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Herpes Zoster: HELP
Articles by D. Scott Schmid
Based on 27 articles published since 2008

Between 2008 and 2019, D. S. Schmid wrote the following 27 articles about Herpes Zoster.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2
1 Review Herpes Simplex Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus. 2016

Levin, Myron J / Weinberg, Adriana / Schmid, D Scott. · ·Microbiol Spectr · Pubmed #27337486.

ABSTRACT: The most common specimens from immunocompromised patients that are analyzed for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are from skin lesions. Many types of assays are applicable to these samples, but some, such as virus isolation and direct fluorescent antibody testing, are useful only in the early phases of the lesions. In contrast, nucleic acid (NA) detection methods, which generally have superior sensitivity and specificity, can be applied to skin lesions at any stage of progression. NA methods are also the best choice, and sometimes the only choice, for detecting HSV or VZV in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous or vitreous humor, and from mucosal surfaces. NA methods provide the best performance when reliability and speed (within 24 hours) are considered together. They readily distinguish the type of HSV detected or the source of VZV detected (wild type or vaccine strain). Nucleic acid detection methods are constantly being improved with respect to speed and ease of performance. Broader applications are under study, such as the use of quantitative results of viral load for prognosis and to assess the efficacy of antiviral therapy.

2 Review Molecular studies of the Oka varicella vaccine. 2011

Quinlivan, Mark / Breuer, Judith / Schmid, D Scott. ·Herpesvirus Team and National VZV Laboratory, MMRHLB, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. ·Expert Rev Vaccines · Pubmed #21919621.

ABSTRACT: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is one of eight members of the Herpesviridae family for which humans are the primary host; it causes two distinct diseases, varicella (chickenpox) and zoster (shingles). Varicella results from primary infection, during which the virus establishes latency in sensory neurons, a characteristic of all members of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. Zoster is caused by reactivation of latent virus, which typically occurs when cellular immunity is impaired. VZV is the first human herpesvirus for which a vaccine has been licensed. The vaccine preparation, v-Oka, is a live-attenuated virus stock produced by the classic method of tissue culture passage in animal and human cell lines. Over 90 million doses of the vaccine have been administered in countries worldwide, including the USA, where varicella morbidity and mortality has declined dramatically. Over the last decade, several laboratories have been committed to investigating the mechanism by which the Oka vaccine is attenuated. Mutations have accumulated across the genome of the vaccine during the attenuation process; however, studies of the contribution of these changes to vaccine attenuation have been hampered by the lack of a suitable animal model of VZV disease and by the heterogeneity that exists among the viral population within the vaccine preparation. Notwithstanding, a wealth of data has been generated using various laboratory methodologies. Studies of the vaccine virus in human xenografts implanted in severe combined immunodeficiency-hu mice, have enabled analyses of the replication dynamics of the vaccine in dorsal root ganglia, T lymphocytes and skin. In vitro assays have been used to investigate the effect of vaccine mutations on viral gene expression and sequence analysis of vaccine rash viruses has permitted investigations into spread of the vaccine virus in a human host. We present here a review of what has been learned thus far about the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of the Oka vaccine.

3 Review Varicella-zoster virus vaccine: molecular genetics. 2010

Schmid, D Scott. ·Herpesvirus Team and National VZV Laboratory, MMRHLB, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. SSchmid@cdc.gov ·Curr Top Microbiol Immunol · Pubmed #20225010.

ABSTRACT: The genetic differences that potentially account for the attenuation of the Oka vaccine VZV preparation are more clearly defined than for perhaps any other vaccine in current use. This is due in large part to the small number of differences between the vaccine and the parental strain from which it was derived, and to the high level of genomic conservation that characterizes VZV. This information has been used with great success to develop methods that discriminate vaccine from wild-type strains, to begin determining which specific vaccine markers contribute to the attenuated phenotype, to improve evaluations of vaccine efficacy and safety, and to observe the behavior of the live, attenuated preparation as it becomes more prevalent through widespread immunization.

4 Review Recurrent polymorphonuclear pleocytosis with increased red blood cells caused by varicella zoster virus infection of the central nervous system: Case report and review of the literature. 2010

Haug, Aaron / Mahalingam, Ravi / Cohrs, Randall J / Schmid, D Scott / Corboy, John R / Gilden, Don. ·Department of Neurology, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA. ·J Neurol Sci · Pubmed #20170926.

ABSTRACT: We describe an immunocompetent 45-year-old woman who had four episodes of neurological disease (meningoencephalitis, multifocal vasculopathy, myelitis and inflammatory brain stem disease) produced by varicella zoster virus (VZV) over an 11-month period, all in the absence of rash. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained anti-VZV IgG antibody, but not VZV DNA throughout her illness, reaffirming the superiority of detection of anti-VZV IgG in CSF compared to VZV DNA in diagnosing VZV infection of the nervous system. Moreover, 3 of 7 CSF samples examined during the 11 months showed a VZV-induced pleocytosis consisting predominantly of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), and 4 of 7 samples also contained increased numbers of red blood cells (RBCs). Because increased PMNs and RBCs in CSF can also occur in patients with central and peripheral nervous system disease produced by cytomegalovirus (CMV), the differential diagnosis of chronic nervous system infection with increased PMNs and RBCs in CSF should include analyses for both VZV and CMV.

5 Review Vaccine Oka variants and sequence variability in vaccine-related skin lesions. 2008

Breuer, Judith / Schmid, D Scott. ·Skin Virus Laboratory, Centre for Cutaneous Research, St. Bartholomew's and The Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary College, London, United Kingdom. ·J Infect Dis · Pubmed #18419409.

ABSTRACT: As with most live attenuated viral vaccines, varicella vaccine comprises a mixture of variant strains. Knowledge about the pathogenic potential of individual strains in the varicella vaccine is limited. Vaccination against chickenpox causes a usually modified varicella-like rash in a small percentage of healthy children, and vaccine virus reactivates on rare occasions to cause herpes zoster (HZ). In several published studies, our respective laboratories have analyzed genomic variation among specimens from cases of postvaccination rash and HZ in vaccine recipients, focusing on polymorphisms between vaccine Oka strains and the parental Oka strain. In most respects, these studies were in close agreement, identifying the set of wild-type markers among vaccine adverse event isolates, each occurring at similar frequencies. The same 3 universally present vaccine markers, at positions 106262, 107252, and 108111, were also identified by both laboratories. One notable difference has been the observation of mostly clonal vaccine virus among isolates examined by one laboratory and mostly mixed viruses in isolates examined by the other. In addition to reviewing and comparing our combined observations, we propose possible explanations for our contrasting findings and propose future studies to reconcile them.

6 Article Family history of zoster and risk of developing herpes zoster. 2018

Tseng, Hung Fu / Chi, Margaret / Hung, Peggy / Harpaz, Rafael / Schmid, D Scott / LaRussa, Philip / Sy, Lina S / Luo, Yi / Holmquist, Kimberly / Takhar, Harpreet / Jacobsen, Steven J. ·Department of Research Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, CA, USA. Electronic address: Hung-Fu.x.Tseng@kp.org. · Department of Research Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, CA, USA. · Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Department of Pediatrics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York City, NY, USA. ·Int J Infect Dis · Pubmed #29146515.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies have investigated a possible association between family history of HZ and the occurrence of HZ. However, the results were inconclusive and susceptible to bias. We evaluated this association in an elderly population. METHODS: The matched case-control study conducted at Kaiser Permanente Southern California in 2012-2015 included 656 incident HZ patients ≥60 whose skin lesion tested positive for varicella zoster virus by polymerase chain reaction. Half of the HZ patients were vaccinated with zoster vaccine as achieved by stratified sampling. The controls were randomly selected and 1:1 matched to the cases on sex, age (±1year), and zoster vaccination (±3 months of the case's vaccination date). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Having any blood relative with a history of HZ was associated with a slightly increased risk of HZ (adjusted OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.05-1.79). The adjusted OR associated with having one and two categories of first-degree blood relatives with a history of HZ was 1.30 (95% CI: 0.97-1.73) and 2.53 (95% CI: 1.17-5.44), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested a weak association between the development of HZ and a positive family history of HZ among the elderly population.

7 Article Late Onset Hypomorphic RAG2 Deficiency Presentation with Fatal Vaccine-Strain VZV Infection. 2015

Dutmer, Cullen M / Asturias, Edwin J / Smith, Christiana / Dishop, Megan K / Schmid, D Scott / Bellini, William J / Tirosh, Irit / Lee, Yu Nee / Notarangelo, Luigi D / Gelfand, Erwin W. ·Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, K801, Denver, CO, 80206-2761, USA. · Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA. · Center for Global Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, USA. · Department of Pathology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA. · Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Division of Immunology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, K801, Denver, CO, 80206-2761, USA. gelfande@njc.org. ·J Clin Immunol · Pubmed #26515615.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Hypomorphic mutations in RAG1 and RAG2 are associated with significant clinical heterogeneity and symptoms of immunodeficiency or autoimmunity may be late in appearance. As a result, immunosuppressive medications may be introduced that can have life-threatening consequences. We describe a previously healthy 13-month-old girl presenting with rash and autoimmune hemolytic anemia, while highlighting the importance of vigilance and consideration of an underlying severe immunodeficiency disease prior to instituting immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: Given clinical deterioration of the patient and a temporal association with recently administered vaccinations, virus genotyping was carried out via 4 real-time Forster Resonance Energy Transfer PCR protocols targeting vaccine-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and analyzed via the next-generation sequencing method of sequencing-by-synthesis. Immune function studies included immunophenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes, mitogen-induced proliferation and TLR ligand-induced production of TNFα. Analysis of recombination activity of wild-type and mutant RAG2 constructs was performed. RESULTS: Virus genotyping revealed vaccine-strain VZV, mumps, and rubella. Next-generation sequencing identified heterozygosity for RAG2 R73H and P180H mutations. Profound lymphopenia was associated with intense corticosteroid therapy, with some recovery after steroid reduction. Residual, albeit low, RAG2 protein activity was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the association of RAG deficiency with late-onset presentation and autoimmunity, live virus vaccination and immunosuppressive therapies are often initiated and can result in negative consequences. Here, hypomorphic RAG2 mutations were linked to disseminated vaccine-strain virus infections following institution of corticosteroid therapy for autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

8 Article A Toddler With Rash, Encephalopathy, and Hemolytic Anemia. 2015

Smith, Christiana / Dutmer, Cullen / Schmid, D Scott / Dishop, Megan K / Bellini, William J / Gelfand, Erwin W / Asturias, Edwin J. ·Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. · Department of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado. · Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. · Department of Pathology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora. · Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Center for Global Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora. ·J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · Pubmed #26407265.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Article Zoster Vaccination Increases the Breadth of CD4+ T Cells Responsive to Varicella Zoster Virus. 2015

Laing, Kerry J / Russell, Ronnie M / Dong, Lichun / Schmid, D Scott / Stern, Michael / Magaret, Amalia / Haas, Jürgen G / Johnston, Christine / Wald, Anna / Koelle, David M. ·Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle. · Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. · Department of Laboratory Medicine. · Department of Laboratory Medicine Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington. · Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom. · Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington. · Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Department of Laboratory Medicine Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington Department of Epidemiology. · Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Department of Laboratory Medicine Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington Department of Global Health, University of Washington Benaroya Research Institute, Seattle, Washington. ·J Infect Dis · Pubmed #25784732.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The live, attenuated varicella vaccine strain (vOka) is the only licensed therapeutic vaccine. Boost of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific cellular immunity is a likely mechanism of action. We examined memory CD4(+) T-cell responses to each VZV protein at baseline and after zoster vaccination. METHODS: Serial blood samples were collected from 12 subjects vaccinated with Zostavax and immunogenicity confirmed by ex vivo VZV-specific T-cell and antibody assays. CD4(+) T-cell lines enriched for VZV specificity were generated and probed for proliferative responses to every VZV protein and selected peptide sets. RESULTS: Zoster vaccination increased the median magnitude (2.3-fold) and breadth (4.2-fold) of VZV-specific CD4(+) T cells one month post-vaccination. Both measures declined by 6 months. The most prevalent responses at baseline included VZV open reading frames (ORFs) 68, 4, 37, and 63. After vaccination, responses to ORFs 40, 67, 9, 59, 12, 62, and 18 were also prevalent. The immunogenicity of ORF9 and ORF18 were confirmed using peptides, defining a large number of discrete CD4 T-cell epitopes. CONCLUSIONS: The breadth and magnitude of the VZV-specific CD4(+) T-cell response increase after zoster vaccination. In addition to glycoprotein E (ORF68), we identified antigenic ORFs that may be useful components of subunit vaccines.

10 Article Herpes zoster caused by vaccine-strain varicella zoster virus in an immunocompetent recipient of zoster vaccine. 2014

Tseng, Hung Fu / Schmid, D Scott / Harpaz, Rafael / LaRussa, Philip / Jensen, Nancy J / Rivailler, Pierre / Radford, Kay / Folster, Jennifer / Jacobsen, Steven J. ·Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena. ·Clin Infect Dis · Pubmed #24470276.

ABSTRACT: We report the first laboratory-documented case of herpes zoster caused by the attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) contained in Zostavax in a 68-year-old immunocompetent adult with strong evidence of prior wild-type VZV infection. The complete genome sequence of the isolate revealed that the strain carried 15 of 42 (36%) recognized varicella vaccine-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including all 5 of the fixed vaccine markers present in nearly all of the strains in the vaccine. The case of herpes zoster was relatively mild and resolved without complications.

11 Article Vaccine strain varicella-zoster virus-induced central nervous system vasculopathy as the presenting feature of DOCK8 deficiency. 2014

Sabry, Angela / Hauk, Pia J / Jing, Huie / Su, Helen C / Stence, Nicholas V / Mirsky, David M / Nagel, Maria A / Abbott, Jordan K / Dragone, Leonard L / Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer / Curtis, Donna J / Cohrs, Randall / Schmid, D Scott / Gilden, Don / Gelfand, Erwin W. ·Department of Pediatrics, Divisions of Allergy/Immunology and Cell Biology, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO 80206. · NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892. · University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045. · Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO 80045. · National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Division of Viral Diseases, Herpesvirus Team Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333. ·J Allergy Clin Immunol · Pubmed #24418481.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

12 Article Incidence and clinical characteristics of herpes zoster among children in the varicella vaccine era, 2005-2009. 2013

Weinmann, Sheila / Chun, Colleen / Schmid, D Scott / Roberts, Michelle / Vandermeer, Meredith / Riedlinger, Karen / Bialek, Stephanie R / Marin, Mona. ·Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest. ·J Infect Dis · Pubmed #23922376.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Vaccine-strain herpes zoster (HZ) can occur after varicella vaccination. This study determined the number and proportion of HZ cases caused by vaccine-strain varicella zoster virus (VZV), assessed the positive predictive value of provider diagnosis of HZ, and computed HZ incidence rates in vaccinated and unvaccinated children. METHODS: We used electronic medical records to identify all office visits with an HZ diagnosis for children aged <18 years in a managed care plan. Providers collected skin specimens and completed a questionnaire. Specimens were tested by polymerase chain reaction to identify wild-type or vaccine-strain VZV. RESULTS: From May 2005 to September 2009, we enrolled 322 subjects. VZV was detected in 82% of specimens (84% wild-type, 15% vaccine-strain, 1% possible vaccine-wild-type recombinant). Among the 118 vaccinated subjects, VZV was detected in 70% (52% wild-type). The positive predictive value for provider diagnosis of "definite HZ" was 93% for unvaccinated and 79% for vaccinated children. The incidence of laboratory-confirmed HZ was 48 per 100,000 person-years in vaccinated children (both wild-type and vaccine-strain) and 230 per 100,000 person-years in unvaccinated children (wild-type only). CONCLUSIONS: HZ incidence in vaccinated children was 79% lower than in unvaccinated children. Among vaccinated children, half of HZ cases were due to wild-type VZV.

13 Article Fatal wild-type varicella-zoster virus encephalitis without a rash in a vaccinated child. 2013

Ibraheem, Mam / Marin, Mona / Leung, Jessica / Bryce, Clare H / Schmid, D Scott / Zaki, Sherif R / Drew, Clifton / Liu, Lindy / Smelser, Chad. ·Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. mamibraheem@yahoo.com ·Pediatr Infect Dis J · Pubmed #22982982.

ABSTRACT: Encephalitis associated with varicella-zoster virus, rare among children in the varicella vaccine era, has generally been associated with a rash. We report fatal wild-type varicella-zoster virus encephalitis without a rash in a child who had received 1 dose of varicella vaccine. Varicella-zoster virus encephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for children presenting with acute neurologic symptoms, even vaccine recipients.

14 Article Chronic active varicella zoster virus infection. 2012

Wolf, James / Nagel, Maria A / Mahalingam, Ravi / Cohrs, Randall J / Schmid, D Scott / Gilden, Don. ·Department of Neurology, Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA. ·Neurology · Pubmed #22875096.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

15 Article Novel genetic variation identified at fixed loci in ORF62 of the Oka varicella vaccine and in a case of vaccine-associated herpes zoster. 2012

Quinlivan, Mark L / Jensen, Nancy J / Radford, Kay W / Schmid, D Scott. ·Division of Viral Diseases, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Herpesvirus Laboratory Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. ·J Clin Microbiol · Pubmed #22378912.

ABSTRACT: The live attenuated Oka varicella vaccine (vOka), derived from clade 2 wild-type (wt) virus pOka, is used for routine childhood immunization in several countries, including the United States, which has caused dramatic declines in the incidence of varicella. vOka can cause varicella, establish latency, and reactivate to cause herpes zoster (HZ). Three loci in varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 62 (ORF62) (106262, 107252, and 108111) are used to distinguish vOka from wt VZV. A fourth position (105705) is also fixed for the vOka allele in nearly all vaccine batches. These 4 positions and two vOka mutations (106710 and 107599) reportedly absent from Varivax were analyzed on Varivax-derived ORF62 TOPO TA clones. The wt allele was detected at positions 105705 and 107252 on 3% and 2% of clones, respectively, but was absent at positions 106262 and 108111. Position 106710 was fixed for the wt allele, whereas the vOka allele was present on 18.4% of clones at position 107599. We also evaluated the 4 vOka markers in an isolate obtained from a case of vaccine-caused HZ. The isolate carried the vOka allele at positions 105705, 106262, and 108111. However, at position 107252, the wt allele was present. Thus, all of the ORF62 vOka markers previously regarded as fixed occur as the wt allele in a small percentage of vOka strains. Characterization of all four vOka markers in ORF62 and of the clade 2 subtype marker in ORF38 is now necessary to confirm vOka adverse events.

16 Article Reactivation of type 1 herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus in an immunosuppressed patient with acute peripheral facial weakness. 2012

Tsai, Jean / Cohrs, Randall J / Nagel, Maria A / Mahalingam, Ravi / Schmid, D Scott / Choe, Alexander / Gilden, Don. ·Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA. ·J Neurol Sci · Pubmed #21924743.

ABSTRACT: We describe a 26-year-old man treated with azathioprine for myasthenia gravis who developed acute left-sided peripheral facial weakness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed enhancement in the left geniculate ganglion and in the intracanalicular and tympanic segments of the facial nerve. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum revealed intrathecal synthesis of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG antibody. Although previous analyses of saliva, blood mononuclear cells, serum antibodies, middle ear fluid, and auricular and geniculate zone skin scrapings have shown that a small but definite proportion of patients with idiopathic peripheral facial palsy ("Bell's palsy") have the Ramsay Hunt syndrome zoster sine herpete (RHS ZSH), this is the first confirmation of RHS ZSH by intrathecal synthesis of anti-VZV IgG antibody. In addition, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 DNA was found in saliva of the patient on 3 consecutive days. Simultaneous reactivation of two alphaherpesviruses (HSV-1 and VZV) in our immunosuppressed patient underscores the need to consider opportunistic infection as a cause of facial weakness.

17 Article Varicella zoster virus ischemic optic neuropathy and subclinical temporal artery involvement. 2011

Salazar, Richard / Russman, Andrew N / Nagel, Maria A / Cohrs, Randall J / Mahalingam, Ravi / Schmid, D Scott / Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K / VanEgmond, Eve M / Gilden, Don. ·Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, USA. ·Arch Neurol · Pubmed #21482932.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in an asymptomatic extracranial (temporal) artery in a patient with ischemic optic neuropathy produced by VZV vasculopathy in whom the pathological changes were mistakenly identified as giant cell arteritis. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Teaching hospital, pathology and virology laboratory. PATIENT: An 80-year-old man with left ophthalmic distribution zoster who developed left ischemic optic neuropathy. INTERVENTION: An ipsilateral temporal artery biopsy revealed inflammation that was mistakenly identified as giant cell arteritis. The patient was initially treated with steroids but his condition did not improve. When the diagnosis of VZV vasculopathy was confirmed virologically and the patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir, his vision improved. RESULTS: Pathological and virological studies provided proof of VZV vasculopathy in the asymptomatic temporal artery. Varicella zoster virus antigen was abundant in arterial adventitia and scattered throughout the media. With intravenous antiviral therapy, the patient's vision improved. CONCLUSION: Although in previously studied patients who died of chronic VZV vasculopathy after 10 to 12 months, VZV antigen was present exclusively in the intima, collective analyses of chronic cases and the asymptomatic VZV-infected temporal artery suggest that virus enters arteries through the adventitia and spreads transmurally to the intima.

18 Article Laboratory characteristics of suspected herpes zoster in vaccinated children. 2011

Chun, Colleen / Weinmann, Sheila / Riedlinger, Karen / Mullooly, John P / Houston, Heather / Schmid, D Scott / Seward, Jane F. ·Northwest Permanente, Portland, OR, USA. Colleen.Chun@kp.org ·Pediatr Infect Dis J · Pubmed #21346684.

ABSTRACT: Varicella vaccination of children has decreased varicella disease incidence, but introduced the occurrence of herpes zoster (HZ) from vaccine-type virus. We identified 14 vaccinated children with suspected HZ and confirmed varicella virus by polymerase chain reaction in 6 cases. Two cases were due to vaccine-type virus. Serum varicella IgM and IgG were not useful for diagnosis of HZ among vaccinated children.

19 Article Zoster sine herpete: virologic verification by detection of anti-VZV IgG antibody in CSF. 2011

Blumenthal, D T / Shacham-Shmueli, E / Bokstein, F / Schmid, D S / Cohrs, R J / Nagel, M A / Mahalingam, R / Gilden, D. ·Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 12700 E. 19th Avenue, Mail Stop B182, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. ·Neurology · Pubmed #21282595.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

20 Article Molecular epidemiology of varicella zoster virus. 2010

Bostíková, V / Bostík, P / Chlíbek, R / Schmid, D S / Salavec, M / Smetana, J / Splino, M. ·Dpt. of Epidemiology, Faculty of Military Health Science, University of Defence, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. vbostik@pmfhk.cz ·Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol · Pubmed #21105566.

ABSTRACT: Varicella zoster virus has highly conserved genome 125,000 base pairs. The different molecular genetic methods of analyzing VZV genome are discussed, as well as their results with regards to the virus phylogenesis, geographic distributions, possible recombination and virulence of different VZV strains.

21 Article Brown-Séquard syndrome after herpes zoster. 2009

Young-Barbee, C / Hall, D A / LoPresti, J J / Schmid, D S / Gilden, D H. ·Department of Neurology, Mail Stop B182, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, 4200 E. 9th Ave., Denver, CO 80262, USA. ·Neurology · Pubmed #19221302.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

22 Article Transmission of atypical varicella-zoster virus infections involving palm and sole manifestations in an area with monkeypox endemicity. 2009

Macneil, Adam / Reynolds, Mary G / Braden, Zach / Carroll, Darin S / Bostik, Vanda / Karem, Kevin / Smith, Scott K / Davidson, Whitni / Li, Yu / Moundeli, Amba / Mombouli, Jean-Vivien / Jumaan, Aisha O / Schmid, D Scott / Regnery, Russell L / Damon, Inger K. ·National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. aho3@cdc.gov ·Clin Infect Dis · Pubmed #19025497.

ABSTRACT: During a suspected monkeypox outbreak in the Republic of Congo, we documented transmission of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection with palm and sole manifestations among 5 family members. Genotyping results confirmed the VZV strain European E2, a genotype not previously reported in Africa. VZV with palm and sole involvement should be considered when differentiating a monkeypox diagnosis.

23 Article Distribution of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) wild-type genotypes in northern and southern Europe: evidence for high conservation of circulating genotypes. 2009

Loparev, Vladimir N / Rubtcova, Elena N / Bostik, Vanda / Tzaneva, Valentina / Sauerbrei, Andreas / Robo, Alma / Sattler-Dornbacher, Eva / Hanovcova, Iva / Stepanova, Vera / Splino, Miroslav / Eremin, Vladimir / Koskiniemi, Marjaleena / Vankova, Olga E / Schmid, D Scott. ·National VZV Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA. ·Virology · Pubmed #19019403.

ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic analysis of 19 complete VZV genomic sequences resolves wild-type strains into 5 genotypes (E1, E2, J, M1, and M2). Complete sequences for M3 and M4 strains are unavailable, but targeted analyses of representative strains suggest they are stable, circulating VZV genotypes. Sequence analysis of VZV isolates identified both shared and specific markers for every genotype and validated a unified VZV genotyping strategy. Despite high genotype diversity no evidence for intra-genotypic recombination was observed. Five of seven VZV genotypes were reliably discriminated using only four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) present in ORF22, and the E1 and E2 genotypes were resolved using SNP located in ORF21, ORF22 or ORF50. Sequence analysis of 342 clinical varicella and zoster specimens from 18 European countries identified the following distribution of VZV genotypes: E1, 221 (65%); E2, 87 (25%); M1, 20 (6%); M2, 3 (1%); M4, 11 (3%). No M3 or J strains were observed.

24 Article Herpes zoster with skin lesions and meningitis caused by 2 different genotypes of the Oka varicella-zoster virus vaccine. 2008

Levin, Myron J / DeBiasi, Roberta L / Bostik, Vanda / Schmid, D Scott. ·Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80045-0508, USA. myron.levin@uchsc.edu ·J Infect Dis · Pubmed #18826373.

ABSTRACT: A previously healthy boy who had received varicella vaccine developed herpes zoster with meningitis. The vaccine strain recovered from scabs of 3 skin lesions had the wild-type allele at position 108111, a vaccine marker never previously associated with vaccine-associated adverse events. The vaccine strain from cerebrospinal fluid also contained mutations never previously observed at vaccine-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms that would alter amino acid sequences in ORF54 and ORF59. The presence of distinct strains in skin lesions and cerebrospinal fluid indicate that >1 variant strain may reactivate to cause herpes zoster.

25 Article Safety of varicella vaccine after licensure in the United States: experience from reports to the vaccine adverse event reporting system, 1995-2005. 2008

Chaves, Sandra S / Haber, Penina / Walton, Kimp / Wise, Robert P / Izurieta, Hector S / Schmid, D Scott / Seward, Jane F. ·Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. schaves@cdc.gov ·J Infect Dis · Pubmed #18419393.

ABSTRACT: Widespread use of varicella vaccine in the United States could enable detection of rare adverse events not identified previously. We reviewed data from 1995 to 2005 from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, including data from laboratory analyses, to distinguish adverse events associated with wild-type varicella-zoster virus (VZV) versus those associated with vaccine strain. Almost 48 million doses of varicella vaccine were distributed between 1995 and 2005. There were 25,306 adverse events reported (52.7/100,000 doses distributed); 5.0% were classified as serious (2.6/100,000 doses distributed). Adverse events associated with evidence of vaccine-strain VZV included meningitis in patients with concurrent herpes zoster. Patients with genetic predispositions may rarely have disease triggered by receipt of varicella vaccine. Overall, serious adverse events reported after varicella vaccination continue to be rare and must be considered relative to the substantial benefits of varicella vaccination. Ongoing safety surveillance and further studies may shed light on some of the hypothesized associations.