ruz, N / Pérez-Ríos, A M / Poo-Ramírez, J L / Rizo-Robles, M T / Sánchez-Ávila, J F / Sandoval-Salas, R / Torre, A / Torres-Ibarra, R / Trejo-Estrada, R / Velarde-Ruiz Velasco, J A / Wolpert-Barraza, E / Bosques-Padilla, F. ·Hospital Ángeles Lomas, Ciudad de México, México. · Hospital Ángeles del Pedregal, Ciudad de México, México. · Hospital Universitario «Dr. José Eleuterio González», Monterrey, Nuevo León, México. · Centro Médico Nacional «La Raza», Ciudad de México, México. · Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México, México. · Hospital Médica Sur, Ciudad de México, México. · Centro de Enfermedades Hepáticas del Hospital San José, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México. · Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Ciudad de México, México. · Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Ciudad de México, México. · Hospital Regional del ISSSTE, Culiacán, Sinaloa, México. · Centro Médico ISSEMYM Metepec, Toluca, Estado de México, México. · Hospital General de México «Dr. Eduardo Liceaga», Ciudad de México, México. · Instituto de Salud Digestiva y Hepática, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México. · Hospital Ángeles Puebla, Puebla, Puebla, México. · Hospital de Infectología del Centro Médico Nacional «La Raza», Ciudad de México, México. · Hospital Ángeles Tijuana, Tijuana, Baja California, México. · Hospital Infantil de México «Federico Gómez», Ciudad de México, México. · Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México. · Clínica San Jerónimo de Salud Hepática y Digestiva, Ciudad de México, México. · Hospital CAMI, Ciudad de México, México. · Centro Médico ABC, Ciudad de México, México. · Clínica Lomas Altas, Ciudad de México, México. · Centro Médico Zambrano Hellion, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México. Electronic address: fbosques58@hotmail.com. ·Rev Gastroenterol Mex · Pubmed #29803325.

ABSTRACT: The aim of the Mexican Consensus on the Treatment of HepatitisC was to develop clinical practice guidelines applicable to Mexico. The expert opinion of specialists in the following areas was taken into account: gastroenterology, infectious diseases, and hepatology. A search of the medical literature was carried out on the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases through keywords related to hepatitisC treatment. The quality of evidence was subsequently evaluated using the GRADE system and the consensus statements were formulated. The statements were then voted upon, using the modified Delphi system, and reviewed and corrected by a panel of 34 voting participants. Finally, the level of agreement was classified for each statement. The present guidelines provide recommendations with an emphasis on the new direct-acting antivirals, to facilitate their use in clinical practice. Each case must be individualized according to the comorbidities involved and patient management must always be multidisciplinary.

10 Guideline ASGE guideline for infection control during GI endoscopy. 2018

Anonymous2130941 / Calderwood, Audrey H / Day, Lukejohn W / Muthusamy, V Raman / Collins, James / Hambrick, Ralph David / Brock, Andrew S / Guda, Nalini M / Buscaglia, Jonathan M / Petersen, Bret T / Buttar, Navtej S / Khanna, Lauren G / Kushnir, Vladimir M / Repaka, Aparna / Villa, Nicolas A / Eisen, Glenn M. · ·Gastrointest Endosc · Pubmed #29573782.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

11 Guideline Practice Alert: ACIP vaccine update. 2018

Campos-Outcalt, Doug. ·University of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, USA. E-mail: dougco@email.arizona.edu. ·J Fam Pract · Pubmed #29509821.

ABSTRACT: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices made relatively few new vaccine recommendations in 2017. One pertained to prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in infants born to HBV-infected mothers. Another recommended a new vaccine to prevent shingles. A third advised considering an additional dose of mumps vaccine during an outbreak.

12 Guideline Update on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic hepatitis B: AASLD 2018 hepatitis B guidance. 2018

Terrault, Norah A / Lok, Anna S F / McMahon, Brian J / Chang, Kyong-Mi / Hwang, Jessica P / Jonas, Maureen M / Brown, Robert S / Bzowej, Natalie H / Wong, John B. ·Division of Gastroenterology/Hepatology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. · Liver Diseases and Hepatitis Program, Alaska NativeTribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK. · Division of Gastroenterology, Corporal Michael J. Crescenz VA Medical Center & University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA. · Department of General Internal Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. · Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY. · Ochsner Medical Center, New Orleans, LA. · Division of Clinical Decision Making, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA. ·Hepatology · Pubmed #29405329.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

13 Guideline ACG Clinical Guideline: Alcoholic Liver Disease. 2018

Singal, Ashwani K / Bataller, Ramon / Ahn, Joseph / Kamath, Patrick S / Shah, Vijay H. ·Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. · Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Liver Research Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. ·Am J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #29336434.

ABSTRACT: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) comprises a clinical-histologic spectrum including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis (AH), and cirrhosis with its complications. Most patients are diagnosed at advanced stages and data on the prevalence and profile of patients with early disease are limited. Diagnosis of ALD requires documentation of chronic heavy alcohol use and exclusion of other causes of liver disease. Prolonged abstinence is the most effective strategy to prevent disease progression. AH presents with rapid onset or worsening of jaundice, and in severe cases may transition to acute on chronic liver failure when the risk for mortality, depending on the number of extra-hepatic organ failures, may be as high as 20-50% at 1 month. Corticosteroids provide short-term survival benefit in about half of treated patients with severe AH and long-term mortality is related to severity of underlying liver disease and is dependent on abstinence from alcohol. General measures in patients hospitalized with ALD include inpatient management of liver disease complications, management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, surveillance for infections and early effective antibiotic therapy, nutritional supplementation, and treatment of the underlying alcohol-use disorder. Liver transplantation, a definitive treatment option in patients with advanced alcoholic cirrhosis, may also be considered in selected patients with AH cases, who do not respond to medical therapy. There is a clinical unmet need to develop more effective and safer therapies for patients with ALD.

14 Guideline Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Children: A Position Paper by the Hepatology Committee of European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. 2018

Indolfi, Giuseppe / Hierro, Loreto / Dezsofi, Antal / Jahnel, Jörg / Debray, Dominique / Hadzic, Nedim / Czubkowski, Piotr / Gupte, Girish / Mozer-Glassberg, Yael / van der Woerd, Wendy / Smets, Françoise / Verkade, Henkjan J / Fischler, Björn. ·Paediatric and Liver Unit, Meyer Children's University Hospital of Florence, Firenze, Italy. · Pediatric Liver Service Hospital Infantil Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain. · First Department of Paediatrics, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. · Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicines, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria. · Pediatric Centre, Hepatology, and Transplantation AP-HP, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France. · Paediatric Gastrointestinal, Liver and Nutrition Centre, Variety Children's Hospital, King's College Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, Camberwell, London, UK. · Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Feeding Disorders and Pediatrics, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland. · Liver Unit (Including Small Bowel Transplantation), Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham, UK. · Schneider Children's Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel. · Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. · UCL, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Brussels, Belgium. · Department of Pediatrics, Center for Liver, Digestive, and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. · Department of Paediatrics, Karolinska University Hospital, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. ·J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr · Pubmed #29287014.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: In 2017, the European Medicines Agency and the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of the fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and of the combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin for treatment of adolescents (12-17 years or weighing >35 kg) with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, 4, 5, and 6 and genotype 2 and 3 infections, respectively. Although trials with direct-acting antivirals are ongoing for younger children, the only available treatment in the United States and Europe for those <12 years is still the dual therapy of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. There is currently a lack of a systematic approach to the care of these patients. The Hepatology Committee of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition developed an evidence-based position paper for the management of chronic HCV infection in children. METHODS: A systematic literature search and meta-analysis were performed using MEDLINE and Embase from June 1, 2007 to June 1, 2017. The approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation was applied to evaluate outcomes. European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee members voted on each recommendation, using the nominal voting technique. RESULTS: The efficacy of the different direct-acting antivirals combinations tested was higher, the relapse and the treatment discontinuation rates lower when compared to pegylated interferon and ribavirin. CONCLUSIONS: This position paper addresses therapeutic management issues including goals, endpoints, indications, contraindications, and the optimal treatment regimen in children with chronic HCV infection.

15 Guideline Recommendations for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in chronic kidney disease: a position statement by the Spanish association of the liver and the kidney. 2018

Aoufi-Rabih, Sami / García-Agudo, Rebeca / Londoño, María-Carlota / Fraga-Fuentes, María-Dolores / Barril-Cuadrado, Guillermina / Anonymous4770924. ·Hepatorenal Unit, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hospital General La Mancha-Centro, Avda. de la Constitución, 3, 13600, Alcázar de San Juan, Ciudad Real, Spain. · Hepatorenal Unit, Department of Nephrology, Hospital General La Mancha-Centro, Avda de la Constitución, 3, 13600, Alcázar de San Juan, Ciudad Real, Spain. rgarciaagudo@aehr.es. · Hepatology Unit, Hospital Clínic, Carrer de Villarroel, 170, 08036, Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Pharmacy, Hospital General La Mancha-Centro, Avda de la Constitución, 3, 13600, Alcázar de San Juan, Ciudad Real, Spain. · Department of Nephrology, Hospital Universitario La Princesa, Diego de León, 62, 28006, Madrid, Spain. ·J Nephrol · Pubmed #29064081.

ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the main causes of liver cirrhosis worldwide. The long-term impact of HCV infection is highly variable, ranging from minimal histological changes to extensive fibrosis with hepatocellular carcinoma. The development of HCV drugs has increased dramatically in recent years, even in special populations such as chronic kidney disease patients. Classical treatment of chronic hepatitis C was based on the administration of interferon and ribavirin for 24-48 weeks, which was associated with a poor viral response and a high rate of side effects, especially in patients with a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate. The current high availability of the new direct-acting antivirals renders the classification of these agents for this special population necessary. The Spanish Association of the Liver and the Kidney has produced a position statement on the treatment of HCV infection in chronic kidney disease patients since the evidence to guide this treatment is scant and what evidence does exist is weak. The recommendations are based on the results of clinical trials and controlled studies conducted to date, with data published hitherto by the authors of these studies. Since the indications for treatment have been evaluated by other societies or are dependent on internal clinical protocols, the main goal of this position statement is to assist in decision-making when choosing a therapeutic option.

16 Guideline [Diagnosis and therapy of hepatitis B virus infection: Czech national guidelines]. 2017

Husa, Petr / Šperl, Jan / Urbánek, Petr / Fraňková, Soňa / Plíšek, Stanislav / Kümpel, Petr / RoŽnovský, Luděk. ·Department of Infectious Diseases University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic, e-mail: Husa.Petr@fnbrno.cz. ·Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek · Pubmed #29378384.

ABSTRACT: The new recommendations reflect the increase in knowledge that has been reported since the release of previous Czech guidelines in September 2014. The basis for these guidelines were the European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines from April 2017. According to qualified estimates, there are 240 million people with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection worldwide. The Czech Republic is among the countries with a low prevalence of HBV infection. According to the latest seroprevalence study, 0.56 % of the Czech citizens were chronically infected with HBV in 2001. A similar study conducted in only two regions of the Czech Republic in 2013 showed a prevalence of only 0.064 %. HBV infection can lead to serious life-threatening liver damage - fulminant hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The main goals of treatment are to prolong the length of life and improve its quality by preventing the progression of chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis, cirrhosis decompensation and development of HCC. The goals may be achieved if HBV replication is suppressed in a sustained manner. Additional goals are prevention of vertical transmission from mother to newborn, inhibition of HBV reactivation and therapy of HBV-related extrahepatic manifestations. Generally, there are two different strategies of chronic hepatitis B therapy available - treatment with nucleoside or nucleotide inhibitors (NIs) or with pegylated interferon alfa. Currently, the vast majority of Czech and European patients are treated with NIs. The NIs that have been approved for HBV treatment in the European Union include lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, entecavir (ETV), telbivudin (TBV), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). TAF and TBV have not yet been marketed in the Czech Republic. The main advantages of treatment with potent NIs with a high barrier to resistance (ETV, TDF, TAF) are their predictable high long-term antiviral efficacy leading to undetectable HBV DNA levels in the vast majority of compliant patients as well as their favorable safety profiles. These drugs can be used in any HBV infected patient and represent the only treatment option for patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis, liver transplants, extrahepatic HBV-related manifestations, severe acute hepatitis B or chronic HBV reactivation.

17 Guideline Recommendation for treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. 2017

Kaymakoğlu, Sabahattin / Köksal, İftihar / Tabak, Fehmi / Akarca, Ulus S / Akbulut, Ayhan / Akyüz, Filiz / Bodur, Hürrem / Çağatay, Atahan / Dinçer, Dinç / Esen, Şaban / Güner, Rahmet / Gürel, Selim / Köse, Şükran / Şentürk, Ömer / Şimşek, Halis / Yamazhan, Tansu / Yılmaz, Yusuf / Idilman, Ramazan / Guidelines Study Group, Viral Hepatitis. ·Turkish Association for the Study of the Liver, İstanbul, Turkey; Viral Hepatitis Society, Ankara, Turkey. · Viral Hepatitis Guidelines Study Group. ·Turk J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #29303106.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

18 Guideline Turkey 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on recommendations for screening diagnosing and managing hepatitis C virus. 2017

Idilman, Ramazan / Baykam, Nurcan / Kaymakoğlu, Sabahattin / Tabak, Fehmi / Bahçecioğlu, Halil I / Bektaş, Ahmet / Bulut, Cemal / Günşar, Fulya / İnan, Dilara / Karaosmanoğlu, Hayat K / Karasu, Zeki / Kuşçu, Ferit / Mete, Birgül / Özbakır, Ömer / Özdoğan, Osman C / Parlak, Mehmet / Sırmatel, Fatma / Topalak, Ömer / Ünsal, Belkis / Guidelines Study Group, Viral Hepatitis. ·Turkish Association for the Study of the Liver, İstanbul, Turkey; Viral Hepatitis Society, Ankara, Turkey. · Viral Hepatitis Guidelines Study Group. ·Turk J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #29303105.

ABSTRACT: The present guideline updates the Turkish recommendations for the screening, diagnosis and management of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prepared by the Turkish Association for the Study of the Liver (TASL) and Viral Hepatitis Society (VHS). The aim of this guidance was to provide updates recommendations to physicians, who are interested in HCV care on the optimal screening, diagnosis and pre-treatment management for patients with HCV infection in Turkey. These recommendations, produced by panel experts, were aimed to addresses the management issues ranging from diagnosis and linkage to care, to the optimal treatment regimen in patients with HCV infection. Recommendations are based on evidence and opinions of more than 70% of the panelists. This guidance is supported by the memberships of two societies and not by pharmaceutical companies. This guidance will be updated frequently as new data become available.

19 Guideline Diagnosis, management and treatment of hepatitis delta virus infection: Turkey 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines. 2017

Yurdaydın, Cihan / Tabak, Fehmi / Kaymakoğlu, Sabahattin / Akarsu, Mesut / Akıncı, Esra G / Akkız, Hikmet / Alkım, Canan / Çekin, Ayhan H / Çuvalcı, Nefise Ö / Demir, Kadir / Değertekin, Bülent / Dökmetaş, İlyas / Ersöz, Galip / Hizel, Kenan / Kandemir, Fatma Ö / Önlen, Yusuf / Sonsuz, Abdullah / Şenateş, Ebubekir / Tosun, Selma / Tözün, Nurdan / Idilman, Ramazan / Guidelines Study Group, Viral Hepatitis. ·Turkish Association for the Study of the Liver, İstanbul, Turkey; Viral Hepatitis Society, Ankara, Turkey. · Viral Hepatitis Guidelines Study Group. ·Turk J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #29303104.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

20 Guideline Diagnosis, management and treatment of hepatitis B virus infection: Turkey 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines. 2017

Tabak, Fehmi / Yurdaydın, Cihan / Kaymakoğlu, Sabahattin / Akarsu, Mesut / Akıncı, Esra G / Akkız, Hikmet / Alkım, Canan / Çekin, Ayhan H / Çuvalcı, Nefise Ö / Demir, Kadir / Değertekin, Bülent / Dökmetaş, İlyas / Ersöz, Galip / Hizel, Kenan / Kandemir, Fatma Ö / Önlen, Yusuf / Sonsuz, Abdullah / Şenateş, Ebubekir / Tosun, Selma / Tözün, Nurdan / Idilman, Ramazan / Guidelines Study Group, Viral Hepatitis. ·Turkish Association for the Study of the Liver, Istanbul, Turkey; Viral Hepatitis Society, Ankara, Turkey. · Viral Hepatitis Guidelines Study Group. ·Turk J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #29303103.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

21 Guideline Management of special patient groups with hepatitis B virus infection: The EASL 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines. 2017

Idilman, Ramazan. ·Department of Gastroenterology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. idilman@medicine.ankara.edu.tr. ·Turk J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #29082891.

ABSTRACT: The morbidity and mortality of hepatitis B virus-related liver disease are linked to the persistence of the hepatitis B virus replication. Viral suppression with antiviral therapy has been shown to provide clinical benefits. Several special groups of patients with hepatitis B virus infection require special attention. In this brief report, based on European Association for the Study of the Liver 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection, the current optimal management of special patient groups with hepatitis B virus infection is summarized.

22 Guideline The summarized of EASL 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection. 2017

Idilman, Ramazan. ·Department of Gastroenterology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. idilman@medicine.ankara.edu.tr. ·Turk J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #28936972.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

23 Guideline Position Paper on Treatment of Hepatitis C in Romania 2017. Part Two. 2017

Gheorghe, Liana / Sporea, Ioan / Iacob, Speranta / Sirli, Roxana / Trifan, Anca / Diculescu, Mircea / Stanciu, Carol / Pascu, Oliviu / Acalovschi, Monica / Brisc, Ciprian / Cijevschi, Cristina / Gheorghe, Cristian / Spârchez, Zeno / Rogoveanu, Ion / Dobru, Daniela / Dumitrascu, Dan L. ·Center for Digestive Diseases and Liver Transplantation, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania. · Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Victor Babeș University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timișoara, Romania. · Center for Digestive Diseases and Liver Transplantation, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania. msiacob@gmail.com. · Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania. · 3rd Medical Clinic, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. · Gastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Oradea, Romania. · Gastroenterology Department, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Craiova, Romania. · Gastroenterology Department, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Târgu Mureș, Romania. · 2nd Medical Clinic, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. ·J Gastrointestin Liver Dis · Pubmed #28922445.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common condition with endemic prevalence in some areas of the world. In Romania, the mean prevalence is about 3%. New treatments have become available on the market in recent years and new drugs are in the pipeline. A re-evaluation of HCV therapy was considered mandatory. The Romanian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology undertook this task for the practitioners of this country. METHODOLOGY: A group of recognized experts was created who screened the available literature and the major available guidelines. A list of items requiring attention was created and these were discussed and rated. Decisions were taken by consensus. RECOMMENDATIONS: We present here the second part of the Society's recommendations for chronic HCV infection treatment. An agreement between experts was reached regarding the therapy of the special categories of patients infected with HCV, complications and monitoring of the therapy, follow-up of the patients who reached sustained virologic response and re-treatment of the patients with therapy failure. CONCLUSIONS: This Position Paper represents a guide for the assessment and the therapy of HCV infection. The recommendations are in concordance with other guidelines but are applied to real-life conditions in Romania.

24 Guideline Hepatitis B vaccines: WHO position paper – July 2017. 2017

Anonymous1980912. · ·Wkly Epidemiol Rec · Pubmed #28685564.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

25 Guideline Recommendations for screening, monitoring, prevention, prophylaxis and therapy of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with haematologic malignancies and patients who underwent haematologic stem cell transplantation-a position paper. 2017

Sarmati, L / Andreoni, M / Antonelli, G / Arcese, W / Bruno, R / Coppola, N / Gaeta, G B / Galli, M / Girmenia, C / Mikulska, M / Pane, F / Perno, C F / Picardi, M / Puoti, M / Rambaldi, A / Svicher, V / Taliani, G / Gentile, G. ·Department of System Medicine, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy. Electronic address: sarmati@med.uniroma2.it. · Department of System Medicine, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy. · Department of Molecular Medicine, 'La Sapienza' University, Rome, Italy. · Department of Hematology, Stem Cell Transplant Unit, Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Hepatology Outpatients Unit, University of Pavia, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. · Department of Mental Health and Public Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy. · Infectious Diseases and Viral Hepatitis, Department of Mental and Physical Health and Preventive Medicine, Università della Campania, Naples, Italy. · Infectious Diseases Unit, University of Milan, L. Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy. · Dipartimento di Ematologia, Oncologia, Anatomia Patologica e Medicina Rigenerativa, Azienda Policlinico Umberto I, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy. · Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; Division of Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Martino University Hospital-IST, Genoa, Italy. · Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Hematology, Federico II University, Naples, Italy. · Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy. · Infectious Diseases Department, Azienda Ospedaliera Ospedale Niguarda Ca' Granda, Milan, Italy. · Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e di Comunità, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy. · Clinic of Infectious and Tropical Medicine, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Italy. · Department of Cellular Biotechnologies and Hematology, 'La Sapienza' University, Rome, Italy. ·Clin Microbiol Infect · Pubmed #28668466.

ABSTRACT: SCOPE: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection reactivation is associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients with haematologic malignancy and/or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, information on this issue is limited. The scope of this position paper is to provide recommendations on HBV screening, monitoring, prophylaxis, treatment and vaccination in the patients described above. METHODS: These recommendations were developed from one meeting of experts attended by different Italian scientific societies as well as from a systematic literature review (of articles published through December 31, 2016) on HBV infection in haematologic patients and in patients who underwent haematopoietic stem cell transplantation published in the same issue of the journal. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was used to assess each recommendation's quality. QUESTIONS ADDRESSED: These recommendations provide the answers to the following questions: (a) HBV screening and monitoring: Who should be screened before chemotherapy? Which screening tests should be used? Should HBV-DNA detection be used to monitor HBV reactivation before starting antivirals? What is the best timeline to monitor HBV reactivation? (b) Prophylaxis in HBsAg-positive patients: Which antiviral drugs should be used to treat HBsAg-positive patients? How long should antiviral prophylaxis be provided to HBsAg-positive patients? (c) Prophylaxis in patients with resolved HBV infection: Which patients with resolved HBV infection should receive antiviral prophylaxis? Which antiviral drug should be used? How long should antiviral prophylaxis be provided? (d) HBV infection management strategy in autologous (auto-HSCT) and allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT): Which HSCT recipients should receive antiviral prophylaxis? Which antiviral drug should be used? How long should antiviral prophylaxis be provided? (e) Choice of antiviral drugs in the treatment of HBV reactivation: Should third-generation anti-HBV drugs be preferred to first- or second-generation antiviral drugs in the treatment of HBV reactivation with or without hepatitis flare in haematologic patients? (f) Immunization against HBV in patients with haematologic malignancies and/or patients who underwent HSCT: Should these patients be vaccinated? Which HBV vaccination schedule should be adopted? RECOMMENDATIONS: Haematologic patients should be screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) plus anti-hepatitis B core protein (HBc), and HBV DNA before chemotherapy. HBV DNA levels should be monitored monthly in all HBV-positive patients who do not receive prophylaxis. HBsAg-positive haematologic patients and those undergoing HSCT should receive third-generation antiviral therapy as prophylaxis. Anti-HBc-positive lymphoma patients and those receiving HSCT should receive antiviral prophylaxis. All HBV-negative haematologic patients should be vaccinated for HBV. The acquisition of data from well-designed studies is desirable in the near future.

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