Pick Topic
Review Topic
List Experts
Examine Expert
Save Expert
  Site Guide ··   
HIV Seropositivity: HELP
Articles from Denmark
Based on 42 articles published since 2009
||||

These are the 42 published articles about HIV Seropositivity that originated from Denmark during 2009-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2
1 Review Conclusions from the HIV in Europe Copenhagen 2012 Conference and ways forward: working together for optimal HIV testing and earlier care. 2013

Raben, D / Delpech, V / de Wit, J / Sullivan, A / Lazarus, J V / Dedes, N / Coenen, T / Lundgren, J / Anonymous4170769. ·Copenhagen HIV Programme, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. ·HIV Med · Pubmed #24033894.

ABSTRACT: The objective of this article is to set the scene for this supplement by presenting and discussing the overall outcomes of the HIV in Europe Copenhagen 2012 Conference and how the HIV in Europe initiative intends to further address challenges and themes raised during the conference.

2 Review Social and cultural aspects of HIV and AIDS in West Africa: a narrative review of qualitative research. 2012

Samuelsen, Helle / Norgaard, Ole / Ostergaard, Lise Rosendal. ·Department of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. h.samuelsen@anthro.ku.dk ·SAHARA J · Pubmed #23237041.

ABSTRACT: With the increasing focus on the role of social aspects of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for an overview of existing research dealing with such issues has become more urgent. The objective of this article is to provide a thematic overview of existing qualitative research on HIV and AIDS in the West African region and to analyze the main research findings in order to identify possible gaps and recommend new research themes to inform future research-based interventions. The analysis is based on a total of 58 articles published from 2001 to 2009 in English or French identified through a literature search in seven scientific, bibliographical databases. Searches included terms related to qualitative studies combined with various terms related to HIV/AIDS. The results of this narrative review show that there was a geographical concentration on Nigeria, Ghana, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire and a strong urban bias, with most studies taking place in the capital cities of these countries. The majority of the studies focused on women or women and men; only four articles dealt exclusively with men, of which only two were on men who have sex with men. The main study groups were people living with HIV, young people or female sex workers. Sexual risk-taking and stigmatization were the themes that were most prominently explored in the articles we reviewed. We conclude that research needs to be strengthened in relation to the analysis of experiences with antiretroviral therapy and the non-optimal access to treatment in West Africa. Also, more research is needed on men and their exposure to HIV/AIDS, as well as on the role of concurrent partnership in the spread of HIV.

3 Clinical Trial Sequential Vacc-4x and romidepsin during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART): Immune responses to Vacc-4x regions on p24 and changes in HIV reservoirs. 2017

Tapia, G / Højen, J F / Ökvist, M / Olesen, R / Leth, S / Nissen, S K / VanBelzen, D J / O'Doherty, U / Mørk, A / Krogsgaard, K / Søgaard, O S / Østergaard, L / Tolstrup, M / Pantaleo, G / Sommerfelt, M A. ·Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Rue du Bugnon 46, BH10-527, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark. · Bionor Pharma AS, P.O.Box 1477 Vika, NO-0116 Oslo, Norway. · University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 19104 PA, USA. · Bionor Pharma AS, P.O.Box 1477 Vika, NO-0116 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: ms@bionorpharma.com. ·J Infect · Pubmed #28917661.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The REDUC clinical study Part B investigated Vacc-4x/rhuGM-CSF therapeutic vaccination prior to HIV latency reversal using romidepsin. The main finding was a statistically significant reduction from baseline in viral reservoir measurements. Here we evaluated HIV-specific functional T-cell responses following Vacc-4x/rhuGM-CSF immunotherapy in relation to virological outcomes on the HIV reservoir. METHODS: This study, conducted in Aarhus, Denmark, enrolled participants (n = 20) with CD4>500 cells/mm RESULTS: The frequency of participants with CD8+ T-cell proliferation assay positivity was 8/16 (50%) at baseline, 11/15 (73%) post-vaccination, 6/14 (43%) during romidepsin, and 9/15 (60%)post-romidepsin. Participants with CD8+ T-cell proliferation assay positivity post-vaccination showed reductions in total HIV DNA post-vaccination (p = 0.006; q = 0.183), post-latency reversal (p = 0.005; q = 0.183), and CA-RNA reductions post-vaccination (p = 0.015; q = 0.254). Participants (40%) were defined as proliferation 'Responders' having ≥2-fold increase in assay positivity post-baseline. Robust ELISpot baseline responses were found in 87.5% participants. No significant changes were observed in the proportion of polyfunctional CD8+ T-cells to HIV CONCLUSIONS: In this 'shock and kill' approach supported by therapeutic vaccination, CD8+ T-cell proliferation represents a valuable means to monitor functional immune responses as part of the path towards functional HIV cure.

4 Article Risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (PARTNER): final results of a multicentre, prospective, observational study. 2019

Rodger, Alison J / Cambiano, Valentina / Bruun, Tina / Vernazza, Pietro / Collins, Simon / Degen, Olaf / Corbelli, Giulio Maria / Estrada, Vicente / Geretti, Anna Maria / Beloukas, Apostolos / Raben, Dorthe / Coll, Pep / Antinori, Andrea / Nwokolo, Nneka / Rieger, Armin / Prins, Jan M / Blaxhult, Anders / Weber, Rainer / Van Eeden, Arne / Brockmeyer, Norbert H / Clarke, Amanda / Del Romero Guerrero, Jorge / Raffi, Francois / Bogner, Johannes R / Wandeler, Gilles / Gerstoft, Jan / Gutiérrez, Felix / Brinkman, Kees / Kitchen, Maria / Ostergaard, Lars / Leon, Agathe / Ristola, Matti / Jessen, Heiko / Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen / Phillips, Andrew N / Lundgren, Jens / Anonymous1591424. ·Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK. Electronic address: alison.rodger@ucl.ac.uk. · Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK. · Department of Infectious Diseases (CHIP), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Cantonal Hospital, St Gallen, Switzerland. · HIV i-Base, London, UK. · University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. · European AIDS Treatment Group, Brussels, Belgium. · Hospital Clinico San Carlos and Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. · Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. · Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of West Attica, Athens, Greece. · AIDS Research Institute-IrsiCaixa, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol and BCN Checkpoint, Badalona and Barcelona, Spain. · Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive Lazzaro Spallanzani IRCCS, Rome, Italy. · Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. · Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. · Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Venhälsan, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden. · Department of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · DC Klinieken, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Centre for Sexual Health and Medicine, Walk in Ruhr, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany. · Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, and Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK. · Centro Sanitario Sandoval, Madrid, Spain. · Infectious Diseases Department, University Hospital (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes) Hotel-Dieu, and INSERM UIC 1413 Nantes University, Nantes, France. · Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. · Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Hospital General de Elche and Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain. · Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis (OLVG), Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. · Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark. · Hospital Clinic - IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. · Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. · Praxis Jessen(2) + Kollegen, Berlin, Germany. · ICH Study Centre, Hamburg, Germany. ·Lancet · Pubmed #31056293.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The level of evidence for HIV transmission risk through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking virally suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited compared with the evidence available for transmission risk in heterosexual couples. The aim of the second phase of the PARTNER study (PARTNER2) was to provide precise estimates of transmission risk in gay serodifferent partnerships. METHODS: The PARTNER study was a prospective observational study done at 75 sites in 14 European countries. The first phase of the study (PARTNER1; Sept 15, 2010, to May 31, 2014) recruited and followed up both heterosexual and gay serodifferent couples (HIV-positive partner taking suppressive ART) who reported condomless sex, whereas the PARTNER2 extension (to April 30, 2018) recruited and followed up gay couples only. At study visits, data collection included sexual behaviour questionnaires, HIV testing (HIV-negative partner), and HIV-1 viral load testing (HIV-positive partner). If a seroconversion occurred in the HIV-negative partner, anonymised phylogenetic analysis was done to compare HIV-1 pol and env sequences in both partners to identify linked transmissions. Couple-years of follow-up were eligible for inclusion if condomless sex was reported, use of pre-exposure prophylaxis or post-exposure prophylaxis was not reported by the HIV-negative partner, and the HIV-positive partner was virally suppressed (plasma HIV-1 RNA <200 copies per mL) at the most recent visit (within the past year). Incidence rate of HIV transmission was calculated as the number of phylogenetically linked HIV infections that occurred during eligible couple-years of follow-up divided by eligible couple-years of follow-up. Two-sided 95% CIs for the incidence rate of transmission were calculated using exact Poisson methods. FINDINGS: Between Sept 15, 2010, and July 31, 2017, 972 gay couples were enrolled, of which 782 provided 1593 eligible couple-years of follow-up with a median follow-up of 2·0 years (IQR 1·1-3·5). At baseline, median age for HIV-positive partners was 40 years (IQR 33-46) and couples reported condomless sex for a median of 1·0 years (IQR 0·4-2·9). During eligible couple-years of follow-up, couples reported condomless anal sex a total of 76 088 times. 288 (37%) of 777 HIV-negative men reported condomless sex with other partners. 15 new HIV infections occurred during eligible couple-years of follow-up, but none were phylogenetically linked within-couple transmissions, resulting in an HIV transmission rate of zero (upper 95% CI 0·23 per 100 couple-years of follow-up). INTERPRETATION: Our results provide a similar level of evidence on viral suppression and HIV transmission risk for gay men to that previously generated for heterosexual couples and suggest that the risk of HIV transmission in gay couples through condomless sex when HIV viral load is suppressed is effectively zero. Our findings support the message of the U=U (undetectable equals untransmittable) campaign, and the benefits of early testing and treatment for HIV. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research.

5 Article Factors associated with a cervical high-grade lesion on cytology or a positive visual inspection with acetic acid among more than 3300 Tanzanian women. 2019

Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte / Mwaiselage, Julius / Faber, Mette Tuxen / Kjaerem, Myassa / de la Cour, Cecilie Dovey / Munk, Christian / Kahesa, Crispin / Iftner, Thomas / Rasch, Vibeke / Kjaer, Susanne K. ·Unit of Virus, Lifestyle and Genes, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Division of Cancer Prevention, Ocean Road Center Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. · Department of International Health, Public Health Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Department of Experimental Virology, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. · Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. · Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark. · Department of Gynecology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. ·Trop Med Int Health · Pubmed #30444556.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer screening by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is a widely used alternative to cytology in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors associated with a positive VIA test and with cervical high-grade lesions on cytology. METHODS: We conducted a large cross-sectional study among 3339 women from urban and rural Tanzania. Study participants were interviewed about socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle factors. Blood samples were tested for HIV, and a gynaecological examination was performed. Human papillomavirus (HPV) status was determined by Hybrid Capture 2, and HPV genotyping was done using the LiPA Extra test. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The strongest risk factors for VIA positivity were positivity to HIV (OR = 3.48; 95% CI: 2.34-5.17) or to high-risk HPV (HrHPV) (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.37-2.85). HrHPV was by far the strongest predictor of high-grade cytology (OR = 110.1; 95% CI: 50.4-240.4), while there was no significant association with HIV in the multivariable analysis (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 0.78-2.08). After adjustment for HrHPV, HIV and age, the risk of high-grade cytology also increased with increasing age, number of births and low body mass index (BMI), while high BMI decreased the risk of VIA positivity. CONCLUSIONS: Infection with HrHPV is a major risk factor for high-grade cytology, while VIA positivity is associated with HIV and to a lesser extent with HrHPV.

6 Article Gender differences in the use of cardiovascular interventions in HIV-positive persons; the D:A:D Study. 2018

Hatleberg, Camilla I / Ryom, Lene / El-Sadr, Wafaa / Mocroft, Amanda / Reiss, Peter / De Wit, Stephane / Dabis, Francois / Pradier, Christian / d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella / Kovari, Helen / Law, Matthew / Lundgren, Jens D / Sabin, Caroline A / Anonymous2461236. ·Department of Infectious Diseases Section 2100, CHIP, University of Copenhagen, Finsencentret, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. · ICAP-Columbia University and Harlem Hospital, New York, NY, USA. · Institute for Global Health, UCL, London, United Kingdom. · Academic Medical Center, Department of Global Health and Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Amsterdam, HIV Monitoring Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Division of Infectious Diseases, Saint Pierre University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. · CHU de Bordeaux and INSERM U897, Université de Bordeaux, Talence, France. · Department of Public Health, Nice University Hospital, Nice, France. · Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Clinica di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali, Azienda Ospedaliera-Polo Universitario San Paolo, Milan, Italy. · Division of infectious diseases and hospital epidemiology, University hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia. ·J Int AIDS Soc · Pubmed #29509305.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: There is paucity of data related to potential gender differences in the use of interventions to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-positive individuals. We investigated whether such differences exist in the observational D:A:D cohort study. METHODS: Participants were followed from study enrolment until the earliest of death, six months after last visit or February 1, 2015. Initiation of CVD interventions [lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), anti-hypertensives, invasive cardiovascular procedures (ICPs) were investigated and Poisson regression models calculated whether rates were lower among women than men, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Women (n = 12,955) were generally at lower CVD risk than men (n = 36,094). Overall, initiation rates of CVD interventions were lower in women than men; LLDs: incidence rate 1.28 [1.21, 1.35] vs. 2.40 [2.34, 2.46]; ACEIs: 0.88 [0.82, 0.93] vs. 1.43 [1.39, 1.48]; anti-hypertensives: 1.40 [1.33, 1.47] vs. 1.72 [1.68, 1.77] and ICPs: 0.08 [0.06, 0.10] vs. 0.30 [0.28, 0.32], and this was also true for most CVD interventions when exclusively considering periods of follow-up for which individuals were at high CVD risk. In fully adjusted models, women were less likely to receive CVD interventions than men (LLDs: relative rate 0.83 [0.78, 0.88]; ACEIs: 0.93 [0.86, 1.01]; ICPs: 0.54 [0.43, 0.68]), except for the receipt of anti-hypertensives (1.17 [1.10, 1.25]). CONCLUSION: The use of most CVD interventions was lower among women than men. Interventions are needed to ensure that all HIV-positive persons, particularly women, are appropriately monitored for CVD and, if required, receive appropriate CVD interventions.

7 Article Multicenter European Prevalence Study of Neurocognitive Impairment and Associated Factors in HIV Positive Patients. 2018

Haddow, Lewis J / Laverick, Rosanna / Daskalopoulou, Marina / McDonnell, Jeffrey / Lampe, Fiona C / Gilson, Richard / Speakman, Andrew / Antinori, Andrea / Balestra, Pietro / Bruun, Tina / Gerstoft, Jan / Nielsen, Lars / Vassilenko, Anna / Collins, Simon / Rodger, Alison J / Anonymous5731224. ·Research Department of Infection and Population Health, Mortimer Market Centre, University College London, Capper Street, London, WC1E 6JB, UK. lewis.haddow@ucl.ac.uk. · Research Department of Infection and Population Health, Mortimer Market Centre, University College London, Capper Street, London, WC1E 6JB, UK. · Department of Psychology, King's College London, London, UK. · National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Lazzaro Spallanzani, Rome, Italy. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Centre for Health & Infectious Disease Research (CHIP), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Infektionsmedicinsk Afdeling, Nordsjællands Hospital, Hillerød, Denmark. · Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk, Belarus. · HIV i-Base, London, UK. ·AIDS Behav · Pubmed #28144792.

ABSTRACT: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 448 HIV positive patients attending five European outpatient clinics to determine prevalence of and factors associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI) using computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests. NCI was defined as a normalized Z score ≤-1 in at least 2 out of 5 cognitive domains. Participants' mean age was 45.8 years; 84% male; 87% white; 56% university educated; median CD4 count 550 cells/mm

8 Article Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk: A prospective analysis of the D:A:D observational study. 2017

Boyd, Mark A / Mocroft, Amanda / Ryom, Lene / Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio / Sabin, Caroline / El-Sadr, Wafaa M / Hatleberg, Camilla Ingrid / De Wit, Stephane / Weber, Rainer / Fontas, Eric / Phillips, Andrew / Bonnet, Fabrice / Reiss, Peter / Lundgren, Jens / Law, Matthew. ·Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. · Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. · Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. · Centre of Excellence for Health, Immunity and Infections, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Clinica di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali, Azienda Ospedaliera-Polo Universitario San Paolo, Milan, Italy. · ICAP at Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America. · Division of Infectious Diseases, Saint-Pierre University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. · Department of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Department of Public Health, Nice University Hospital, Nice, France. · Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. · Bordeaux Population Health, INSERM U1219, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. · Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · HIV Monitoring Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ·PLoS Med · Pubmed #29112958.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) events in HIV-positive people. We hypothesized that participants in D:A:D at high (>5%) predicted risk for both CVD and CKD would be at even greater risk for CVD and CKD events. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included all participants with complete risk factor (covariate) data, baseline eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and a confirmed (>3 months apart) eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 thereafter to calculate CVD and CKD risk scores. We calculated CVD and CKD event rates by predicted 5-year CVD and CKD risk groups (≤1%, >1%-5%, >5%) and fitted Poisson models to assess whether CVD and CKD risk group effects were multiplicative. A total of 27,215 participants contributed 202,034 person-years of follow-up: 74% male, median (IQR) age 42 (36, 49) years, median (IQR) baseline year of follow-up 2005 (2004, 2008). D:A:D risk equations predicted 3,560 (13.1%) participants at high CVD risk, 4,996 (18.4%) participants at high CKD risk, and 1,585 (5.8%) participants at both high CKD and high CVD risk. CVD and CKD event rates by predicted risk group were multiplicative. Participants at high CVD risk had a 5.63-fold (95% CI 4.47, 7.09, p < 0.001) increase in CKD events compared to those at low risk; participants at high CKD risk had a 1.31-fold (95% CI 1.09, 1.56, p = 0.005) increase in CVD events compared to those at low risk. Participants' CVD and CKD risk groups had multiplicative predictive effects, with no evidence of an interaction (p = 0.329 and p = 0.291 for CKD and CVD, respectively). The main study limitation is the difference in the ascertainment of the clinically defined CVD endpoints and the laboratory-defined CKD endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: We found that people at high predicted risk for both CVD and CKD have substantially greater risks for both CVD and CKD events compared with those at low predicted risk for both outcomes, and compared to those at high predicted risk for only CVD or CKD events. This suggests that CVD and CKD risk in HIV-positive persons should be assessed together. The results further encourage clinicians to prioritise addressing modifiable risks for CVD and CKD in HIV-positive people.

9 Article Risk factors for HIV positivity among more than 3,400 Tanzanian women. 2017

Faber, Mette Tuxen / Munk, Christian / Mwaiselage, Julius / Dartell, Myassa / Kahesa, Crispin / Iftner, Thomas / Rasch, Vibeke / Kjaer, Susanne K. ·a Virus, Lifestyle and Genes , Danish Cancer Society Research Center , Copenhagen , Denmark. · b Division of Cancer Prevention , Ocean Road Cancer Institute , Dar es Salaam , Tanzania. · c Department of International Health, Public Health Institute , University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark. · d Division of Experimental Virology , University Hospital Tuebingen , Tuebingen , Germany. · e Institute of Clinical Research , University of Southern Denmark , Odense , Denmark. · f Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Odense University Hospital , Odense , Denmark. · g Department of Gynecology, Rigshospitalet , University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark. ·Women Health · Pubmed #27379612.

ABSTRACT: In a cross-sectional study of 3,424 women from urban (Dar es Salaam) and rural (Pwani, Mwanza, and Mtwara) Tanzania, conducted in 2008-2009, we investigated risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the association between different measures of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV positivity. Study participants were interviewed about socio-demographic and reproductive factors and sexual behavior. Blood samples were tested for HIV, and the women underwent a gynecological examination. HPV status was determined by Hybrid Capture 2, and HPV genotyping was performed using the LiPA Extra test. Multivariable logistic regression models estimating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used. The overall HIV prevalence was 10.2%. HIV-positive women were more likely to have high-risk (HR) HPV detected (OR = 4.11; 95% CI: 3.23-5.24) and clinically visible genital warts (OR = 4.37; 95% CI: 1.81-10.5). Other risk factors included age, place of residence, education, number of births, lifetime number of sexual partners, and time in present relationship. HIV risk factors among urban and rural women and among HPV-positive and HPV-negative women were similar. HPV vaccination may provide some protection against HIV infection in Tanzania, but focus must still be on preventing established risk factors for HIV.

10 Article Policies and practices on the programmatic management of latent tuberculous infection: global survey. 2016

Hamada, Y / Sidibe, A / Matteelli, A / Dadu, A / Aziz, M A / Del Granado, M / Nishikiori, N / Floyd, K / Getahun, H. ·Global TB Programme, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland. · WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark. · WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt. · WHO Regional Office for the Americas, Washington DC, USA. · WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila, The Philippines. ·Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · Pubmed #27931330.

ABSTRACT: SETTING: Global survey among low tuberculosis (TB) burden countries, which are primary target countries for the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the programmatic management of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). OBJECTIVE: To perform a baseline assessment of policies and practices for the programmatic management of LTBI. DESIGN: Online and paper-based pre-tested questionnaire filled out by national TB programme managers or their equivalents from 108 countries. RESULTS: Of 74 respondent countries, 75.7% (56/74) had a national policy on LTBI. The majority of the countries (67/74, 90.5%) provided LTBI testing and treatment for child contacts of TB cases, while almost two thirds (49/74, 66%) reported provision of LTBI testing and treatment to people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Six countries (8.1%) did not report providing LTBI management to child contacts and PLHIV. Among countries that reported both the availability of policy and practice of testing and treatment of LTBI for at-risk populations, a system for recording and reporting data was available in 62% (33/53) for child contacts and in 53% (21/40) for PLHIV. CONCLUSION: Countries need to ensure that national LTBI policies and a standardised monitoring and evaluation system are in place to promote the programmatic management of LTBI.

11 Article Pulmonary effects of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive individuals: a nested substudy within the multicentre, international, randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial. 2016

Kunisaki, Ken M / Niewoehner, Dennis E / Collins, Gary / Aagaard, Bitten / Atako, Nafisah B / Bakowska, Elzbieta / Clarke, Amanda / Corbelli, Giulio Maria / Ekong, Ernest / Emery, Sean / Finley, Elizabeth B / Florence, Eric / Infante, Rosa M / Kityo, Cissy M / Madero, Juan Sierra / Nixon, Daniel E / Tedaldi, Ellen / Vestbo, Jørgen / Wood, Robin / Connett, John E / Anonymous5410885. ·Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN, USA; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Electronic address: kunis001@umn.edu. · Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN, USA; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · Copenhagen HIV Programme, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at University College London, London, UK. · Wojewodzki Szpital Zakazny, Warsaw, Poland. · Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton, UK. · European AIDS Treatment Group, Rome, Italy. · Institute of Human Virology-Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria. · Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia. · Washington DC Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA. · Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. · Asociación Civil Impacta Salud y Educación, Barranco, Lima, Perú. · Joint Clinical Research Centre, Kampala, Uganda. · Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Infectious Diseases Department, Mexico City, Mexico. · Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA. · Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. · Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation, Cape Town, South Africa. ·Lancet Respir Med · Pubmed #27773665.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: We did a nested substudy within the randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial at 80 sites in multiple settings in 20 high-income and low-to-middle-income countries. Participants were HIV-1 infected individuals aged at least 25 years, naive to ART, with CD4 T-cell counts of more than 500 per μL, not receiving treatment for asthma, and without recent respiratory infections (baseline COPD was not an exclusion criterion). Participants were randomly assigned to receive ART (an approved drug combination derived from US Department of Health and Human Services guidelines) either immediately, or deferred until CD4 T-cell counts decreased to 350 per μL or AIDS developed. The randomisation was determined by participation in the parent START study, and was not specific to the substudy. Because of the nature of our study, site investigators and participants were not masked to the treatment group assignment; however, the assessors who reviewed the outcomes were masked to the treatment group. The primary outcome was the annual rate of decline in lung function, expressed as the FEV FINDINGS: Between March 11, 2010, and Aug 23, 2013, we enrolled 1026 participants to our substudy, who were then randomly assigned to either immediate (n=518) or deferred (n=508) ART. Median baseline characteristics included age 36 years (IQR 30-44), CD4 T-cell count 648 per μL (583-767), and HIV plasma viral load 4·2 log INTERPRETATION: The timing of ART initiation has no major short-term effect on rate of lung function decline in HIV-positive individuals who are naive to ART, with CD4 T-cell counts of more than 500 per μL. In light of updated WHO recommendations that all HIV-positive individuals should be treated with ART, regardless of their CD4 T-cell count, our results suggest an absence of significant pulmonary harm with such an approach. FUNDING: US National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of AIDS, Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les Hipatites Virales (France), Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Danish National Research Foundation, European AIDS Treatment Network, German Ministry of Education and Research, UK Medical Research Council and National Institute for Health Research, and US Veterans Health Administration Office of Research and Development.

12 Article Sexual Activity Without Condoms and Risk of HIV Transmission in Serodifferent Couples When the HIV-Positive Partner Is Using Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy. 2016

Rodger, Alison J / Cambiano, Valentina / Bruun, Tina / Vernazza, Pietro / Collins, Simon / van Lunzen, Jan / Corbelli, Giulio Maria / Estrada, Vicente / Geretti, Anna Maria / Beloukas, Apostolos / Asboe, David / Viciana, Pompeyo / Gutiérrez, Félix / Clotet, Bonaventura / Pradier, Christian / Gerstoft, Jan / Weber, Rainer / Westling, Katarina / Wandeler, Gilles / Prins, Jan M / Rieger, Armin / Stoeckle, Marcel / Kümmerle, Tim / Bini, Teresa / Ammassari, Adriana / Gilson, Richard / Krznaric, Ivanka / Ristola, Matti / Zangerle, Robert / Handberg, Pia / Antela, Antonio / Allan, Sris / Phillips, Andrew N / Lundgren, Jens / Anonymous251097. ·Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. · Department of Infectious Diseases/CHIP, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Cantonal Hospital, St Gallen, Switzerland. · HIV i-Base, London, United Kingdom. · University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. · European AIDS Treatment Group, Bruxelles, Belgium. · Hospital Clinico San Carlos and Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. · Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom. · Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom. · Hospital Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, Spain. · Hospital General de Elche & Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain. · IrsiCaixa Foundation, UAB, UVIC-UCC, Hospital Universitari "Germans Trias i Pujol," Badalona, Catalonia, Spain. · Department of Public Health, Nice University Hospital and EA 6312, University Nice Sophia-Antipolis, France. · Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Unit of Infectious Diseases and Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, and Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. · Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. · Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland. · Department of Internal Medicine 1, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. · Ospedal San Paolo, Milan, Italy. · Ospedale L. Spallanzani, Roma, Italy. · Praxis Driesener Straße, Berlin, Germany. · Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. · Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. · Hvidovre Universitets Hospital, Hvidovre, Denamrk. · Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain. · Coventry and Warwickshire Hospital, Coventry, United Kingdom. ·JAMA · Pubmed #27404185.

ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE: A key factor in assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a prevention strategy is the absolute risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex with suppressed HIV-1 RNA viral load for both anal and vaginal sex. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the rate of within-couple HIV transmission (heterosexual and men who have sex with men [MSM]) during periods of sex without condoms and when the HIV-positive partner had HIV-1 RNA load less than 200 copies/mL. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The prospective, observational PARTNER (Partners of People on ART-A New Evaluation of the Risks) study was conducted at 75 clinical sites in 14 European countries and enrolled 1166 HIV serodifferent couples (HIV-positive partner taking suppressive ART) who reported condomless sex (September 2010 to May 2014). Eligibility criteria for inclusion of couple-years of follow-up were condomless sex and HIV-1 RNA load less than 200 copies/mL. Anonymized phylogenetic analysis compared couples' HIV-1 polymerase and envelope sequences if an HIV-negative partner became infected to determine phylogenetically linked transmissions. EXPOSURES: Condomless sexual activity with an HIV-positive partner taking virally suppressive ART. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Risk of within-couple HIV transmission to the HIV-negative partner. RESULTS: Among 1166 enrolled couples, 888 (mean age, 42 years [IQR, 35-48]; 548 heterosexual [61.7%] and 340 MSM [38.3%]) provided 1238 eligible couple-years of follow-up (median follow-up, 1.3 years [IQR, 0.8-2.0]). At baseline, couples reported condomless sex for a median of 2 years (IQR, 0.5-6.3). Condomless sex with other partners was reported by 108 HIV-negative MSM (33%) and 21 heterosexuals (4%). During follow-up, couples reported condomless sex a median of 37 times per year (IQR, 15-71), with MSM couples reporting approximately 22,000 condomless sex acts and heterosexuals approximately 36,000. Although 11 HIV-negative partners became HIV-positive (10 MSM; 1 heterosexual; 8 reported condomless sex with other partners), no phylogenetically linked transmissions occurred over eligible couple-years of follow-up, giving a rate of within-couple HIV transmission of zero, with an upper 95% confidence limit of 0.30/100 couple-years of follow-up. The upper 95% confidence limit for condomless anal sex was 0.71 per 100 couple-years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among serodifferent heterosexual and MSM couples in which the HIV-positive partner was using suppressive ART and who reported condomless sex, during median follow-up of 1.3 years per couple, there were no documented cases of within-couple HIV transmission (upper 95% confidence limit, 0.30/100 couple-years of follow-up). Additional longer-term follow-up is necessary to provide more precise estimates of risk.

13 Article Relevance of Interleukin-6 and D-Dimer for Serious Non-AIDS Morbidity and Death among HIV-Positive Adults on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy. 2016

Grund, Birgit / Baker, Jason V / Deeks, Steven G / Wolfson, Julian / Wentworth, Deborah / Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro / Cohen, Calvin J / Phillips, Andrew / Lundgren, Jens D / Neaton, James D / Anonymous561060. ·School of Statistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America. · Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America. · Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America. · University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States of America. · San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA, United States of America. · Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America. · University College London, London, United Kingdom. · Medical Affairs Department, Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, United States of America. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #27171281.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite effective antiretroviral treatment (ART), HIV-positive individuals are at increased risk of serious non-AIDS conditions (cardiovascular, liver and renal disease, and cancers), perhaps due in part to ongoing inflammation and/or coagulation. To estimate the potential risk reduction in serious non-AIDS conditions or death from any cause that might be achieved with treatments that reduce inflammation and/or coagulation, we examined associations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), D-dimer, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels with serious non-AIDS conditions or death in 3 large cohorts. METHODS: In HIV-positive adults on suppressive ART, associations of IL-6, D-dimer, and hsCRP levels at study entry with serious non-AIDS conditions or death were studied using Cox regression. Hazard ratios (HR) adjusted for age, gender, study, and regression dilution bias (due to within-person biomarker variability) were used to predict risk reductions in serious non-AIDS conditions or death associated with lower "usual" levels of IL-6 and D-dimer. RESULTS: Over 4.9 years of mean follow-up, 260 of the 3766 participants experienced serious non-AIDS conditions or death. IL-6, D-dimer and hsCRP were each individually associated with risk of serious non-AIDS conditions or death, HR = 1.45 (95% CI: 1.30 to 1.63), 1.28 (95% CI: 1.14 to 1.44), and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.09 to 1.26) per 2x higher biomarker levels, respectively. In joint models, IL-6 and D-dimer were independently associated with serious non-AIDS conditions or death, with consistent results across the 3 cohorts and across serious non-AIDS event types. The association of IL-6 and D-dimer with serious non-AIDS conditions or death was graded and persisted throughout follow-up. For 25% lower "usual" IL-6 and D-dimer levels, the joint biomarker model estimates a 37% reduction (95% CI: 28 to 46%) in the risk of serious non-AIDS conditions or death if the relationship is causal. CONCLUSIONS: Both IL-6 and D-dimer are independently associated with serious non-AIDS conditions or death among HIV-positive adults with suppressed virus. This suggests that treatments that reduce IL-6 and D-dimer levels might substantially decrease morbidity and mortality in patients on suppressive ART. Clinical trials are needed to test this hypothesis.

14 Article Taking forward the World TB Day 2016 theme 'Unite to End Tuberculosis' for the WHO Africa Region. 2016

Ntoumi, Francine / Kaleebu, Pontiano / Macete, Eusebio / Mfinanga, Sayoki / Chakaya, Jeremiah / Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy / Bates, Matthew / Mwaba, Peter / Maeurer, Markus / Petersen, Eskild / Zumla, Alimuddin. ·Fondation Congolaise pour la Recherche Médicale, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Institute for Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address: fntoumi@fcrm-congo.com. · Uganda Virus Research Institute Research Unit on AIDS, Entebbe, Uganda. · Centro de Investigação em Saude de Manhiça, and National Directare of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Maputo, Mozambique. · Muhimbili Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. · Department of Medicine, Dermatology and Psychiatry, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya. · Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Accra, Ghana. · UNZA-UCLMS Research and Training Project, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. · UNZA-UCLMS Research and Training Project, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia; Ministry of Health, Lusaka, Zambia. · Division of Therapeutic Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, and Centre for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. · University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark; The Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman. · UNZA-UCLMS Research and Training Project, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia; Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. ·Int J Infect Dis · Pubmed #26969406.

ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global emergency, with an estimated 9.6 million new TB cases worldwide reported in 2014. Twenty-eight percent of these cases were in the World Health Organization (WHO) Africa Region, where the annual case detection rate was 281 per 100000 population-more than double the global average of 133 per 100000. Of the 9.6 million people who developed TB, an estimated 1.2 million (12%) were HIV-positive, and the Africa Region accounted for 74% of these cases. Three million people with TB remain undiagnosed and untreated. Globally, an estimated 480000 had multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Whilst of the African countries, only South Africa has reported a high prevalence of MDR-TB, it is likely that all of Sub-Saharan Africa has an unreported high load of drug-resistant TB. Tragically, in 2014, only 48% of individuals diagnosed with MDR-TB had successful treatment and an estimated 190000 people died of MDR-TB. Of the global TB funding gap of US$ 0.8 billion, the largest funding gap was in the Africa Region, amounting to US$ 0.4 billion in 2015. The MDR-TB pandemic in particular now threatens to devastate entire regions and may fundamentally alter the life-expectancy and demographic profile of many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The theme designated for this year's World TB Day, March 24, 2016, is 'Unite to End TB'. From the Africa Region, there is an urgent need to seriously address the political, economic, and social factors that influence host-Mycobacterium tuberculosis interactions and result in disease. Recent political and funder initiatives that provide renewed hope for the alleviation of Africa's TB and TB/HIV problems are discussed.

15 Article Human Papillomavirus neutralizing and cross-reactive antibodies induced in HIV-positive subjects after vaccination with quadrivalent and bivalent HPV vaccines. 2016

Faust, Helena / Toft, Lars / Sehr, Peter / Müller, Martin / Bonde, Jesper / Forslund, Ola / Østergaard, Lars / Tolstrup, Martin / Dillner, Joakim. ·Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. · European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany. · German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany. · Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark. · Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden. · Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: joakim.dillner@ki.se. ·Vaccine · Pubmed #26896686.

ABSTRACT: Ninety-one HIV-infected individuals (61 men and 30 women) were randomized to vaccination either with quadrivalent (Gardasil™) or bivalent (Cervarix™) HPV vaccine. Neutralizing and specific HPV-binding serum antibodies were measured at baseline and 12 months after the first vaccine dose. Presence of neutralizing and binding antibodies had good agreement (average Kappa for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 was 0.65). At baseline, 88% of subjects had antibodies against at least one genital HPV. Following vaccination with Cervarix™, all subjects became seropositive for HPV16 and 18. After Gardasil™ vaccination, 96% of subjects seroconverted for HPV16 and 73% for HPV18. Levels of HPV16-specific antibodies were <1 international unit (IU) in 87% of study subjects before vaccination but >10IU in 85% of study subjects after vaccination. Antibodies against non-vaccine HPV types appeared after Gardasil™ vaccination for >50% of vaccinated females for HPV 31, 35 and 73 and for >50% of Cervarix™-vaccinated females for HPV 31, 33, 35, 45, 56 and 58. Cross-reactivity with non-genital HPV types was also detected. In conclusion, HIV-infected subjects responded to HPV vaccination with induction of neutralizing antibodies against both vaccine and non-vaccine types.

16 Article Predictive value of prostate specific antigen in a European HIV-positive cohort: does one size fit all? 2016

Shepherd, Leah / Borges, Álvaro H / Ravn, Lene / Harvey, Richard / Bower, Mark / Grulich, Andrew / Silverberg, Michael / Kronborg, Gitte / Galli, Massimo / Kirk, Ole / Lundgren, Jens / Mocroft, Amanda / Anonymous5560856. ·Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, UK. · Centre for Health & Infectious Disease Research (CHIP), Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Charing Cross Oncology Laboratory and Trophoblastic Disease Centre, Charing Cross Hospital Campus of Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, London, UK. · National Centre for HIV Malignancy, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. · Kirby Institute, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia. · Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA. · Institut for Klinisk Medicin, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark. · Clinic of Infectious Disease, Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy. ·Antivir Ther · Pubmed #26823399.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is common practice to use prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥4.0 ng/ml as a clinical indicator for men at risk of prostate cancer (PCa), however, this is unverified in HIV+ men. We aimed to describe kinetics and predictive value of PSA for PCa in HIV+ men. METHODS: A nested case control study of 21 men with PCa and 40 matched-controls within EuroSIDA was conducted. Prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were measured for the following markers: total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between markers and PCa. Mixed models were used to describe kinetics. Sensitivity and specificity of using tPSA >4 ng/ml to predict PCa was calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify optimal cutoffs in HIV+ men for total PSA. RESULTS: 61 HIV+ men were included with a median 6 (IQR 2-9) years follow-up. Levels of tPSA increased by 13.7% per year (95% CI 10.3, 17.3) in cases, but was stable in controls (-0.4%; 95% CI -2.5, 1.7). Elevated PSA was associated with higher odds of PCa at first (OR for twofold higher 4.7; 95% CI 1.7, 12.9; P<0.01) and last sample (8.1; 95% CI 1.1, 58.9; P=0.04). A similar relationship was seen between fPSA and PCa. Testosterone and SHBG level were not associated with PCa. tPSA level >4 ng/ml had 99% specificity and 38% sensitivity. The optimal PSA cutoff was 1.5 ng/ml overall (specificity =84%, sensitivity =81%). CONCLUSIONS: PSA was highly predictive of PCa in HIV+ men; however, the commonly used PSA>4 ng/ml to indicate high PCa risk was not sensitive in our population and use of the lower cutoff of PSA>1.5 ng/ml warrants consideration.

17 Article Serological Response to Treatment of Syphilis with Doxycycline Compared with Penicillin in HIV-infected Individuals. 2016

Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten / Hoffmann, Steen / Cowan, Susan / Jensen, Jørgen Skov / Benfield, Thomas / Gerstoft, Jan / Katzenstein, Terese Lea. ·Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. ksalado@hotmail.com. ·Acta Derm Venereol · Pubmed #26568359.

ABSTRACT: Serological response to treatment of syphilis with orally administered doxycycline or intramuscularly administered penicillin was assessed in patients with concurrent HIV. All HIV-infected individuals diagnosed with syphilis attending 3 hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark were included. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with serological outcome were modelled using propensity-score-adjusted logistic regression analysis. In total, 202 cases were treated with doxycycline or intramuscular penicillin. At 12 months, serological failure was observed in 12 cases (15%) treated with doxycycline and in 8 cases (17%) treated with penicillin (OR 0.78 (95% CI 0.16-3.88), p = 0.76). The serological cure rate at 12 months was highest in patients with primary syphilis (100%), followed by patients with secondary (89%), early latent (71%) and late latent (67%) syphilis (p = 0.006). In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the use of doxycycline as a treatment option when treating a HIV-infected population for syphilis.

18 Article The 'Fears' of Disclosing HIV Status to Sexual Partners: A Mixed Methods Study in a Counseling Setting in Ghana. 2016

Obiri-Yeboah, D / Amoako-Sakyi, D / Baidoo, I / Adu-Oppong, A / Rheinländer, T. ·Department of Microbiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, PMB, Cape Coast, Ghana. d.obiri-yeboah@uccsms.edu.gh. · Department of Microbiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, PMB, Cape Coast, Ghana. · ART Center, Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, P.O. Box CT 1363, Cape Coast, Ghana. · Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. · Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. ·AIDS Behav · Pubmed #25711298.

ABSTRACT: Encouraging disclosure within a trusting and supportive environment is imperative in dealing with HIV/AIDS related stigma. However, disclosure rates and the factors that influence it are vaguely understood in African societies. This study aimed at determining the disclosure rate and factors that influence disclosure in Cape Coast, Ghana. In-depth interviews of 15 peer educators and a survey of 510 PLHIV were used in a mixed methods study design. Majority of the study participants (78.6 %) had disclosed their HIV positive status to their sexual partners. Although peer educators in this study portrayed the overall outcome of disclosure to be negative, 84.0 % of disclosers were accepted by their partners without negative consequences after disclosure. This study suggests that the existing support services ill prepares newly diagnosed HIV positive clients and hampers disclosure initiatives. Providing comprehensive support services and re-training peer educators may be crucial in creating a safe disclosure environment in Ghana.

19 Article Development and validation of a risk score for chronic kidney disease in HIV infection using prospective cohort data from the D:A:D study. 2015

Mocroft, Amanda / Lundgren, Jens D / Ross, Michael / Law, Matthew / Reiss, Peter / Kirk, Ole / Smith, Colette / Wentworth, Deborah / Neuhaus, Jacqueline / Fux, Christoph A / Moranne, Olivier / Morlat, Phillipe / Johnson, Margaret A / Ryom, Lene / Anonymous6001162 / Anonymous6011162 / Anonymous6021162 / Anonymous6031162 / Anonymous6041162. ·Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. · Copenhagen HIV Programme, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Division of Nephrology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America. · The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Division of Infectious Diseases and Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America. · Clinic for Infectious Diseases and Hospital Hygiene, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland. · Nephrology Department, Public Health Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Nice, France. · Université de Bordeaux, INSERM U 897, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. · Department of HIV Medicine, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom. ·PLoS Med · Pubmed #25826420.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health issue for HIV-positive individuals, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Development and implementation of a risk score model for CKD would allow comparison of the risks and benefits of adding potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals to a treatment regimen and would identify those at greatest risk of CKD. The aims of this study were to develop a simple, externally validated, and widely applicable long-term risk score model for CKD in HIV-positive individuals that can guide decision making in clinical practice. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 17,954 HIV-positive individuals from the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study with ≥3 estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values after 1 January 2004 were included. Baseline was defined as the first eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 after 1 January 2004; individuals with exposure to tenofovir, atazanavir, atazanavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, other boosted protease inhibitors before baseline were excluded. CKD was defined as confirmed (>3 mo apart) eGFR ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Poisson regression was used to develop a risk score, externally validated on two independent cohorts. In the D:A:D study, 641 individuals developed CKD during 103,185 person-years of follow-up (PYFU; incidence 6.2/1,000 PYFU, 95% CI 5.7-6.7; median follow-up 6.1 y, range 0.3-9.1 y). Older age, intravenous drug use, hepatitis C coinfection, lower baseline eGFR, female gender, lower CD4 count nadir, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) predicted CKD. The adjusted incidence rate ratios of these nine categorical variables were scaled and summed to create the risk score. The median risk score at baseline was -2 (interquartile range -4 to 2). There was a 1:393 chance of developing CKD in the next 5 y in the low risk group (risk score < 0, 33 events), rising to 1:47 and 1:6 in the medium (risk score 0-4, 103 events) and high risk groups (risk score ≥ 5, 505 events), respectively. Number needed to harm (NNTH) at 5 y when starting unboosted atazanavir or lopinavir/ritonavir among those with a low risk score was 1,702 (95% CI 1,166-3,367); NNTH was 202 (95% CI 159-278) and 21 (95% CI 19-23), respectively, for those with a medium and high risk score. NNTH was 739 (95% CI 506-1462), 88 (95% CI 69-121), and 9 (95% CI 8-10) for those with a low, medium, and high risk score, respectively, starting tenofovir, atazanavir/ritonavir, or another boosted protease inhibitor. The Royal Free Hospital Clinic Cohort included 2,548 individuals, of whom 94 individuals developed CKD (3.7%) during 18,376 PYFU (median follow-up 7.4 y, range 0.3-12.7 y). Of 2,013 individuals included from the SMART/ESPRIT control arms, 32 individuals developed CKD (1.6%) during 8,452 PYFU (median follow-up 4.1 y, range 0.6-8.1 y). External validation showed that the risk score predicted well in these cohorts. Limitations of this study included limited data on race and no information on proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS: Both traditional and HIV-related risk factors were predictive of CKD. These factors were used to develop a risk score for CKD in HIV infection, externally validated, that has direct clinical relevance for patients and clinicians to weigh the benefits of certain antiretrovirals against the risk of CKD and to identify those at greatest risk of CKD.

20 Article Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011. 2014

Lemvik, G / Rudolf, F / Vieira, F / Sodemann, M / Østergaard, L / Rodrigues, A / Gomes, V / Aaby, P / Wejse, C. ·Bandim Health Project, INDEPTH network, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau; Bandim Health Project, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. ·Trop Med Int Health · Pubmed #25145557.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100,000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100,000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from 108 to 39 per 100,000, while the incidence of smear-positive TB cases remained stable; the overall figure was 188 per 100,000. CONCLUSIONS: Overall incidence of pulmonary TB in Guinea-Bissau has declined from 2004 to 2011. The decline was also seen in the subgroups of smear-negative and HIV-positive TB cases, probably due to antiretroviral treatment. Smear-positive TB incidence remains stable over the period.

21 Article [Why people delay seeking care after a positive HIV test: a qualitative study in Burkina]. 2014

Yamego, W / Kouanda, S / Berthé, A / Yaya-Bocoum, F / Gausset, Q / Mogensen, H O / Konaté, B / Ky-Zerbo, O. ·Institut de recherche en sciences de la santé (IRSS), 03 BP 7192, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. · Centre Murraz, Bobo-Diolasso, Burkina Faso. · University of Copenhagen, Department of Anthropology, Øster Farimagsgade 5, DK-1353, Copenhagen K, Denmark. · PAMAC, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. ·Med Sante Trop · Pubmed #24681368.

ABSTRACT: METHODOLOGY: Applying a qualitative approach, we conducted individual interviews and focus groups in 9 community-based organizations of people living with HIV and AIDS in Burkina Faso. In total, 112 people including 70 HIV-positive patients, 30 healthcare providers, and 12 people leaving the laboratory after an HIV test, were interviewed. A thematic content analysis identified the factors that delayed care-seeking. RESULTS: Several factors explain the delay in seeking care. The weight of the negative representations of HIV and AIDS, its impact on those diagnosed with them, and fear of stigmatization (especially by family members) are major factors in delayed care. The poor quality of pre- and post-test counseling is another factor. This study also shows that financial barriers remain important in this delay. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that earlier HIV care may be possible through efforts to reduce stigma, removal of financial barriers, and improvement of the quality of pre- and post-test counseling in mobile-device strategies and during large-scale testing campaigns.

22 Article TCRγδ(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells suppress the CD8(+) T-cell response to hepatitis B virus peptides, and are associated with viral control in chronic hepatitis B. 2014

Lai, Qintao / Ma, Shiwu / Ge, Jun / Huang, Zuxiong / Huang, Xuan / Jiang, Xiaotao / Li, Yongyin / Zhang, Mingxia / Zhang, Xiaoyong / Sun, Jian / Abbott, William G H / Hou, Jinlin. ·Hepatology Unit and Key Lab for Organ Failure Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, No. 1838, North Guangzhou Avenue, Guangzhou, China. · Hepatology Unit and Key Lab for Organ Failure Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, No. 1838, North Guangzhou Avenue, Guangzhou, China ; Department of Infectious Diseases, Kunming General Hospital of PLA, Kunming, China. · Hepatology Unit and Key Lab for Organ Failure Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, No. 1838, North Guangzhou Avenue, Guangzhou, China ; Department of immunology, Basic Medicine School, Southern Medical University, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. · Hepatology Unit and Key Lab for Organ Failure Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, No. 1838, North Guangzhou Avenue, Guangzhou, China ; The New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #24551107.

ABSTRACT: The immune mechanisms underlying failure to achieve hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion associated with viral control in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remain unclear. Here we investigated the role of CD4(-)CD8(-) T (double-negative T; DNT) cells including TCRαβ(+) DNT (αβ DNT) and TCRγδ(+) DNT (γδ DNT) cells. Frequencies of circulating DNT cell subsets were measured by flow cytometry in a retrospective cohort of 51 telbivudine-treated HBeAg-positive CHB patients, 25 immune tolerant carriers (IT), 33 inactive carriers (IC), and 37 healthy controls (HC). We found that γδ DNT cell frequencies did not significantly change during treatment, being lower at baseline (P = 0.019) in patients with HBeAg seroconversion after 52 weeks of antiviral therapy (n = 20) than in those without (n = 31), and higher in the total CHB and IT than IC and HC groups (P<0.001). αβ DNT cell frequencies were similar for all groups. In vitro, γδ DNT cells suppressed HBV core peptide-stimulated interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α production in TCRαβ(+)CD8(+) T cells, which may require cell-cell contact, and could be partially reversed by anti-NKG2A. These findings suggest that γδ DNT cells limit CD8(+) T cell response to HBV, and may impede HBeAg seroconversion in CHB.

23 Article Performance of visual inspection with acetic acid and human papillomavirus testing for detection of high-grade cervical lesions in HIV positive and HIV negative Tanzanian women. 2014

Dartell, Myassa Arkam / Rasch, Vibeke / Iftner, Thomas / Kahesa, Crispin / Mwaiselage, Julius D / Junge, Jette / Gernow, Anne / Ejlersen, Sussi Funch / Munk, Christian / Kjaer, Susanne Kruger. ·Department of International Health, Public Health Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Unit of Virus Lifestyle and Genes, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark. ·Int J Cancer · Pubmed #24391021.

ABSTRACT: The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV positive and HIV negative women who underwent cervical cancer screening, and to examine the ability of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), the standard detection method in Tanzania, and HPV-testing to detect cytologically diagnosed high grade lesions or cancer (HSIL+). Women from different areas in Tanzania were invited by public announcement to cervical cancer screening organized by Ocean Road Cancer Institute (Dar-es-Salaam). A total of 3,767 women were enrolled. Women underwent gynecological examination with collection of cervical cells for conventional cytological examination, and swab for HPV-DNA detection (Hybrid-Capture2) and genotyping (LiPAv2 test). Subsequently VIA was performed. The participants were also tested for HIV. HPV16, HPV52 and HPV18 were the three most common HR HPV types among women with HSIL+ cytology with prevalences of 42.9, 35.7 and 28.6%, respectively, in HIV positive women which was higher than among HIV negative women (30.2, 21.9 and 16.7%). A total of 4.5% of the women were VIA positive, and VIA showed a low sensitivity compared to HPV-testing for detection of HSIL+. The sensitivity of VIA varied with staff VIA experience, HIV status and age. Vaccines including HPV16, HPV52 and HPV18 will likely reduce the number of HSIL+ cases independently of HIV status. The frequency of HSIL+ was high among HIV positive women, emphasizing the importance of establishing a screening program which also reaches HIV positive women. Our results highlight the importance of continuous training of staff performing VIA, and also point to the need for other screening methods such as HPV-testing at low cost.

24 Article [Cerebral cysticerc is a rare cause of hydrocephalus]. 2013

Itani, Mustapha Mehieddin / Jørgensen, Gitte Maria. ·Neurologisk Afdeling, Vejle Sygehus, Denmark. malkart_83@hotmail.com ·Ugeskr Laeger · Pubmed #23731995.

ABSTRACT: We present a case of a 39-year-old woman from Thailand. She presented with dizziness and signs of raised intracranial pressure. Magnetic resonance scanning revealed multiple cysticercs in cerebrum and cerebellum, and one of the cysticercs compressed the cerebral aqueduct resulting in hydrocephalus. The patient was transferred to an infectious disease department, where appropriate treatment with albendazol was initiated. Surprisingly she was found HIV-positive with a CD4 count of approx. 10 m/l. The patient deteriorated over the following week and died due to raised intracranial pressure.

25 Article Different immunological phenotypes associated with preserved CD4+ T cell counts in HIV-infected controllers and viremic long term non-progressors. 2013

Gaardbo, Julie Christine / Hartling, Hans J / Ronit, Andreas / Thorsteinsson, Kristina / Madsen, Hans Ole / Springborg, Karoline / Gjerdrum, Lise Mette Rahbek / Birch, Carsten / Laye, Matthew / Ullum, Henrik / Andersen, Åse Bengaard / Nielsen, Susanne Dam. ·Viro-immunology Research Group, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #23696852.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV-infected controllers control viral replication and maintain normal CD4+ T cell counts. Long Term Non-Progressors (LTNP) also maintain normal CD4+ T cell counts, but have on-going viral replication. We hypothesized that different immunological mechanisms are responsible for preserved CD4+ T cell counts in controllers and LTNP. METHODS: 25 HIV-infected controllers and 14 LTNP were included in this cross-sectional study. For comparison, 25 progressors and 34 healthy controls were included. Production and destruction of T cells were addressed by determination of T cell receptor excision circles (TREC), recent thymic emigrants, naïve cells, immune activation, senescence and apoptosis. Furthermore, telomere length was determined, and the amount of lymphoid tissue in tonsil biopsies was quantified. RESULTS: Controllers presented with partly preserved thymic output, preserved expression of the IL-7 receptor and IL-7 receptor density, and lower levels of destruction of cells than progressors resembling HIV-negative healthy controls. In contrast, LTNP appeared much like progressors, and different from controllers in immune activation, senescence, and apoptosis. Interestingly, CD8+ RTE, TREC and telomere length were partly preserved. Finally, both controllers and LTNP displayed decreased amounts of lymphoid tissue compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Controllers presented with an immunological profile different from LTNP. While controllers resembled healthy controls, LTNP were similar to progressors, suggesting different immunological mechanisms to be responsible for preserved CD4+ T cell counts in LTNP and controllers. However, both controllers and LTNP presented with reduced amounts of lymphoid tissue despite preserved CD4+ T cell counts, indicating HIV to cause damage even in non-progressors.

Next