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HIV Seropositivity: HELP
Articles from Italy
Based on 143 articles published since 2009
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These are the 143 published articles about HIV Seropositivity that originated from Italy during 2009-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6
1 Editorial Autologous stem cell transplantation in HIV-positive patients affected by relapsed/partially responding lymphoma: let it be. 2016

Zanet, Ernesto / Michieli, Mariagrazia / Tirelli, Umberto. ·a Unit of Cell Therapy and High Dose Chemotherapy , CRO National Cancer Institute , Aviano , Italy. · b Division of Medical Oncology A , CRO National Cancer Institute , Aviano , Italy. ·Expert Rev Hematol · Pubmed #27269371.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Review Carotid Artery Aneurysm in HIV: A Review of Case Reports in Literature. 2019

Silvestri, Valeria / Borrazzo, Cristian / Mele, Rita / d'Ettorre, Gabriella. ·Surgical Science Department, La Sapienza University, Roma, Italy. Electronic address: valeria.silvestri@uniroma1.it. · Department of Public Health and Infectious Disease, Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Italy. · Surgical Science Department, La Sapienza University, Roma, Italy. ·Ann Vasc Surg · Pubmed #31629845.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV infection may affect the cardiovascular system through different physiopathological patterns. Rarely reported in HIV negative patients, aneurysms involving the carotid artery have been described for the first time in seropositive patients in 1989. AIMS: In our study, we have focused on aneurysm pathology affecting carotid arteries in HIV patients, analyzing clinical and surgical presentation, management, and outcome, through a review of cases published in the literature. METHODS: The MEDLINE (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) database was reviewed for "carotid artery aneurysm AND HIV OR AIDS OR immunodeficiency." RESULTS: Nineteen articles including a total of 46 cases were included in our report. The mean age of patients was 30.6 ± 14.2 years; 30 patients (65.2%) were male. Aneurysms were localized in the intracranial carotid (41.3%) or extracranial artery (58%). Presenting features included symptoms due to compression of neck structures; positivity for neurological symptoms occurred in 36.9%. Patients were managed surgically in 58.7% of cases; surgical morbidity and mortality were of 22.2% and 7.4% respectively, higher for endovascular procedures. The overall mortality in treated and untreated cases was 26.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Aneurysms may occur in both the extracranial and intracranial carotid artery in patients with HIV at younger age than in non-HIV patients and are linked to a high morbidity and mortality. Seropositivity must be ruled out whenever this rare vascular condition may occur in the absence of a more likely aetiology and must also be suspected in HIV patients presenting with compressive symptoms of the neck, neurological impairment or stroke.

3 Review Leveraging early HIV diagnosis and treatment in Thailand to conduct HIV cure research. 2019

Muccini, Camilla / Crowell, Trevor A / Kroon, Eugène / Sacdalan, Carlo / Ramautarsing, Reshmie / Seekaew, Pich / Phanuphak, Praphan / Ananworanich, Jintanat / Colby, Donn J / Phanuphak, Nittaya. ·Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, via Stamira D'Ancona 20, 20127, Milan, Italy. muccini.camilla@hsr.it. · U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, USA. · Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, USA. · SEARCH, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand. · PREVENTION, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand. · Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. · Department of Global Health, The University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ·AIDS Res Ther · Pubmed #31492161.

ABSTRACT: Thailand has the highest prevalence of HIV among countries in Asia but has also been a pioneer in HIV prevention and treatment efforts in the region, reducing the incidence of new infections significantly over the last two decades. Building upon this remarkable history, Thailand has set an ambitious goal to stop the AIDS epidemic in the country by 2030. A key component of the strategy to achieve this goal includes scale-up of HIV screening programs to facilitate early HIV diagnosis and investment in mechanisms to support immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Initiation of ART during early or acute HIV infection not only reduces viremia, thereby halting onward transmission of HIV, but also may facilitate HIV remission by reducing the size of the latent HIV reservoir and preserving immune function. In Thailand, many efforts have been made to reduce the time from HIV infection to diagnosis and from diagnosis to treatment, especially among men who have sex with men and transgender women. Successfully identifying and initiating ART in individuals with acute HIV infection has been leveraged to conduct groundbreaking studies of novel strategies to achieve HIV remission, including studies of broadly-neutralizing HIV-specific monoclonal antibodies and candidate therapeutic vaccines. These efforts have mostly been deployed in Bangkok and future efforts should include other urban and more rural areas. Continued progress in HIV prevention, screening, and treatment will position Thailand to substantially limit new infections and may pave the way for an HIV cure.

4 Review Toll-like receptors as novel therapeutic targets for herpes simplex virus infection. 2019

Jahanban-Esfahlan, Rana / Seidi, Khaled / Majidinia, Maryam / Karimian, Ansar / Yousefi, Bahman / Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad / Astani, Akram / Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana / Gulei, Diana / Fallarino, Francesca / Gargaro, Marco / Manni, Giorgia / Pirro, Matteo / Xu, Suowen / Sadeghi, Mahmoud / Nabavi, Seyed Fazel / Shirooie, Samira. ·Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. · Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. · Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. · Solid Tumor Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. · Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran. · Molecular Medicine Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. · Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran. · Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Department of Microbiology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. · MEDFUTURE -Research Center for Advanced Medicine, "Iuliu-Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. · Research Centerfor Functional Genomics, Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, "Iuliu-Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. · Department of Functional Genomics and Experimental Pathology, The Oncology Institute "Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuţă", Cluj-Napoca, Romania. · Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy. · Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy. · Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA. · Department of Transplantation Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. ·Rev Med Virol · Pubmed #31265195.

ABSTRACT: Seropositivity for HSV reaches more than 70% within the world population, and yet no approved vaccine exists. While HSV1 is responsible for keratitis, encephalitis, and labialis, HSV2 carriers have a high susceptibility to other STD infections, such as HIV. Induction of antiviral innate immune responses upon infection depends on a family of pattern recognition receptors called Toll-like receptors (TLR). TLRs bridge innate and adaptive immunity by sensing virus infection and activating antiviral immune responses. HSV adopts smart tricks to evade innate immunity and can also manipulate TLR signaling to evade the immune system or even confer destructive effects in favor of virus replication. Here, we review mechanisms by which HSV can trick TLR signaling to impair innate immunity. Then, we analyze the role of HSV-mediated molecular cues, in particular, NF-κB signaling, in promoting protective versus destructive effects of TLRs. Finally, TLR-based therapeutic opportunities with the goal of preventing or treating HSV infection will be discussed.

5 Review Evidence-based renewal of the Italian guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents and the diagnostic-clinical management of HIV-1 infected persons. 2018

Antinori, Andrea / Di Biagio, Antonio / Marcotullio, Simone / Sarmati, Loredana / Andreoni, Massimo / Angarano, Gioacchino / Chirianni, Antonio / d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella / Di Perri, Giovanni / Galli, Massimo / Gianotti, Nicola / Girardi, Enrico / Gori, Andrea / Mussini, Cristina / Perno, Carlo-Federico / Lazzarin, Adriano. ·National Institute for Infectious Diseases L. Spallanzani, IRCCS, Rome, Italy. · Policlinico San Martino Hospital, IRCCS for Cancer Research Genova, Italy. · Nadir Onlus, Rome, Italy. · University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy. · University of Bari, Italy. · P.O. Cotugno, AORN Ospedali dei Colli, Naples, Italy. · San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Italy. · University of Turin, Italy. · University of Milan, Italy. · Division of Infectious Diseases, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. · Policlinico Ca Granda Hospital, University of Milan; Italy. · University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy. · University of Milan - ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Milan, Italy. · San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. ·New Microbiol · Pubmed #30604833.

ABSTRACT: The Italian Society for Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) in collaboration with the Technical Health Committee (Sections L and M) of the Italian Ministry of Health have supported the renewal of the recommendations for the Italian guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents and the diagnostic-clinical management of HIV-1 infected persons. This publication summarizes the latest updates to the 2017 version of the Italian Guidelines for the management of HIV-1 infected patients and the use of antiretroviral drugs. New recommendations were released framing the clinical questions the use of antiretrovirals according to the Patient Intervention Comparator Outcome (PICO) methodology and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Diagnostic tools for immunological and virological monitoring, when to start, what to start, optimization and therapeutic failure were updated in order to include the recommendation obtained with these newly developed methods. For a complete review of clinical and therapeutic relevant topics we refer the reader to the extended version of the Guidelines.

6 Review Radiotherapy in patients with HIV: current issues and review of the literature. 2017

Alongi, Filippo / Giaj-Levra, Niccolò / Sciascia, Savino / Fozza, Alessandra / Fersino, Sergio / Fiorentino, Alba / Mazzola, Rosario / Ricchetti, Francesco / Buglione, Michela / Buonfrate, Dora / Roccatello, Dario / Ricardi, Umberto / Bisoffi, Zeno. ·Radiation Oncology, Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Cancer Care Center, Negrar-Verona, Italy; University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy. · Radiation Oncology, Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Cancer Care Center, Negrar-Verona, Italy; Department of Oncology, University of Turin, Torino, Italy. Electronic address: niccolo.giajlevra@sacrocuore.it. · Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, Centre of Research of Immunopathology and Rare Diseases-Coordinating Centre of Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Network for Rare Disease, Torino, Italy. · Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, Ospedale dell'Angelo, Mestre-Venezia, Italy. · Radiation Oncology, Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Cancer Care Center, Negrar-Verona, Italy. · Radiation Oncology, University and Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy. · Centre for Tropical Diseases, Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar-Verona, Italy. · Department of Oncology, University of Turin, Torino, Italy. ·Lancet Oncol · Pubmed #28677574.

ABSTRACT: Although the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has radically improved the life expectancy of patients with HIV, HIV positivity is still considered a major barrier to oncological treatment for patients with cancer because of their worse prognosis and increased susceptibility to toxic effects compared with patients who are immunocompetent. The use of radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or molecular targeted therapy is the standard of care for several cancers. These new drugs and substantial improvements in radiotherapy techniques, including intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image-guided radiotherapy, and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy, are optimising the feasibility of such anticancer treatments and are providing new opportunities for patients with cancer and HIV. In this Review, we discuss the role of radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy or new drugs, in the treatment of cancer in patients with HIV, with a focus on the efficacy and tolerability of this approach on the basis of available evidence. Moreover, we analyse and discuss the biological basis of interactions between HIV and radiotherapy, evidence from preclinical studies, and immunomodulation by radiotherapy in the HIV setting.

7 Review Effectiveness of semen washing to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and assist pregnancy in HIV-discordant couples: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2016

Zafer, Maryam / Horvath, Hacsi / Mmeje, Okeoma / van der Poel, Sheryl / Semprini, Augusto E / Rutherford, George / Brown, Joelle. ·Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California. · Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan. · Division of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. · Department of Clinical Sciences "L. Sacco", University of Milan School of Medicine, Milan, Italy. · Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California. Electronic address: joelle.brown@ucsf.edu. ·Fertil Steril · Pubmed #26688556.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of semen washing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-discordant couples in which the male partner is infected. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Forty single-arm open-label studies among HIV-discordant couples that underwent intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using washed semen. INTERVENTION(S): Semen washing followed by IUI, IVF, or IVF/ICSI. PRIMARY OUTCOME: HIV transmission to HIV-uninfected women; secondary outcomes: HIV transmission to newborns and proportion of couples achieving a clinical pregnancy. RESULT(S): No HIV transmission occurred in 11,585 cycles of assisted reproduction with the use of washed semen among 3,994 women. Among the subset of HIV-infected men without plasma viral suppression at the time of semen washing, no HIV seroconversions occurred among 1,023 women after 2,863 cycles of assisted reproduction with the use of washed semen. Studies that measured HIV transmission to infants reported no cases of vertical transmission. Overall, 56.3% of couples (2,357/4,184) achieved a clinical pregnancy with the use of washed semen. CONCLUSION(S): Semen washing appears to significantly reduce the risk of transmission in HIV-discordant couples desiring children, regardless of viral suppression in the male partner. There are no randomized controlled studies or studies from low-income countries, especially those with a large burden of HIV. Continued development of lower-cost semen washing and assisted reproduction technologies is needed. Integration of semen washing into HIV prevention interventions could help to further reduce the spread of HIV.

8 Review The impact of antiretroviral therapy on mortality in HIV positive people during tuberculosis treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2014

Odone, Anna / Amadasi, Silvia / White, Richard G / Cohen, Theodore / Grant, Alison D / Houben, Rein M G J. ·TB Modelling Group, Centre for the Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America; University of Parma, School of Medicine, Parma, Italy. · University Division of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia and Spedali Civili General Hospital, Brescia, Italy. · TB Modelling Group, Centre for the Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; TB Centre, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom. · Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America; Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. · TB Centre, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #25391135.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To quantify the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on mortality in HIV-positive people during tuberculosis (TB) treatment. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Studies published from 1996 through February 15, 2013, were identified by searching electronic resources (Pubmed and Embase) and conference books, manual searches of references, and expert consultation. Pooled estimates for the outcome of interest were acquired using random effects meta-analysis. SUBJECTS: The study population included individuals receiving ART before or during TB treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome measures were: (i) TB-case fatality ratio (CFR), defined as the proportion of individuals dying during TB treatment and, if mortality in HIV-positive people not on ART was also reported, (ii) the relative risk of death during TB treatment by ART status. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies were included in the systematic review. Random effects pooled meta-analysis estimated the CFR between 8% and 14% (pooled estimate 11%). Among HIV-positive TB cases, those receiving ART had a reduction in mortality during TB treatment of between 44% and 71% (RR = 0.42, 95%CI: 0.29-0.56). CONCLUSION: Starting ART before or during TB therapy reduces the risk of death during TB treatment by around three-fifths in clinical settings. National programmes should continue to expand coverage of ART for HIV positive in order to control the dual epidemic.

9 Review Influenza vaccination in HIV-positive subjects: latest evidence and future perspective. 2013

Ceravolo, A / Orsi, A / Parodi, V / Ansaldi, F. ·Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy. s2098054@studenti.unige.it · Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy. · Local Health Unit of Genoa (LHA 3), Italy. ·J Prev Med Hyg · Pubmed #24396998.

ABSTRACT: Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Recent reports indicate that immunizations may increase IIeplication in infected individuals. Generally, vaccination against influenza is well tolerated in both children and adult individuals with HNIVand does not induce significant changes in viral load and CD4+ cell counts. The observed increase in viral replication is usually transient and a clear, measurable progression of the underlying HIV disease is hard to be determined. Several studies reported immunogenicity data in HIV+ population, by comparing diferfent influenza vaccines, adjuvanted or not, and different administration routes. Data are encouraging because an adequate immune response is shown, although split/subunit vaccines do not elicite an efficient immune response in these subjects. New strategies have been evaluated to increase the immune response in immunocompromised patients.The aim of this review is to evaluate tolerability, safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines actually approved for human use and to consider latest evidence and future perspective in HIV positive subjects.

10 Review Reproductive assistance in HIV serodiscordant couples. 2013

Savasi, V / Mandia, L / Laoreti, A / Cetin, I. ·Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Hospital L. Sacco, University of Milan, Via G. B. Grassi, 74, 20157 Milan, Italy. valeria.savasi@unimi.it ·Hum Reprod Update · Pubmed #23146867.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Three quarters of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are in their reproductive years and may consider pregnancy planning. Techniques have been developed which can minimize the risk of HIV transmission in these couples, and the current literature on this topic is reviewed here. METHODS: We reviewed the literature for the following topics: risk of HIV transmission, effects of HIV infection on fertility, reproductive assistance in industrialized and low-income countries, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) and timed intercourse in HIV-discordant couples for both male and female positivity. Relevant publications were identified through searches of the EMBASE Medline and PubMed databases, the Google-indexed scientific literature and periodic specialized magazines from the on-line Library Service of the University of Milan, Italy. RESULTS: In serodiscordant couples in which the man is positive, the primary method used to prevent HIV transmission is 'sperm washing', followed by IUI or IVF. Data show that sperm washing in HIV-positive men has not produced seroconversion in women or their offspring; however, the evidence is limited. Recently, increasing evidence describing PrEP for HIV prevention has been published and PrEP could be an alternative to ART for fertile couples. Usually HIV-infected women undergo self-insemination around the time of ovulation. Few studies have been published on IVF outcome in HIV-infected women. CONCLUSIONS: Assisted reproduction programmes should be integrated into global public health services against HIV. For HIV serodiscordant couples with infected men, sperm washing should be the first choice. However, timed intercourse and PrEP for HIV prevention has been reported. Recent data highlight the possible impairment of fertility in HIV-infected women. Efforts to design a multicentric study should be strengthened.

11 Review Hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV positive patients. 2012

Nunnari, G / Berretta, M / Pinzone, M R / Di Rosa, M / Berretta, S / Cunsolo, G / Malaguarnera, M / Cosentino, S / De Paoli, P / Schnell, J M / Cacopardo, B. ·Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. gnunnari@hotmail.com ·Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci · Pubmed #23047511.

ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically changed the natural history of HIV-1-infected patients leading to increased survival and a better quality of life. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are common among HIV-1-infected subjects and represent the most important risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Whether HIV plays a direct role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis remains to be established.HCC clinical course depends on stage of cancer disease, performance status and comorbidities. Therapeutic options include liver transplantation, local antiblastic chemotherapy and biological drugs. In the HIV setting few data are available about treatment options. The increased longevity of patients with HIV imposes new strategies for prevention and therapeutic management of patients. The aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of HIV-related HCC in the HAART era.

12 Review Positioning of HIV-protease inhibitors in clinical practice. 2012

Andreoni, M / Perno, C F. ·Department of Public Health and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy. andreoni@uniroma2.it ·Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci · Pubmed #22338543.

ABSTRACT: The availability of more than 20 drugs for the treatment of HIV infection, and the success of the current antiretroviral regimens, should not overlook the difficulty of long-term maintaining the control of viral replication. The therapy needs to be continued for decades, if not for lifetime, and there are clear evidences that, even in patients fully suppressed for many years, HIV starts again its replication cycles in case antiviral pressure is removed. The development of resistance is a natural event at the time of virological failure, that needs to be taken into account in the global strategy against HIV in each particular patient. Taking all together, therapeutic regiments must be embedded, since the beginning, in a long-term strategy whose main task is the stable control of the replication of HIV. To do so, the choice of the first antiviral regimen has to be highly appropriate to keep the virus in check, and at the same time maintain future therapeutic options. Change of therapy at the time of failure has to be also appropriate, in term of timing, diagnostic strategy, and selection of drugs. Under these circumstances, the use of protease inhibitors in the first line acquires a strong rationale, that balances the greater pure potency of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), and makes them a valuable options for many patients that need to start antiviral therapy.

13 Clinical Trial Probiotic supplementation promotes a reduction in T-cell activation, an increase in Th17 frequencies, and a recovery of intestinal epithelium integrity and mitochondrial morphology in ART-treated HIV-1-positive patients. 2017

d'Ettorre, Gabriella / Rossi, Giacomo / Scagnolari, Carolina / Andreotti, Mauro / Giustini, Noemi / Serafino, Sara / Schietroma, Ivan / Scheri, Giuseppe Corano / Fard, Saeid Najafi / Trinchieri, Vito / Mastromarino, Paola / Selvaggi, Carla / Scarpona, Silvia / Fanello, Gianfranco / Fiocca, Fausto / Ceccarelli, Giancarlo / Antonelli, Guido / Brenchley, Jason M / Vullo, Vincenzo. ·Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Azienda Policlinico Umberto I of Rome, Rome, Italy. · School of Biosciences, Veterinary Medicine University of Camerino, Matelica, Italy. · Laboratory Affiliated to Istituto Pasteur Italia-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. · Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicines Evaluation, Italian Institute of Health, Rome, Italy. · Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. · Section of Microbiology, Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. · Department of Emergency Surgery-Emergency Endoscopic Unit, Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. · Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. ·Immun Inflamm Dis · Pubmed #28474815.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: HIV infection is characterized by a persistent immune activation associated to a compromised gut barrier immunity and alterations in the profile of the fecal flora linked with the progression of inflammatory symptoms. The effects of high concentration multistrain probiotic (Vivomixx®, Viale del Policlinico 155, Rome, Italy in EU; Visbiome®, Dupont, Madison, Wisconsin in USA) on several aspects of intestinal immunity in ART-experienced HIV-1 patients was evaluated. METHODS: A sub-study of a longitudinal pilot study was performed in HIV-1 patients who received the probiotic supplement twice a day for 6 months (T6). T-cell activation and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets expressing IFNγ (Th1, Tc1) or IL-17A (Th17, Tc17) were stained by cytoflorimetric analysis. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on intestinal biopsies while enterocytes apoptosis index was determined by TUNEL assay. RESULTS: A reduction in the frequencies of CD4 CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the potential beneficial effects of probiotic supplementation for the reconstitution of physical and immunological integrity of the mucosal intestinal barrier in ART-treated HIV-1-positive patients.

14 Article HBcAb seropositivity is correlated with poor HIV viremia control in an Italian cohort of HIV/HBV-coinfected patients on first-line therapy. 2019

Malagnino, Vincenzo / Cerva, Carlotta / Maffongelli, Gaetano / Teti, Elisabetta / Foroghi Biland, Luca / Cesta, Novella / De Masi, Margherita / Stingone, Christof / Armenia, Daniele / Svicher, Valentina / Salpini, Romina / Andreoni, Massimo / Sarmati, Loredana. ·Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy. · Department of Systems Medicine, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Rome, Italy. · Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Rome, Italy. · UniCamillus, Saint Camillus International University of Health Sciences, Rome, Italy. · Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy. sarmati@med.uniroma2.it. · Department of Systems Medicine, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Rome, Italy. sarmati@med.uniroma2.it. ·Sci Rep · Pubmed #31420570.

ABSTRACT: The morbidity and mortality rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection are higher than that of either infection alone. Outcomes and the virological response to antiretrovirals (combination antiretroviral therapy, cART) were explored in HIV/HBV subjects in a cohort of Italian patients treated with cART. A single-center retrospective analysis of patients enrolled from January 2007 to June 2018 was conducted by grouping patients by HBV status and recording baseline viro-immunological features, the history of virological failure, the efficacy of cART in achieving HIV viral undetectability, viral blip detection and viral rebound on follow up. Among 231 enrolled patients, 10 (4.3%) were HBV surface (s) antigen (HBsAg)-positive, 85 (36.8%) were positive for antibodies to HBV c antigen (HBcAb) and with or without antibodies to HBV s antigen (HBsAb), and 136 were (58.9%) HBV-negative. At baseline, HBcAb/HBsAb

15 Article Relationship Between Vertebral Fractures, Bone Mineral Density, and Osteometabolic Profile in HIV and Hepatitis B and C-Infected Patients Treated With ART. 2019

Dalla Grana, Elisa / Rigo, Fabio / Lanzafame, Massimiliano / Lattuada, Emanuela / Suardi, Silvia / Mottes, Monica / Valenti, Maria Teresa / Dalle Carbonare, Luca. ·Internal Medicine Section D, Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. · Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. · Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. ·Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) · Pubmed #31139152.

ABSTRACT:

16 Article Risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (PARTNER): final results of a multicentre, prospective, observational study. 2019

Rodger, Alison J / Cambiano, Valentina / Bruun, Tina / Vernazza, Pietro / Collins, Simon / Degen, Olaf / Corbelli, Giulio Maria / Estrada, Vicente / Geretti, Anna Maria / Beloukas, Apostolos / Raben, Dorthe / Coll, Pep / Antinori, Andrea / Nwokolo, Nneka / Rieger, Armin / Prins, Jan M / Blaxhult, Anders / Weber, Rainer / Van Eeden, Arne / Brockmeyer, Norbert H / Clarke, Amanda / Del Romero Guerrero, Jorge / Raffi, Francois / Bogner, Johannes R / Wandeler, Gilles / Gerstoft, Jan / Gutiérrez, Felix / Brinkman, Kees / Kitchen, Maria / Ostergaard, Lars / Leon, Agathe / Ristola, Matti / Jessen, Heiko / Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen / Phillips, Andrew N / Lundgren, Jens / Anonymous1591424. ·Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK. Electronic address: alison.rodger@ucl.ac.uk. · Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK. · Department of Infectious Diseases (CHIP), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Cantonal Hospital, St Gallen, Switzerland. · HIV i-Base, London, UK. · University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. · European AIDS Treatment Group, Brussels, Belgium. · Hospital Clinico San Carlos and Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. · Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. · Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of West Attica, Athens, Greece. · AIDS Research Institute-IrsiCaixa, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol and BCN Checkpoint, Badalona and Barcelona, Spain. · Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive Lazzaro Spallanzani IRCCS, Rome, Italy. · Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. · Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. · Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Venhälsan, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden. · Department of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · DC Klinieken, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Centre for Sexual Health and Medicine, Walk in Ruhr, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany. · Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, and Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK. · Centro Sanitario Sandoval, Madrid, Spain. · Infectious Diseases Department, University Hospital (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes) Hotel-Dieu, and INSERM UIC 1413 Nantes University, Nantes, France. · Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. · Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Hospital General de Elche and Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain. · Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis (OLVG), Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. · Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark. · Hospital Clinic - IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. · Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. · Praxis Jessen(2) + Kollegen, Berlin, Germany. · ICH Study Centre, Hamburg, Germany. ·Lancet · Pubmed #31056293.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The level of evidence for HIV transmission risk through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking virally suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited compared with the evidence available for transmission risk in heterosexual couples. The aim of the second phase of the PARTNER study (PARTNER2) was to provide precise estimates of transmission risk in gay serodifferent partnerships. METHODS: The PARTNER study was a prospective observational study done at 75 sites in 14 European countries. The first phase of the study (PARTNER1; Sept 15, 2010, to May 31, 2014) recruited and followed up both heterosexual and gay serodifferent couples (HIV-positive partner taking suppressive ART) who reported condomless sex, whereas the PARTNER2 extension (to April 30, 2018) recruited and followed up gay couples only. At study visits, data collection included sexual behaviour questionnaires, HIV testing (HIV-negative partner), and HIV-1 viral load testing (HIV-positive partner). If a seroconversion occurred in the HIV-negative partner, anonymised phylogenetic analysis was done to compare HIV-1 pol and env sequences in both partners to identify linked transmissions. Couple-years of follow-up were eligible for inclusion if condomless sex was reported, use of pre-exposure prophylaxis or post-exposure prophylaxis was not reported by the HIV-negative partner, and the HIV-positive partner was virally suppressed (plasma HIV-1 RNA <200 copies per mL) at the most recent visit (within the past year). Incidence rate of HIV transmission was calculated as the number of phylogenetically linked HIV infections that occurred during eligible couple-years of follow-up divided by eligible couple-years of follow-up. Two-sided 95% CIs for the incidence rate of transmission were calculated using exact Poisson methods. FINDINGS: Between Sept 15, 2010, and July 31, 2017, 972 gay couples were enrolled, of which 782 provided 1593 eligible couple-years of follow-up with a median follow-up of 2·0 years (IQR 1·1-3·5). At baseline, median age for HIV-positive partners was 40 years (IQR 33-46) and couples reported condomless sex for a median of 1·0 years (IQR 0·4-2·9). During eligible couple-years of follow-up, couples reported condomless anal sex a total of 76 088 times. 288 (37%) of 777 HIV-negative men reported condomless sex with other partners. 15 new HIV infections occurred during eligible couple-years of follow-up, but none were phylogenetically linked within-couple transmissions, resulting in an HIV transmission rate of zero (upper 95% CI 0·23 per 100 couple-years of follow-up). INTERPRETATION: Our results provide a similar level of evidence on viral suppression and HIV transmission risk for gay men to that previously generated for heterosexual couples and suggest that the risk of HIV transmission in gay couples through condomless sex when HIV viral load is suppressed is effectively zero. Our findings support the message of the U=U (undetectable equals untransmittable) campaign, and the benefits of early testing and treatment for HIV. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research.

17 Article The impact of homocysteine, B 2019

Falasca, Katia / Di Nicola, Marta / Di Martino, Giuseppe / Ucciferri, Claudio / Vignale, Francesca / Occhionero, Alessandro / Vecchiet, Jacopo. ·Clinic of Infectious Diseases - Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, University "G. d'Annunzio" Chieti-Pescara, Pescara, Italy. k.falasca@unich.it. · Laboratory of Biostatistics, Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University "G. d'Annunzio" Chieti- Pescara, Pescara, Italy. · School of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine - Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, University "G. d'Annunzio" Chieti-Pescara, Pescara, Italy. · Clinic of Infectious Diseases - Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, University "G. d'Annunzio" Chieti-Pescara, Pescara, Italy. · Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy. ·BMC Infect Dis · Pubmed #30717694.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The correlation among high levels of total homocysteine, low levels of B METHODS: 57 HIV infected were enrolled and underwent the serum measurement of homocysteine, B CONCLUSIONS: In this study serum homocysteine, B

18 Article Efficacy and tolerability of lamivudine plus dolutegravir compared with lamivudine plus boosted PIs in HIV-1 positive individuals with virologic suppression: a retrospective study from the clinical practice. 2019

Borghetti, Alberto / Lombardi, Francesca / Gagliardini, Roberta / Baldin, Gianmaria / Ciccullo, Arturo / Moschese, Davide / Emiliozzi, Arianna / Belmonti, Simone / Lamonica, Silvia / Montagnani, Francesca / Visconti, Elena / De Luca, Andrea / Di Giambenedetto, Simona. ·Institute of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policlinico Gemelli, Rome, Italy. · Infectious Diseases Unit, Siena University Hospital, Viale Mario Bracci, 53100, Siena, Italy. · Infectious Diseases Unit, Siena University Hospital, Viale Mario Bracci, 53100, Siena, Italy. andrea.deluca@unisi.it. ·BMC Infect Dis · Pubmed #30654739.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Direct comparisons between lamivudine plus bPIs and lamivudine plus dolutegravir as maintenance strategies in virologically-suppressed HIV positive patients are lacking. METHODS: Time to treatment discontinuation (TD) and virological failure (VF) were compared in a cohort of HIV+ patients on a virologically-effective ART starting lamivudine with either darunavir/r, atazanavir/r or dolutegravir. Changes in laboratory parameters were also evaluated. RESULTS: Four-hundred-ninety-four patients were analyzed (170 switching to darunavir/r, 141 to atazanavir/r, 183 to dolutegravir): median age was 49 years, with 8 years since ART start. Groups differed for age, HIV-risk factor, time since HIV-diagnosis and on ART, previous therapy and reasons for switching. Estimated proportions free from TD at week 48 and 96 were 79.8 and 48.3% of patients with darunavir/r, 87.0 and 70.9% with atazanavir/r, and 88.2 and 82.6% with dolutegravir, respectively (p < 0.001). Calendar years, HIV-risk factor, higher baseline cholesterol and an InSTI-based previous regimen predicted TD, whereas lamivudine+dolutegravir therapy and previous tenofovir use were protective. VF was the cause of TD in 6/123 cases with darunavir/r, 4/97 with atazanavir/r and 3/21 with dolutegravir. Other main reasons for TD were: toxicity (43.1% with darunavir/r, 39.2% with atazanavir/r, 52.4% with dolutegravir), further simplification (36.6% with darunavir/r, 30.9% with atazanavir/r, 14.3% with dolutegravir). Incidence of VF did not differ among study groups (p = 0.747). No factor could predict VF. Lipid profile improved in the dolutegravir group, whereas renal function improved in the bPIs groups. CONCLUSIONS: In real practice, a switch to lamivudine+dolutegravir showed similar efficacy but longer durability than a switch to lamivudine+bPIs.

19 Article HIV-1 molecular transmission clusters in nine European countries and Canada: association with demographic and clinical factors. 2019

Paraskevis, Dimitrios / Beloukas, Apostolos / Stasinos, Kostantinos / Pantazis, Nikos / de Mendoza, Carmen / Bannert, Norbert / Meyer, Laurence / Zangerle, Robert / Gill, John / Prins, Maria / d'Arminio Montforte, Antonella / Kran, Anne-Marte Bakken / Porter, Kholoud / Touloumi, Giota / Anonymous2131295. ·Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias Street, 115 27, Athens, Greece. dparask@med.uoa.gr. · Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias Street, 115 27, Athens, Greece. beloukas@liverpool.ac.uk. · Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Ronald Ross Building, 8 West Derby Street, Liverpool, L69 7BE, UK. beloukas@liverpool.ac.uk. · Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of West Attica, Agiou Spiridonos Str (Campus 1), 12243, Athens, Greece. beloukas@liverpool.ac.uk. · Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias Street, 115 27, Athens, Greece. · Department of Internal Medicine, Puerta de Hierro Research Institute and University Hospital, Alle Manuel de Falla, 1, 28222, Madrid, Majadahonda, Spain. · Robert Koch Institute, Nordufer 20, 13353, Berlin, Germany. · Inserm, CESP U1018, Univ Paris-Sud, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, APHP, Hôpital Bicêtre, 78 Rue du Général Leclerc, 94270, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. · Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstraße 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria. · Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases (MIID), University of Calgary, 269 Heritage Medical Research Building, 24 Ave NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. · Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands and Department of Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute, Spui 21, 1012 WX, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Via di Rudinì, 8, 20142, Milan, Italy. · Department of Microbiology, Oslo University Hospital, OUS HF Rikshospitalet, Postboks 4950 Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway. · Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Sognsvannsveien 20, Rikshospitalet, 0372, Oslo, Norway. · University College London Institute for Global Health, Institute of Child Health, 3rd floor, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH, UK. ·BMC Med · Pubmed #30616632.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Knowledge of HIV-1 molecular transmission clusters (MTCs) is important, especially in large-scale datasets, for designing prevention programmes and public health intervention strategies. We used a large-scale HIV-1 sequence dataset from nine European HIV cohorts and one Canadian, to identify MTCs and investigate factors associated with the probability of belonging to MTCs. METHODS: To identify MTCs, we applied maximum likelihood inferences on partial pol sequences from 8955 HIV-positive individuals linked to demographic and clinical data. MTCs were defined using two different criteria: clusters with bootstrap support >75% (phylogenetic confidence criterion) and clusters consisting of sequences from a specific region at a proportion of >75% (geographic criterion) compared to the total number of sequences within the network. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with MTC clustering. RESULTS: Although 3700 (41%) sequences belonged to MTCs, proportions differed substantially by country and subtype, ranging from 7% among UK subtype C sequences to 63% among German subtype B sequences. The probability of belonging to an MTC was independently less likely for women than men (OR = 0.66; P < 0.001), older individuals (OR = 0.79 per 10-year increase in age; P < 0.001) and people of non-white ethnicity (OR = 0.44; P < 0.001 and OR = 0.70; P = 0.002 for black and 'other' versus white, respectively). It was also more likely among men who have sex with men (MSM) than other risk groups (OR = 0.62; P < 0.001 and OR = 0.69; P = 0.002 for people who inject drugs, and sex between men and women, respectively), subtype B (ORs 0.36-0.70 for A, C, CRF01 and CRF02 versus B; all P < 0.05), having a well-estimated date of seroconversion (OR = 1.44; P < 0.001), a later calendar year of sampling (ORs 2.01-2.61 for all post-2002 periods versus pre-2002; all P < 0.01), and being naïve to antiretroviral therapy at sampling (OR = 1.19; P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion (>40%) of individuals belonged to MTCs. Notably, the HIV epidemic dispersal appears to be driven by subtype B viruses spread within MSM networks. Expansion of regional epidemics seems mainly associated with recent MTCs, rather than the growth of older, established ones. This information is important for designing prevention and public health intervention strategies.

20 Article Influence of HIV Infection on the Natural History of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Results From a Global Multicohort Study. 2019

Pinato, David J / Allara, Elias / Chen, Ting-Yi / Trevisani, Franco / Minguez, Beatriz / Zoli, Marco / Harris, Marianne / Dalla Pria, Alessia / Merchante, Nicolás / Platt, Heather / Jain, Mamta / Caturelli, Eugenio / Kikuchi, Luciana / Pineda, Juan / Nelson, Mark / Farinati, Fabio / Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico / Aytaman, Ayse / Yin, Michael / Tan, Chee-Kiat / Bower, Mark / Giannini, Edoardo G / Bräu, Norbert / Anonymous191038. ·1 Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. · 2 University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. · 3 VA Central Texas Health Care System, Austin, TX. · 4 Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. · 5 Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron, Vall d'Hebron Institut of Research, CIBERehd, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. · 6 St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. · 7 Chelsea and Westminster Hospital and Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. · 8 Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain. · 9 Merck Sharp & Dohme, Kenilworth, NJ. · 10 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. · 11 Ospedale Belcolle, Viterbo, Italy. · 12 Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo-SP, Brazil. · 13 Università di Padova, Padova, Italy. · 14 Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Rome, Italy. · 15 VA New York Harbor Healthcare System, Brooklyn, NY. · 16 Columbia University, New York, NY. · 17 Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. · 18 Università di Genova, Genova, Italy. · 19 James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, NY. · 20 Icahn School Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #30562130.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Conflicting evidence indicates that HIV seropositivity may influence the outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a leading cause of mortality in people with HIV. We aimed to verify whether HIV affected the overall survival (OS) of patients with HCC, independent of treatment and geographic origin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We designed an international multicohort study of patients with HCC accrued from four continents who did not receive any anticancer treatment. We estimated the effect of HIV seropositivity on patients' OS while accounting for common prognostic factors and demographic characteristics in uni- and multivariable models. RESULTS: A total of 1,588 patients were recruited, 132 of whom were HIV positive. Most patients clustered within Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) C or D criteria (n = 1,168 [74%]) and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class B (median score, 7; interquartile range [IQR], 3). At HCC diagnosis, the majority of patients who were HIV-positive (n = 65 [64%]) had been on antiretrovirals for a median duration of 8.3 years (IQR, 8.59 years) and had median CD4 CONCLUSION: Despite adequate antiretroviral treatment, HIV seropositivity is associated with decreased survival in HCC, independent of stage, anticancer treatment, and geographical origin. Mechanistic studies investigating the immunobiology of HIV-associated HCC are urgently required.

21 Article Evolution of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance in Italy in the 2007-2014 period: A weighted analysis. 2018

Franzetti, M / De Luca, A / Ceccherini-Silberstein, F / Spagnuolo, V / Nicastri, E / Mussini, C / Antinori, A / Monno, L / Vecchiet, J / Fanti, I / d'Arminio Monforte, A / Balotta, C / Anonymous2231138. ·Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences 'L. Sacco', University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: franzetti.marco@gmail.com. · Siena University Hospital, Infectious Diseases Unit, Siena, Italy. · University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, Rome, Italy. · San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Infectious Diseases, Milan, Italy. · National Institute for Infectious Diseases "L. Spallanzani", Rome, Italy. · Clinic of Infectious Disease, University Hospital, Modena, Italy. · University of Bari, Department of Biomedical Science and Oncology, Bari, Italy. · University of Chieti, Infectious Diseases Clinic, Italy. · Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy. · San Paolo University Hospital Milan, Clinic of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Milan, Italy. · Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences 'L. Sacco', University of Milan, Milan, Italy. ·J Clin Virol · Pubmed #30075459.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that transmitted drug resistance (TDR) may be decreasing in latest years, likely because of the reduced frequency of acquired resistance. However, specific risk factors, geographical areas and special HIV-infected populations may be disproportionally affected by TDR. OBJECTIVES: Correlates of TDR and time trends were evaluated from 2007 to 2014. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated the genotypic results of 2155 naïve patients enrolled in the I.Co.N.A cohort at 23 clinical Centers in Italy between 2007 and 2014. A weighted analysis was performed to account for the patients enrolled in the cohort in each clinical Centre at each biennium (total number of patients: 3737). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of TDR was 10.7%. Independent predictors of TDR were sexual risk factor (OR 2.315, p = 0.020) and non-Italian geographical origin (OR 1.57, p = 0.038). The weighted prevalence of TDR was 10.5% with a stable proportion over calendar years. Generally, TDR prevalence was numerically higher, although not significantly, in clinical Centers of metropolitan areas with more than 3 millions of residents as compared to others (11.3% vs. 9.2%). The difference in TDR prevalence between these Centers decreased in more recent years. CONCLUSIONS: A stable frequency of TDR was observed during the most recent years in Italy, with opposite and converging trends in large metropolitan areas as compared to the rest of the country, suggesting a more homogeneous spread of TDR across the country in latest years. Concerns remain for sexual route of infection and non-Italian origin, reinforcing the need for specific prevention strategies prioritizing specific populations.

22 Article Clearance of human papillomavirus related anal condylomas after oral and endorectal multistrain probiotic supplementation in an HIV positive male: A case report. 2018

Ceccarelli, Giancarlo / Cavallari, Eugenio Nelson / Savinelli, Stefano / Bianchi, Luigi / Pierangeli, Alessandra / Vullo, Francesco / Ciardi, Antonio / D'ettorre, Gabriella. ·Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases. · Department of Molecular Medicine, Laboratory of Virology. · Department of Radiological, Oncological and Pathology Sciences, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Italy. ·Medicine (Baltimore) · Pubmed #29668581.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Here we present the case of a 56-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected man with multiple anal condylomas and positivity for human papilloma virus (HPV) 18 on anal brushing. Biopsies of the anal mucosa led to the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and a subsequent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan evidenced multiple reactive lymphoadenopathies and large intra-anal condylomas. The patient was treated with a complete excision of Bowen's lesion and with a 4 months course of supplementation with a high concentration multistrain probiotic formulation administered orally and by rectal instillation with the purpose to reduce local inflammation and to enhance local mucosal immunity. CONCLUSION: An MRI performed at the end of the supplementation period evidenced the clearance of the anal condylomas previously described and no evidence of residual lymphadenopathies. Trials are therefore required to confirm this therapeutic possibility and for a better understanding of the mechanisms by which this specific probiotic formulation interacts with local epithelium when administered by the anal route.

23 Article Sinecatechins 10% ointment for genital warts: Case report of a beneficial reaction in an HIV-positive woman. 2018

Bilenchi, Roberta / Campoli, Marco / Trovato, Emanuele / Cinotti, Elisa / Rubegni, Pietro / Fimiani, Michele. ·Dermatology Unit, Department of Medical, Surgical and Neuro-Sciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy. ·Int J STD AIDS · Pubmed #29621948.

ABSTRACT: Patients with HIV infection are more likely to develop anogenital warts compared to HIV-negative people and are susceptible to treatment failures and recurrences. We report a case of extensive vulvar warts in an HIV-positive woman successfully treated with sinecatechins ointment. After the failure of a combination of cryotherapy and imiquimod 5% cream, we started therapy with sinecatechins 10% ointment. The patient developed an intense local inflammatory reaction after three weeks that induced the discontinuation of the therapy. After two weeks, we observed a complete regression of inflammation and a reduction of genital warts. The lesions completely regressed within a few weeks, with no relapse after eight months. Sinecatechins is a standardized extract of green tea leaves, effective in the treatment of external genital and perianal warts in immunocompetent patients, but their role has not been yet studied for immunocompromised people. Our case may represent a starting point for further studies, in order to evaluate the relation between treatment dosage, side effects, and drug response in immunocompromised patients.

24 Article Gender differences in the use of cardiovascular interventions in HIV-positive persons; the D:A:D Study. 2018

Hatleberg, Camilla I / Ryom, Lene / El-Sadr, Wafaa / Mocroft, Amanda / Reiss, Peter / De Wit, Stephane / Dabis, Francois / Pradier, Christian / d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella / Kovari, Helen / Law, Matthew / Lundgren, Jens D / Sabin, Caroline A / Anonymous2461236. ·Department of Infectious Diseases Section 2100, CHIP, University of Copenhagen, Finsencentret, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. · ICAP-Columbia University and Harlem Hospital, New York, NY, USA. · Institute for Global Health, UCL, London, United Kingdom. · Academic Medical Center, Department of Global Health and Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Amsterdam, HIV Monitoring Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Division of Infectious Diseases, Saint Pierre University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. · CHU de Bordeaux and INSERM U897, Université de Bordeaux, Talence, France. · Department of Public Health, Nice University Hospital, Nice, France. · Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Clinica di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali, Azienda Ospedaliera-Polo Universitario San Paolo, Milan, Italy. · Division of infectious diseases and hospital epidemiology, University hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia. ·J Int AIDS Soc · Pubmed #29509305.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: There is paucity of data related to potential gender differences in the use of interventions to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-positive individuals. We investigated whether such differences exist in the observational D:A:D cohort study. METHODS: Participants were followed from study enrolment until the earliest of death, six months after last visit or February 1, 2015. Initiation of CVD interventions [lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), anti-hypertensives, invasive cardiovascular procedures (ICPs) were investigated and Poisson regression models calculated whether rates were lower among women than men, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Women (n = 12,955) were generally at lower CVD risk than men (n = 36,094). Overall, initiation rates of CVD interventions were lower in women than men; LLDs: incidence rate 1.28 [1.21, 1.35] vs. 2.40 [2.34, 2.46]; ACEIs: 0.88 [0.82, 0.93] vs. 1.43 [1.39, 1.48]; anti-hypertensives: 1.40 [1.33, 1.47] vs. 1.72 [1.68, 1.77] and ICPs: 0.08 [0.06, 0.10] vs. 0.30 [0.28, 0.32], and this was also true for most CVD interventions when exclusively considering periods of follow-up for which individuals were at high CVD risk. In fully adjusted models, women were less likely to receive CVD interventions than men (LLDs: relative rate 0.83 [0.78, 0.88]; ACEIs: 0.93 [0.86, 1.01]; ICPs: 0.54 [0.43, 0.68]), except for the receipt of anti-hypertensives (1.17 [1.10, 1.25]). CONCLUSION: The use of most CVD interventions was lower among women than men. Interventions are needed to ensure that all HIV-positive persons, particularly women, are appropriately monitored for CVD and, if required, receive appropriate CVD interventions.

25 Article ACUTE MACULAR NEURORETINOPATHY AND PERIPHERAL RETINAL VASCULAR ABNORMALITIES IN A PATIENT BORN HIV SEROPOSITIVE. 2018

Giuffrè, Chiara / Rabiolo, Alessandro / Corbelli, Eleonora / Carnevali, Adriano / Sacconi, Riccardo / Querques, Lea / Bandello, Francesco / Querques, Giuseppe. ·Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-Salute, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. · Department of Ophthalmology, University of "Magna Graecia," Catanzaro, Italy. · Department of Ophthalmology, University of Verona, University Hospital of Verona, Verona, Italy. ·Retin Cases Brief Rep · Pubmed #29016527.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To describe the case of a born HIV seropositive woman who developed outer retinal alterations secondary to vascular abnormalities in the perimacular region and in the periphery of both eyes. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 21-year-old woman born HIV seropositive was referred for a routinary visit. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes, and during the visit, only mild superotemporal metamorphopsia in the left eye was reported. Multimodal imaging disclosed findings consistent with acute macular neuroretinopathy such as reddish-brown lesions at fundus examination and disruption of ellipsoid zone at spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Peripheral vascular alterations were also noted at fluorescein angiography. CONCLUSION: Several associations or risk factors have been identified in patients with acute macular neuroretinopathy, including oral contraceptives, epinephrine/ephedrine, or systemic shock. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing peripheral vascular alterations and acute macular neuroretinopathy in association with HIV seropositivity at birth.

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