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Hepatitis: HELP
Articles from Hong Kong
Based on 549 articles published since 2008
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These are the 549 published articles about Hepatitis that originated from Hong Kong during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline International Liver Transplantation Society Consensus Statement on Hepatitis C Management in Liver Transplant Recipients. 2017

Terrault, Norah A / Berenguer, Marina / Strasser, Simone I / Gadano, Adrian / Lilly, Les / Samuel, Didier / Kwo, Paul Y / Agarwal, Kosh / Curry, Michael P / Fagiuoli, Stefano / Fung, James Y Y / Gane, Edward / Brown, Kimberly A / Burra, Patrizia / Charlton, Michael / Pessoa, Mario G / McCaughan, Geoff W. ·1 Hepatology and Transplant Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA. 2 Liver Unit, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Universidad Valencia and CIBEREHD, Valencia, Spain. 3 Australian National Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. 4 Liver Unit, Hospital Italiano, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 5 Multiorgan Transplant, University Health Network/Toronto General Hospital, Toronto Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 6 Hepatology, AP-HP Hôpital Paul-Brousse, Centre Hépato-Biliaire, Univ Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France. 7 Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA. 8 Institute of Liver Studies, Kings College Hospital, London, United Kingdom. 9 Liver Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA. 10 Gastroenterology and Transplant Hepatology, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Begamo, Italy. 11 The Liver Transplant Center, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. 12 New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. 13 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI. 14 Multivisceral Transplant Unit, Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, Padova University Hospital, Padova, Italy. 15 Utah Intermountain Transplant and Regenerative Medicine Center, Salt Lake City, UT. 16 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil. 17 Australian National Liver Transplant Unit, Centenary Research Institute, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. ·Transplantation · Pubmed #28437388.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Guideline International Liver Transplantation Society Consensus Statement on Hepatitis C Management in Liver Transplant Candidates. 2017

Terrault, Norah A / McCaughan, Geoff W / Curry, Michael P / Gane, Edward / Fagiuoli, Stefano / Fung, James Y Y / Agarwal, Kosh / Lilly, Les / Strasser, Simone I / Brown, Kimberly A / Gadano, Adrian / Kwo, Paul Y / Burra, Patrizia / Samuel, Didier / Charlton, Michael / Pessoa, Mario G / Berenguer, Marina. ·1 Hepatology and Transplant Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA. 2 Australian National Liver Transplant Unit, Centenary Research Institute, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. 3 Liver Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA. 4 New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. 5 Gastroenterology and Transplant Hepatology, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Begamo, Italy. 6 The Liver Transplant Center, Queen Mary Hospital, High West, Hong Kong. 7 Institute of Liver Studies, Kings College Hospital, London, United Kingdom. 8 Multiorgan Transplant, University Health Network/Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 9 Australian National Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. 10 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI. 11 Liver Unit, Hospital Italiano, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 12 Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA. 13 Multivisceral Transplant Unit, Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, Padova University Hospital, Padova, Italy. 14 Hepatology, AP-HP Hôpital Paul-Brousse, Centre Hépato-Biliaire, Univ Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France. 15 Utah Intermountain Transplant and Regenerative Medicine Center, Salt Lake City, UT. 16 Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil. 17 Liver Unit, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Universidad Valencia and CIBEREHD, Valencia, Spain. ·Transplantation · Pubmed #28437387.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Guideline Asian-Pacific clinical practice guidelines on the management of hepatitis B: a 2015 update. 2016

Sarin, S K / Kumar, M / Lau, G K / Abbas, Z / Chan, H L Y / Chen, C J / Chen, D S / Chen, H L / Chen, P J / Chien, R N / Dokmeci, A K / Gane, Ed / Hou, J L / Jafri, W / Jia, J / Kim, J H / Lai, C L / Lee, H C / Lim, S G / Liu, C J / Locarnini, S / Al Mahtab, M / Mohamed, R / Omata, M / Park, J / Piratvisuth, T / Sharma, B C / Sollano, J / Wang, F S / Wei, L / Yuen, M F / Zheng, S S / Kao, J H. ·Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India. shivsarin@gmail.com. · Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Humanity and Health Medical Centre, Hong Kong SAR, China. · The Institute of Translational Hepatology, Beijing, China. · Department of Hepatogastroenterlogy, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan. · Institute of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. · Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. · Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. · Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. · Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. · Liver Research Unit, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University, Chilung, Taiwan. · Department of Gastroenterology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. · New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. · Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology Unit, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, China. · Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. · Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. · , Seoul, Korea. · Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. · Internal Medicine Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore. · Research and Molecular Development, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Melbourne, Australia. · Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. · Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Yamanashi Hospitals (Central and Kita) Organization, 1-1-1 Fujimi, Kofu-shi, Yamanashi, 400-8506, Japan. · Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. · NKC Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand. · Department of Gastroenterology, G.B. Pant Hospital, New Delhi, India. · Department of Medicine, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines. · Treatment and Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing 302 Hospital, Beijing, China. · Peking University Hepatology Institute, Beijing, China. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Pofulam, Hong Kong. · Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310003, Zhejiang Province, China. · Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine and Hepatitis Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. ·Hepatol Int · Pubmed #26563120.

ABSTRACT: Worldwide, some 240 million people have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), with the highest rates of infection in Africa and Asia. Our understanding of the natural history of HBV infection and the potential for therapy of the resultant disease is continuously improving. New data have become available since the previous APASL guidelines for management of HBV infection were published in 2012. The objective of this manuscript is to update the recommendations for the optimal management of chronic HBV infection. The 2015 guidelines were developed by a panel of Asian experts chosen by the APASL. The clinical practice guidelines are based on evidence from existing publications or, if evidence was unavailable, on the experts' personal experience and opinion after deliberations. Manuscripts and abstracts of important meetings published through January 2015 have been evaluated. This guideline covers the full spectrum of care of patients infected with hepatitis B, including new terminology, natural history, screening, vaccination, counseling, diagnosis, assessment of the stage of liver disease, the indications, timing, choice and duration of single or combination of antiviral drugs, screening for HCC, management in special situations like childhood, pregnancy, coinfections, renal impairment and pre- and post-liver transplant, and policy guidelines. However, areas of uncertainty still exist, and clinicians, patients, and public health authorities must therefore continue to make choices on the basis of the evolving evidence. The final clinical practice guidelines and recommendations are presented here, along with the relevant background information.

4 Editorial Chronic hepatitis B and metabolic risk factors: A call for rigorous longitudinal studies. 2019

Seto, Wai-Kay. ·Department of Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, China. ·World J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #30686897.

ABSTRACT: Long-term nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is effective in suppressing viral replication and reducing liver-related complications. However, HBV-related liver events can still occur in different patient sub-groups. There is emerging evidence that, similar to chronic hepatitis C virus infection, metabolic risk factors may play a role in the disease process of chronic HBV. While the mechanistic nature of metabolic-HBV interactions remains uncertain, studies in different HBV-infected populations have demonstrated that hepatic steatosis, increased body-mass index, diabetes, or a combination of different metabolic risk factors are associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. The impact of metabolic risk factors is especially prominent in patients with quiescent virological activity, including on-treatment patients with effective viral suppression. As the proportion of on-treatment chronic HBV patients increases worldwide, longitudinal studies determining the relative risks of different metabolic parameters with respect to clinical outcomes are needed. Future studies should also determine if metabolic-directed interventions can improve disease outcomes in chronic HBV.

5 Editorial The growing burden of liver cirrhosis: implications for preventive measures. 2018

Wong, Martin C S / Huang, Junjie. ·Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. · Institute of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. · State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. · Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. junjie_huang@link.cuhk.edu.hk. ·Hepatol Int · Pubmed #29679258.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Hepatitis B reactivation in hepatitis B and C coinfected patients treated with antiviral agents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 2017

Chen, Guofeng / Wang, Cheng / Chen, Jing / Ji, Dong / Wang, Yudong / Wu, Vanessa / Karlberg, Johan / Lau, George. ·Beijing 302-Hong Kong Humanity and Health Hepatitis C Diagnosis and Treatment Center, Beijing, China. · Second Liver Cirrhosis Diagnosis and Treatment Center, 302 Hospital, Beijing, China. · Humanity and Health Research Centre, Hong Kong SAR, China. · State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Viral Hepatitis Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Humanity and Health Medical Centre, Hong Kong SAR, China. · Institute of Translational Hepatology, 302 Hospital, Beijing, China. ·Hepatology · Pubmed #28195337.

ABSTRACT: There is an increased awareness of hepatitis B (HBV) reactivation in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients coinfected with HBV treated with pan-oral direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the rate of HBV reactivation in CHC patients coinfected with overt HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] positive) and occult HBV (HBsAg negative with positive HBV DNA) infection separately, treated with interferon (IFN)-based therapy to those with pan-oral DAAs. The primary outcome was HBV reactivation, and the secondary outcomes included hepatitis due to HBV reactivation, sustained virologic response (SVR) for CHC, loss of HBV DNA and HBsAg seroclearance. Although the pooled incidence rate of HBV reactivation, among CHC patients with overt HBV (n = 779), was similar among those treated with IFN-based therapy (14.5%, P < 0.001) and DAAs (12.2%, P = 0.03; P = 0.91 for heterogeneity between subgroups), it was reported to occur much earlier in those treated with DAAs (4-12 weeks during treatment) than in those treated with IFN-based therapies (most at the end of treatment and some during follow-up). Also, studies with DAA-based therapies were more likely to report incidence of hepatitis due to HBV reactivation (12.2% in DAAs vs. 0% in IFN; P = 0.009 for heterogeneity between subgroups). HBV reactivation and hepatitis due to HBV reactivation also occurred, though less frequently in CHC patients with occult HBV infection. CHC SVR was not affected by HBV reactivation (P = 0.27). CONCLUSION: HBV reactivation occurs earlier and is clinically more significant in CHC patients coinfected with overt and occult HBV who are treated with pan-oral DAAs compared with IFN-based therapy. It is therefore important to have all patients screened for evidence of overt or occult HBV infection and managed during pan-oral DAAs therapy. (Hepatology 2017;66:13-26).

7 Editorial Management of hepatitis B-related cirrhosis in the era of effective antiviral therapy. 2016

Wong, Vincent W S. ·Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. · State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. ·Liver Int · Pubmed #27864872.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Editorial Hepatitis B infection in China: the stigma behind the stigmata. 2016

Liu, Ken. ·Institute of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong City, Hong Kong. · Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong City, Hong Kong. · State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong City, Hong Kong. · Faculty of Medicine, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. ·Liver Int · Pubmed #27744655.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Editorial Need to improve awareness and management of hepatitis B reactivation in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. 2016

Yuen, Man-Fung. ·Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China. mfyuen@hkucc.hku.hk. · State Key Laboratory for Liver Research, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. mfyuen@hkucc.hku.hk. ·Hepatol Int · Pubmed #26739134.

ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B reactivation in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy is not an uncommon event because of upsurge in the development of more potent and new immunosuppressive therapy (IST) including monoclonal antibodies leading to profound B cell depletion. However, this condition is still not being commonly made known to practising clinicians. More importantly, serious adverse outcomes including liver decompensation and death have been reported from time to time. This is likely related to the insufficient efforts to disseminate the knowledge or inattentive attitude from clinicians towards the need for hepatitis B virus screening before starting IST. It is of crucial importance, as these adverse outcomes are largely preventable by prophylactic or early treatment by antiviral agents. The risk of hepatitis B reactivation depends on the type and duration of the IST, patient characteristics and disease conditions. While we are eagerly waiting for a more cohesive consensual management recommendations from the different specialties who are involved in managing these patients, consolidated data are readily available for clinicians to define whether their patients would have a low or a high risk of hepatitis B reactivation. A management strategy without ambiguity should be formulated.

10 Editorial Fat and fiber: how the controlled attenuation parameter complements noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. 2015

Wong, Grace Lai-Hung / Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun. ·Institute of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China, wonglaihung@cuhk.edu.hk. ·Dig Dis Sci · Pubmed #25399331.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

11 Editorial Editorial: metabolic syndrome delays HBeAg seroclearance in Chinese patients with hepatitis B--authors' reply. 2014

Hsiang, J / Wong, G L-H / Chan, H L-Y / Wong, V W-S. ·Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Institute of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. ·Aliment Pharmacol Ther · Pubmed #25229812.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

12 Editorial Dissemination reports of health-related research. 2012

Cheung, Ivy / Collins, Richard A. ·Research Office, Food and Health Bureau, Hong Kong SAR. ·Hong Kong Med J · Pubmed #23249843.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

13 Review Novel developments of hepatitis B: treatment goals, agents and monitoring tools. 2019

Mak, Lung-Yi / Seto, Wai-Kay / Fung, James / Yuen, Man-Fung. ·a Department of Medicine , The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , Hong Kong. · b Medicine , The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital , Shenzhen , China. · c State Key Laboratory for Liver Research , The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , Hong Kong. ·Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol · Pubmed #30621472.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection causes considerable morbidity and mortality and hence should be a target for global elimination. In recent years, advances have been made in understanding the disease pathophysiology and the relationship to clinical outcome. Novel treatment targets are actively being sought in the hope of improving the treatment outlook. Areas covered: We discussed the cascade of cure of CHB with respect to the degree of persistence of viral genome and proteins. Several novel antiviral agents either targeting the virus or the host are in different clinical phases of development. Serum hepatitis B core-related antigen and HBV RNA are novel markers, which might have a role in the prediction of specific clinical outcomes such as development of hepatocellular carcinoma or virological relapse after cessation of antiviral therapy. These markers may also be used to monitor treatment response in the drug trials. Expert commentary: Global elimination of CHB is challenged by extremely low awareness of illness and poor access to care. CHB and its related complications can be reduced by birth dose vaccine, antiviral therapy, and alleviated by complication screening. Treatment options for CHB will expand in the next decade and early functional cure is not an impractical goal.

14 Review Chronic hepatitis B virus infection. 2018

Seto, Wai-Kay / Lo, Ying-Ru / Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel / Yuen, Man-Fung. ·Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China; State Key Laboratory for Liver Research, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. · WHO Representative Office in Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, and Singapore, Cyberjaya, Malaysia. · National Reference Centre for Viral Hepatitis B, C, and Delta, Department of Virology, Henri Mondor Hospital, University of Paris-Est, Créteil, France; Department of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Inserm U955, Créteil, France. · Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China; State Key Laboratory for Liver Research, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Electronic address: mfyuen@hkucc.hku.hk. ·Lancet · Pubmed #30496122.

ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a global public health threat that causes considerable liver-related morbidity and mortality. It is acquired at birth or later via person-to-person transmission. Vaccination effectively prevents infection and chronic hepatitis B virus carriage. In chronically infected patients, an elevated serum hepatitis B virus DNA concentration is the main risk factor for disease progression, although there are other clinical and viral parameters that influence disease outcomes. In addition to liver biochemistry, virological markers, and abdominal ultrasonography, non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis is emerging as an important assessment modality. Long-term nucleos(t)ide-analogue therapy is safe and well tolerated, achieves potent viral suppression, and reduces the incidence of liver-related complications. However, a need to optimise management remains. Promising novel therapies are at the developmental stage. With current vaccines, therapies, and an emphasis on improving linkage to care, WHO's goal of eliminating hepatitis B virus as a global health threat by 2030 is achievable.

15 Review Global Epidemiology, Prevention, and Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. 2018

Mak, Lung-Yi / Cruz-Ramón, Vania / Chinchilla-López, Paulina / Torres, Harrys A / LoConte, Noelle K / Rice, John P / Foxhall, Lewis E / Sturgis, Erich M / Merrill, Janette K / Bailey, Howard H / Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum / Yuen, Man-Fung / Hwang, Jessica P. ·From the Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Liver Research Unit, Medica Sur Clinic and Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico; The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI; University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, WI; American Society of Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, VA. ·Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book · Pubmed #30231359.

ABSTRACT: The incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rising. It is one of the most common cancers worldwide and accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the most important etiologies of HCC, and effective screening and management strategies are crucial to reduce the HCC risk. For HBV, which accounts for the majority of HCC cases, most infections were acquired via perinatal and early horizontal transmission. Universal vaccination of newborns has led to a decline in HCC incidence compared with the pre-vaccination era. Effective antiviral therapies with nucleos(t)ide analogues or pegylated interferon reduced the incidence of HCC. For HCV, the emergence of effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents has substantially improved cure rates; therefore all patients with HCV should be considered for DAA treatment. The most important obstacle in eliminating HCV is access to therapy. For NAFLD, the global incidence is increasing rapidly, thus its impact on HCC incidence may be explosive. Progression to HCC in NAFLD happens particularly in those with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and exacerbated by metabolic syndrome, or PNPLA3 gene polymorphism. Lifestyle changes are imperative while drug therapy has yet to demonstrate substantive protective effects on HCC prevention. For management of HCC, early diagnosis via imaging surveillance among persons with HCC risk factors remains the most important strategy to identify early-stage disease appropriate for resection or transplantation.

16 Review Dermatomyositis as an extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report and literature review. 2018

Han, Juqiang / Wang, Shuai / Kwong, Thomas Ngai Yeung / Liu, Jian. ·Institute of Hepatology, PLA Army General Hospital, Beijing, PR China. · Department of Medicine and Therapeutic, Institute of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. · Department of Rheumatology, Aerospace Center Hospital, Beijing, PR China. ·Medicine (Baltimore) · Pubmed #30113453.

ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: Dermatomyositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy with specific cutaneous manifestations, which is closely associated with malignancy. However, the exact mechanism remains elusive. Even less is known about dermatomyositis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported a case of dermatomyositis with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. He incidentally found his lower limbs little weakness accompanied with his wrist erythema. He was found HBsAg positive for forty years with slightly positive of α-fetal protein (AFP). DIAGNOSES: A dermapathology from his hand-wrist lesions demonstrated a scattered inflammatory infiltrate around the capillaries of the dermis. Abdominal enhanced computer tomography (CT) revealed infiltrative HCC affecting the whole liver, accompanied by liver metastasis and liver cirrhosis. Liver tumor needle biopsy pathology showed HCC with moderate differentiation. The left supraclavicular lymph node needle biopsy pathology confirmed metastasic HCC. INTERVENTIONS: Prednisolone was gradually withdrawn with the introduction of Entecavir 0.5 mg daily. Radiofrequency ablation therapy for liver tumor was performed once in order to decrease the tumor load. OUTCOMES: His muscle power improved to grade 4+/5 in the lower limb one month after anti-HBV treatment. However, this patient died finally from liver failure due to the development of liver tumor. LESSONS: In the coming clinic work, we must pay more attention to the extrahepatic disorder induced by HBV. On treating experience, glucocorticoid administration is often contraindicated for HBV infected patients because of its potential promotion of HBV replication. Thus, it is necessary to administrate high-effective anti-HBV drug prior to glucocorticoid treatment in order to prevent liver failure.

17 Review Systematic review with meta-analysis: Change in liver stiffness during anti-viral therapy in patients with hepatitis B. 2018

Facciorusso, Antonio / Garcia Perdomo, Herney Andres / Muscatiello, Nicola / Buccino, Rosario Vincenzo / Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun / Singh, Siddharth. ·Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy. Electronic address: antonio.facciorusso@virgilio.it. · Department of Epidemiology, University of Valle, Cali, Colombia. · Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy. · Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. · Division of Gastroenterology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States; Division of Biomedical Informatics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States. ·Dig Liver Dis · Pubmed #29807871.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Time-varying impact of anti-viral therapy on liver stiffness in patients with hepatitis B is unclear. AIMS: To estimate the magnitude and kinetics of change in liver stiffness in hepatitis B patients treated with nucleot(s)ide analogs. METHODS: Through a systematic review of multiple databases, we identified 24 studies in adults with hepatitis B who underwent transient elastography before and at least 6 months after starting nucleot(s)ide analogs therapy. We estimated change in liver stiffness 6 m, 12 m, 24 m, 36 m and 60 m after starting therapy, as weighted mean difference and 95% confidence intervals, using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Liver stiffness significantly declined by 2.21 kPa (95% CI, -1.36 to -3.05), 2.56 kPa (-2.23 to -2.89), 3.73 kPa (-2.98 to -4.49), 4.15 kPa (-2.75 to -5.54), and 5.19 kPa (-3.34 to -7.03) at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 5 years from the start of therapy, respectively (p < 0.001). High baseline alanine aminotransferase level, viral load and liver stiffness were associated with greater magnitude of decline in liver stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral therapy is associated with progressive decline in liver stiffness in patients with hepatitis B, particularly in patients with high baseline alanine aminotransferase and viral load.

18 Review An update on the toxicological considerations for protease inhibitors used for hepatitis C infection. 2018

Mak, Lung-Yi / Seto, Wai-Kay / Lai, Ching-Lung / Yuen, Man-Fung. ·a Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital , The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , China. · b State Key Lab for Liver Research , The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , China. ·Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol · Pubmed #29718748.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus protease inhibitors (PIs) are important components of many direct acting antiviral regimens. Many clinical trials and real-world studies have described the safety data for individual PIs. We aimed to review the safety of both the first and second generation PIs in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Areas covered: The unique pharmacokinetic properties of PIs partly explain their toxicities. Second generation PIs, when used without interferon and ribavirin, are well-tolerated. Use of PIs in renal impaired patients or those on dialysis appears to be safe. Decompensated cirrhosis is a contraindication for PIs use due to increased drug exposure and risk of liver decompensation. Drug-drug interactions are common and should be always monitored; some drugs should not be co-administered with PIs. In patients with co-infected hepatitis B virus, reactivation after DAA (whether PI-containing or not) is a concern. Expert opinion: Second generation PIs are key players in the current DAA era. Post-marketing surveillance is essential to monitor unknown adverse events and drug-drug interactions. Non-PI based DAA should be used in decompensated liver disease. The use of these drugs should also be explored in the paediatric population.

19 Review Deregulation of Frizzled Receptors in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. 2018

Chan, Kristy Kwan-Shuen / Lo, Regina Cheuk-Lam. ·Department of Pathology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. kristyks@pathology.hku.hk. · Department of Pathology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. reginalo@pathology.hku.hk. · State Key Laboratory for Liver Research, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. reginalo@pathology.hku.hk. ·Int J Mol Sci · Pubmed #29361730.

ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have a substantial role in tumorigenesis and are described as a "cancer driver". Aberrant expression or activation of GPCRs leads to the deregulation of downstream signaling pathways, thereby promoting cancer progression. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the Wnt signaling pathway is frequently activated and it is associated with an aggressive HCC phenotype. Frizzled (FZD) receptors, a family member of GPCRs, are known to mediate Wnt signaling. Accumulating findings have revealed the deregulation of FZD receptors in HCC and their functional roles have been implicated in HCC progression. Given the important role of FZD receptors in HCC, we summarize here the expression pattern of FZD receptors in HCC and their corresponding functional roles during HCC progression. We also further review and highlight the potential targeting of FZD receptors as an alternative therapeutic strategy in HCC.

20 Review Management of chronic hepatitis B patients in immunetolerant phase: what latest guidelines recommend. 2018

Wong, Grace Lai-Hung. ·Institute of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong SAR, China. · Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong SAR, China. · State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong SAR, China. ·Clin Mol Hepatol · Pubmed #29353469.

ABSTRACT: The natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is complex and may run through different immune phases that may overlap. In particulars, the immune-tolerant phase is the most interesting and not as well understood as we thought. The concept of true immune tolerance have been under challenged from immunology points of view. The major international guidelines have not yet reached a consensus on the definition of the immune-tolerant phase. While positive hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), high serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and normal serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are the three key features of this phase, some guidelines also put age into consideration. A new nomenclature, Phase 1 or HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection, is given by the latest European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) published in April 2017. While current guidelines advise against starting antiviral treatment for immune-tolerant CHB patients, some new data suggest treating such patients may reduce the risk of liver fibrosis progression and hepatocellular carcinoma.

21 Review Pharmacokinetic evaluation of besifovir for the treatment of HBV infection. 2018

Mak, Lung-Yi / Seto, Wai-Kay / Lai, Ching-Lung / Yuen, Man-Fung. ·a Department of Medicine , The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital , Hong Kong , China. · b State Key Laboratory for Liver Research , The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , China. ·Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol · Pubmed #29237296.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Besifovir (LB80380) is a relatively new oral acyclic nucleotide phosphonate. We reviewed the pharmacokinetic characteristics of LB80380 and discussed its role in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection. Areas covered: LB80380 is a prodrug of LB80331 and LB80317. It is rapidly absorbed when taken orally. Escalating doses of besifovir produce linear increase of the plasma concentration. Doses above 60mg are effective for inhibiting HBV in human. Using 60mg as an example, the maximal concentration of LB80331 in plasma is 397 ng/mL. The time required to reach maximal concentration in plasma and elimination half-life are 2.0 and 3.0 h, respectively. Besifovir and its metabolites are mainly excreted via the kidneys. Its antiviral efficacy is non-inferior to ETV 0.5mg daily. It is generally safe in terms of renal and bone toxicity. The most common adverse event is carnitine depletion which affects almost all patients on besifovir requiring carnitine supplementation. Expert opinion: Besifovir demonstrated predictable pharmacokinetic characteristics in human subjects. Few clinical studies on besifovir have been conducted. More data are expected particularly for special populations. The adverse events upon long term exposure should be monitored. Large scale head-to-head trials comparing besifovir with existing NA, especially tenofovir alafenamide, should be conducted.

22 Review Review article: hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg): an emerging marker for chronic hepatitis B virus infection. 2018

Mak, L-Y / Wong, D K-H / Cheung, K-S / Seto, W-K / Lai, C-L / Yuen, M-F. ·Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong. · State Key Laboratory for Liver Research, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong. ·Aliment Pharmacol Ther · Pubmed #29035003.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cannot be completely eradicated due to the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nuclei of infected hepatocytes. While quantification of intrahepatic cccDNA requires liver biopsies, serological markers can be non-invasive alternatives to reflect intrahepatic viral replicative activity. Recently, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been advocated as a novel serum marker for disease monitoring and prognostication of CHB. AIM: To examine the virological aspect and clinical application of HBcrAg with respect to the natural history and treatment of CHB. METHODS: We reviewed all papers published in the PubMed journal list and abstracts from major international meetings that included the keyword "HBcrAg" or "hepatitis B core-related antigen" until March 2017. Selected studies were compared and summarised on the basis of existing theories, as well as the authors' experience. RESULTS: HBcrAg exhibited good correlation with intrahepatic (ih) cccDNA, ih total hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, serum HBV DNA and to a lesser extent HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). In situations where serum HBV DNA levels become undetectable or HBsAg loss is achieved, HBcrAg can still be detectable. This marker is helpful in differentiation of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis from HBeAg-negative chronic infection, predicting spontaneous or treatment-induced HBeAg seroconversion, sustained response to nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA), risk of HBV reactivation in occult HBV infection under immunosuppressive therapies, and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development as well as post-operative HCC recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: HBcrAg is a potential surrogate marker of cccDNA. It may soon become a useful marker for disease monitoring, predicting treatment response and disease outcome of chronic hepatitis B.

23 Review Asia-Pacific Working Party on Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease guidelines 2017-Part 1: Definition, risk factors and assessment. 2018

Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun / Chan, Wah-Kheong / Chitturi, Shiv / Chawla, Yogesh / Dan, Yock Young / Duseja, Ajay / Fan, Jiangao / Goh, Khean-Lee / Hamaguchi, Masahide / Hashimoto, Etsuko / Kim, Seung Up / Lesmana, Laurentius Adrianto / Lin, Yu-Cheng / Liu, Chun-Jen / Ni, Yen-Hsuan / Sollano, Jose / Wong, Simon Kin-Hung / Wong, Grace Lai-Hung / Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen / Farrell, Geoff. ·Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong. · State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease and Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong. · Department of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unit, The Canberra Hospital, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. · Department of Hepatology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. · Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. · Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. · Department of Diabetology, Kameoka Municipal Hospital, Kameoka, Japan. · Departments of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan. · Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. · Digestive Disease and GI Oncology Centre, Medistra Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. · Hepatitis Research Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. · Department of Internal Medicine, Hepatitis Research Center and Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. · University of Santo Tomas, Manila, The Philippines. · Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong. ·J Gastroenterol Hepatol · Pubmed #28670712.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

24 Review Assessment of biopsy-proven liver fibrosis by two-dimensional shear wave elastography: An individual patient data-based meta-analysis. 2018

Herrmann, Eva / de Lédinghen, Victor / Cassinotto, Christophe / Chu, Winnie C-W / Leung, Vivian Y-F / Ferraioli, Giovanna / Filice, Carlo / Castera, Laurent / Vilgrain, Valérie / Ronot, Maxime / Dumortier, Jérôme / Guibal, Aymeric / Pol, Stanislas / Trebicka, Jonel / Jansen, Christian / Strassburg, Christian / Zheng, Rongqin / Zheng, Jian / Francque, Sven / Vanwolleghem, Thomas / Vonghia, Luisa / Manesis, Emanuel K / Zoumpoulis, Pavlos / Sporea, Ioan / Thiele, Maja / Krag, Aleksander / Cohen-Bacrie, Claude / Criton, Aline / Gay, Joel / Deffieux, Thomas / Friedrich-Rust, Mireen. ·Department of Medicine, Institute of Biostatistics and Mathematical Modelling, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany. · Hepatology Unit, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Bordeaux, France. · INSERM U1053, Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, France. · Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire du Haut-Lévèque, Bordeaux, France. · Institute of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. · Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. · Infectious Diseases Department, Ultrasound Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. · Department of Hepatology, Assistance Publique de Hôpitaux de ParisHôpital Universitaire Beaujon, Clichy, France. · Department of Radiology, Assistance Publique de Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Universitaire Beaujon, Clichy, France. · Department of Hepatology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Universitaire Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France. · Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Général de Perpignan, Perpignan, France. · Department of Hepatology, Assistance Publique de Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Cochin, and Université Paris Descartes and INSERM UMS20, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. · Department of Internal Medicine I, Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Bonn, Germany. · Research Unit for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark. · European Foundation for the Study of Chronic Liver Failure, Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Medical Ultrasonics, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, Belgium. · Department of Internal Medicine, Athens University School of Medicine, Athens, Greece. · Department of Radiology, Athens University School of Medicine, Athens, Greece. · Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania. · SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France. · INSERM U979-Institut Langevin-ESPCI ParisTec, Paris, France. · Department of Internal Medicine, Goethe University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany. ·Hepatology · Pubmed #28370257.

ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) has proven to be efficient for the evaluation of liver fibrosis in small to moderate-sized clinical trials. We aimed at running a larger-scale meta-analysis of individual data. Centers which have worked with Aixplorer ultrasound equipment were contacted to share their data. Retrospective statistical analysis used direct and paired receiver operating characteristic and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analyses, accounting for random effects. Data on both 2D-SWE and liver biopsy were available for 1,134 patients from 13 sites, as well as on successful transient elastography in 665 patients. Most patients had chronic hepatitis C (n = 379), hepatitis B (n = 400), or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (n = 156). AUROCs of 2D-SWE in patients with hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were 86.3%, 90.6%, and 85.5% for diagnosing significant fibrosis and 92.9%, 95.5%, and 91.7% for diagnosing cirrhosis, respectively. The AUROC of 2D-SWE was 0.022-0.084 (95% confidence interval) larger than the AUROC of transient elastography for diagnosing significant fibrosis (P = 0.001) and 0.003-0.034 for diagnosing cirrhosis (P = 0.022) in all patients. This difference was strongest in hepatitis B patients. CONCLUSION: 2D-SWE has good to excellent performance for the noninvasive staging of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B; further prospective studies are needed for head-to-head comparison between 2D-SWE and other imaging modalities to establish disease-specific appropriate cutoff points for assessment of fibrosis stage. (Hepatology 2018;67:260-272).

25 Review Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in select countries-volume 4. 2017

Maaroufi, A / Vince, A / Himatt, S M / Mohamed, R / Fung, J / Opare-Sem, O / Workneh, A / Njouom, R / Al Ghazzawi, I / Abdulla, M / Kaliaskarova, K S / Owusu-Ofori, S / Abdelmageed, M K / Adda, D / Akin, O / Al Baqali, A / Al Dweik, N / Al Ejji, K / Al Kaabi, S / Al Naamani, K / Al Qamish, J / Al Sadadi, M / Al Salman, J / AlBadri, M / Al-Busafi, S A / Al-Romaihi, H E / Ampofo, W / Antonov, K / Anyaike, C / Arome, F / Bane, A / Blach, S / Borodo, M M / Brandon, S M / Bright, B / Butt, M T / Cardenas, I / Chan, H L Y / Chen, C J / Chen, D S / Chen, P J / Chien, R N / Chuang, W L / Cuellar, D / Derbala, M / Elbardiny, A A / Estes, C / Farag, E / Gamkrelidze, I / Garcia, V / Genov, J / Ghandour, Z / Ghuloom, M / Gomez, B / Gunter, J / Habeeb, J / Hajelssedig, O / Hamoudi, W / Hrstic, I / Hu, C C / Huang, C F / Hui, Y T / Jahis, R / Jelev, D / John, A K / Kamel, Y / Kao, J H / Khamis, J / Khattabi, H / Khoudri, I / Konysbekova, A / Kotzev, I / Lai, M S / Lao, W C / Layden, J / Lee, M H / Lesi, O / Li, M / Lo, A / Loo, C K / Lukšić, B / Malu, A O / Mateva, L / Mitova, R / Morović, M / Murphy, K / Mustapha, B / Nde, H / Nersesov, A / Ngige, E / Njoya, O / Nonković, D / Obekpa, S / Oguche, S / Okolo, E E / Omede, O / Omuemu, C / Ondoa, P / Phillips, R O / Prokopenko, Y N / Razavi, H / Razavi-Shearer, D / Redae, B / Reic, T / Rinke de Wit, T / Rios, C / Robbins, S / Roberts, L R / Sanad, S J / Schmelzer, J D / Sharma, M / Simonova, M / Su, T H / Sultan, K / Tan, S S / Tchernev, K / Tsang, O T Y / Tsang, S / Tzeuton, C / Ugoeze, S / Uzochukwu, B / Vi, R / Wani, H U / Wong, V W S / Yacoub, R / Yesmembetov, K I / Youbi, M / Yuen, M F / Razavi-Shearer, K. ·National Institute of Health Administration, Rabat, Morocco. · Medical School University of Zagreb, University Hospital of Infectious Diseases Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. · Ministry of Public Health Qatar, Doha, Qatar. · University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China. · Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. · Non-Communicable Diseases Programme, World Health Organization, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · Virology Department, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaounde, Cameroon. · GI and Hepatology Department, Jordan Royal Medical Services, Amman, Jordan. · Salmaniya Medical Complex, Manama, Bahrain. · Ministry of Healthcare and Social Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Astana, Kazakhstan. · Republican Coordination Center for Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Astana, Kazakhstan. · Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. · Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar. · Civil Society Network on Hepatitis, Abuja, Nigeria. · Chagro-Care Trust (CCT), Jalingo, Nigeria. · Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria. · Al Kindi Specialised Hospital, Manama, Bahrain. · Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Armed Forces Hospital, Muscat, Oman. · Gastroenterolgy Clinic, IBN Al-Nafees Hospital, Manama, Bahrain. · Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. · Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana. · University Hospital "St. Ivan Rilski", Sofia, Bulgaria. · Advocacy for the Prevention of Hepatitis in Nigeria, Jos, Nigeria. · Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Addis Ababa University Medical School, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · Ethiopian Gastroenterological Association, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · Center for Disease Analysis (CDA), Lafayette, CO, USA. · Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. · Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. · LiveWell Initiative (LWI), Lagos, Nigeria. · Communicable Diseases Division, Ministry of Health and Social Protection, Bogota, Colombia. · Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China. · Institute of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China. · Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. · Hepatitis Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. · National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. · Liver Research Unit, Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan. · Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. · Department of Epidemiology and Demography, Ministry of Health and Social Protection, Bogota, Colombia. · Ministry of Public Health, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. · University Hospital "Queen Joanna", Sofia, Bulgaria. · BDF Hospital, Royal Medical Services, Riffa, Bahrain. · Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, USA. · Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Al Bashir Hospital, Amman, Jordan. · Jordan Ministry of Health, Amman, Jordan. · General Hospital Pula, Pula, Croatia. · Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR, China. · Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health, Putrajaya, Malaysia. · Department of Medicine, Miniya University, Minya, Egypt. · Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan. · Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, World Health Organization, Cairo, Egypt. · Republican Diagnostic Center, Astana, Kazakhstan. · University Medical Center, Astana, Kazakhstan. · University Hospital "St. Marina", Varna, Bulgaria. · Department of Medicine, North District Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR, China. · Department of Medicine, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR, China. · Department of Public Health Sciences, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. · Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. · University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. · Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR, China. · Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Kwong Wah Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR, China. · Clinical Department of Infectious Diseases, Split University Hospital and Split University Medical School, Split, Croatia. · Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Zadar General Hospital, Zadar, Croatia. · IBN SINA Hospital, Rabat, Morocco. · National Research Institute of Cardiology and Internal Diseases, Almaty, Kazakhstan. · Research Laboratory on Viral Hepatitis & Health Communication, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, Cameroon. · Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Public Health, County of Dalmatia, Split, Croatia. · Department of Pediatrics, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria. · Department of Medicine, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria. · Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. · Beacon Youth Initiative, Lafia, Nigeria. · University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. · Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · African Society of Laboratory Medicine, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · St. Paul's Hospital Millennium College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. · European Liver Patients Association, Sint-Truiden, Belgium. · PharmAccess Foundation, Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Ministry of Health and Social Protection, Bogota, Colombia. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. · Clinic of Gastroenterology, Military Medical Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria. · Department of Hepatology, Selayang Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia. · "Sofiamed" Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria. · Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Princess Margaret Hospital Authority, Hong Kong, SAR, China. · Department of Medicine, Tseung Kwan O Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR, China. · Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon. · Federal Medical Centre, Jalingo, Nigeria. · Institute of Public Health, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. · International HepatoTransplant Group, Astana, Kazakhstan. · State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China. · National Scientific Center of Oncology and Transplantology, Astana, Kazakhstan. · Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China. ·J Viral Hepat · Pubmed #29105285.

ABSTRACT: Due to the introduction of newer, more efficacious treatment options, there is a pressing need for policy makers and public health officials to develop or adapt national hepatitis C virus (HCV) control strategies to the changing epidemiological landscape. To do so, detailed, country-specific data are needed to characterize the burden of chronic HCV infection. In this study of 17 countries, a literature review of published and unpublished data on HCV prevalence, viraemia, genotype, age and gender distribution, liver transplants and diagnosis and treatment rates was conducted, and inputs were validated by expert consensus in each country. Viraemic prevalence in this study ranged from 0.2% in Hong Kong to 2.4% in Taiwan, while the largest viraemic populations were in Nigeria (2 597 000 cases) and Taiwan (569 000 cases). Diagnosis, treatment and liver transplant rates varied widely across the countries included in this analysis, as did the availability of reliable data. Addressing data gaps will be critical for the development of future strategies to manage and minimize the disease burden of hepatitis C.

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