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HIV Seropositivity: HELP
Articles from Japan
Based on 40 articles published since 2008
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These are the 40 published articles about HIV Seropositivity that originated from Japan during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2
1 Editorial EEG biomarkers of NeuroAIDS. 2014

Ishii, Ryouhei / Canuet, Leonides. ·Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 D3, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Electronic address: ishii@psy.med.osaka-u.ac.jp. · Centre for Biomedical Technology, Department of Cognitive and Computational Neuroscience, Complutense University of Madrid, UPM, Madrid, Spain. ·Clin Neurophysiol · Pubmed #24560134.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Review Association of opioid agonist therapy with the initiation of antiretroviral therapy - a systematic review. 2016

Mlunde, Linda Beatrice / Sunguya, Bruno Fokas / Mbwambo, Jessie Kazeni Kilonzo / Ubuguyu, Omary Said / Yasuoka, Junko / Jimba, Masamine. ·Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan. Electronic address: lindasozy@gmail.com. · Department of Community Health, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 65015, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Electronic address: sunguya@gmail.com. · Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Muhimbili National Hospital, P.O. Box 65000, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Electronic address: jmbwambo@gmail.com. · Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Muhimbili National Hospital, P.O. Box 65000, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Electronic address: oubuguyu@yahoo.com. · Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan. Electronic address: jyasuoka@post.harvard.edu. · Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan. Electronic address: mjimba@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp. ·Int J Infect Dis · Pubmed #27044520.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: People who inject drugs are at high risk of HIV infection but often face barriers in accessing medical care including access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Evidence is available about the effectiveness of opioid agonist therapy on drug dependency and risk behaviors. However, it remains scattered regarding access to ART among HIV-positive people who inject drugs. We conducted a systematic review to examine the association of opioid agonist therapy with ART initiation among HIV-positive people who inject drugs. METHODS: We searched the literature for evidence from seven databases. We conducted a narrative synthesis and meta-analysis to examine the association of opioid agonist therapy with ART initiation. RESULTS: Five out of 2,901 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Three out of five studies reported that, HIV-positive people receiving opioid agonist therapy initiated ART more than those not receiving opioid agonist therapy. In meta-analysis, opioid agonist therapy was associated with ART initiation among HIV positive people who inject drugs (pooled odds ratio: 1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.73). CONCLUSIONS: Opioid agonist therapy is positively associated with ART initiation among HIV-positive people who inject drugs. It is important to scale up opioid agonist therapy among people who inject drugs to improve their ART initiation.

3 Review Genetic factors that confer sensitivity to HAART in HIV-infected subjects: implication of a benefit of an earlier initiation of HAART. 2008

Nakajima, Toshiaki / Kimura, Akinori. ·Department of Molecular Pathogenesis, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan. ·Pharmacogenomics · Pubmed #18781860.

ABSTRACT: EVALUATION OF: Ahuja SK, Kulkarni H, Catano G et al.: CCL3L1-CCR5 genotype influences durability of immune recovery during antiretroviral therapy of HIV-1-infected individuals. Nat. Med. 14(4), 413-420 (2008). It is widely accepted that the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) varies widely among HIV-infected individuals. Host genetic factors are thought to be linked to the sensitivity to HAART in HIV-infected individuals. Ahuja et al. attempted to identify the genes that determine the sensitivity to HAART in HIV-infected subjects. Based on the hypothesis that CD4+ depletion and the recovery process in HIV-infected subjects are under the control of specific common genetic pathways, they evaluated the associations of genetic variations, such as CCR5 genotype, CCL3L1 copy number variation and HLA alleles, with the sensitivity to HAART in two cohorts from the USA. They found that the CCL3L1-CCR5 genetic risk status, but not HLA-B*57, is apparently a good predictor of the recovery rate of CD4+ T cells during HAART. In particular, the recovery rate of CD4+ T cells during HAART has the most sensitive association with the copy number of CCL3L1. Furthermore, Ahuja et al. studied the impact of CCL3L1-CCR5 genetic risks in HIV-infected individuals initiating HAART during acute or early infection. They suggested that CCL3L1-CCR5 genetic risk status may be a useful guide in deciding whether to initiate HAART in HIV-infected subjects with a level of 350 CD4+ T cells/mm(3)or more. This study has provided a critical breakthrough in predicting the response to HAART in HIV-infected subjects.

4 Clinical Trial Prevalence of Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk Factors among HIV-positive Patients in Tokyo, Japan. 2015

Nagata, Naoyoshi / Watanabe, Kazuhiro / Nishijima, Takeshi / Tadokoro, Kenichi / Watanabe, Koji / Shimbo, Takuro / Niikura, Ryota / Sekine, Katsunori / Akiyama, Junichi / Teruya, Katsuji / Gatanaga, Hiroyuki / Kikuchi, Yoshimi / Uemura, Naomi / Oka, Shinichi. ·Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. · AIDS Clinical Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. · BML, Tokyo, Japan. · Ohta Nishinouchi Hospital, Fukushima, Japan. · Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Kohnodai Hospital, Chiba, Japan. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #26368294.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly multiple HPV types, is recognized as a necessary cause of anal cancer. However, a limited number of studies have reported the prevalence of anal HPV infection in Asia. We determined the prevalence, genotypes, and risk factors for anal HPV infection in Japanese HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), heterosexual men, and women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 421 HIV-positive patients. At enrollment, we collected data on smoking, alcohol, co-morbidities, drugs, CD4 cell counts, HIV RNA levels, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) duration, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and serological screening (syphilis, hepatitis B virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Entamoeba histolytica). Anal swabs were collected for oncogenic HPV genotyping. RESULTS: Oncogenic HPV rate was 75.9% in MSM, 20.6% in heterosexual men, and 19.2% in women. HPV 16/18 types were detected in 34.9% of MSM, 17.7% of heterosexual men, and 11.5% of women. Multiple oncogenic HPV (≥2 oncogenic types) rate was 54.6% in MSM, 8.8% in heterosexual men, and 0% in women. In univariate analysis, younger age, male sex, MSM, CD4 <100, HIV viral load >50,000, no administration of HAART, and having ≥2 sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were significantly associated with oncogenic HPV infection, whereas higher smoking index and corticosteroid use were marginally associated with oncogenic HPV infection. In multivariate analysis, younger age (OR, 0.98 [0.96-0.99]), MSM (OR, 5.85 [2.33-14.71]), CD4 <100 (OR, 2.24 [1.00-5.01]), and having ≥2 STIs (OR, 2.81 [1.72-4.61]) were independently associated with oncogenic HPV infection. These 4 variables were also significant risk factors for multiple oncogenic HPV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Among Japanese HIV-infected patients, approximately two-thirds of MSM, one-fifth of heterosexual men, and one-fifth of women have anal oncogenic HPV infection. Younger age, MSM, ≥2 STIs, and immunosuppression confer a higher risk of infection with oncogenic HPV and multiple oncogenic types.

5 Article Clinical characteristics of HIV-1-infected patients with high levels of plasma interferon-γ: a multicenter observational study. 2019

Watanabe, Dai / Uehira, Tomoko / Suzuki, Sachiko / Matsumoto, Erina / Ueji, Takashi / Hirota, Kazuyuki / Minami, Rumi / Takahama, Soichiro / Hayashi, Kimikazu / Sawamura, Morio / Yamamoto, Masahiro / Shirasaka, Takuma. ·AIDS Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, 2-1-14, Hoenzaka, Chuo-ku, Osaka City, Osaka, 540-0006, Japan. dai@onh.go.jp. · Department of Advanced Medicine for HIV Infection, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamada-oka, Suita City, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan. dai@onh.go.jp. · AIDS Medical Center, National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, 2-1-14, Hoenzaka, Chuo-ku, Osaka City, Osaka, 540-0006, Japan. · Internal Medicine, Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization, Kyushu Medical Center, 1-8-1, Jigyohama, Chuo-ku Fukuoka City, Fukuoka, 810-8563, Japan. · Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Organization Kanmon Medical Center, 1-1, Chofusotouracho, Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi, 752-8510, Japan. · Department of Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Shibukawa Medical Center, 383, Shiroi, Shibukawa City, Gunma, 377-0280, Japan. · Department of Advanced Medicine for HIV Infection, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamada-oka, Suita City, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan. ·BMC Infect Dis · Pubmed #30611204.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Circulating interferon-γ (IFN-γ) concentration may be sustained at a high level regardless of the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in some patients with HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we examined the clinical characteristics of HIV-1-infected patients with high levels of plasma IFN-γ. METHODS: The study subjects were patients infected with HIV-1 who were either naïve to ART with CD4 RESULTS: The high IFN-γ group included 41 patients (21%). Compared to the patients on ART with low IFN-γ levels, those on ART in the high IFN-γ group were more likely to be younger than 50 years of age (P = 0.0051) and less likely to have dyslipidemia (P = 0.0476) or to be on a protease inhibitor (P = 0.0449). There was no significant difference between groups in the median increase of CD4 CONCLUSION: We concluded that HIV-1-infected patients with high levels of circulating IFN-γ did not have a higher rate of comorbidities related to immune activation. However, they exhibited lower CD4

6 Article Comparative evaluation of the Geenius HIV 1/2 Confirmatory Assay and the HIV-1 and HIV-2 Western blots in the Japanese population. 2018

Kondo, Makiko / Sudo, Koji / Sano, Takako / Kawahata, Takuya / Itoda, Ichiro / Iwamuro, Shinya / Yoshimura, Yukihiro / Tachikawa, Natsuo / Kojima, Yoko / Mori, Haruyo / Fujiwara, Hiroshi / Hasegawa, Naoki / Kato, Shingo. ·Division of Microbiology, Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Chigasaki, Kanagawa, Japan. · Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan. · Virology Section, Division of Microbiology, Osaka Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Osaka, Japan. · Shirakaba Clinic, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan. · Atsugi City Hospital, Atsugi, Kanagawa, Japan. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Yokohama Municipal Citizen's Hospital, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan. · Center for Infectious Diseases and Infection Control, Keio University Hospital, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #30379808.

ABSTRACT: Accurate diagnosis of earlier HIV infection is essential for treatment and prevention. Currently, confirmation tests of HIV infection in Japan are performed using Western blot (WB), but WB has several limitations including low sensitivity and cross-reactivity between HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. To address these problems, a new HIV testing algorithm and a more reliable confirmation and HIV-1/2 differentiation assay are required. The Bio-Rad Geenius HIV-1/2 Confirmatory Assay (Geenius) has recently been approved and recommended for use in the revised guidelines for diagnosis of HIV infection by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (USA). We made comprehensive comparison of the performance of Geenius and the Bio-Rad NEW LAV BLOT 1 and 2 (NLB 1 and 2) which are WB kits for HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively, to examine if Geenius is a suitable alternative to these WB assays which are now being used in HIV testing in Japan. A total of 166 HIV-1 positive samples (146 from patients with established HIV-1 infection and 20 from patients with acute infection), five HIV-1 seroconversion panels containing 21 samples and 30 HIV-2 positive samples were used. In addition, a total of 140 HIV negative samples containing 10 false-positives on screening tests were examined. The sensitivity of Geenius and NLB 1 for HIV-1 positive samples was 99.3% and 98.6%, respectively. Geenius provided more positive results in the samples from acute infections and detected positivity 0 to 32 days earlier in seroconversion panels than NLB 1. NLB 2 gave positive results in 12.3% of HIV-1 positive samples. The sensitivity of both Geenius and NLB 2 for HIV-2 positive samples was 100%. The specificity of Geenius, NLB 1 and NLB 2 was 98.5%, 81.5% and 90.0%, respectively. Geenius is an attractive alternative to WB for confirmation and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. The adaptation of Geenius to the HIV testing algorithm may be advantageous for rapid diagnosis and the reduction of testing costs.

7 Article Pre- and post-natal macronutrient supplementation for HIV-positive women in Tanzania: Effects on infant birth weight and HIV transmission. 2018

Magohe, Albert / Mackenzie, Todd / Kimario, Josephine / Lukmanji, Zohra / Hendricks, Kristy / Koethe, John / Neke, Nyasule Majura / Tvaroha, Susan / Connor, Ruth / Waddell, Richard / Maro, Isaac / Matee, Mecky / Pallangyo, Kisali / Bakari, Muhammad / von Reyn, C Fordham / Anonymous12711104. ·Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. · Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth and Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, United States of America. · Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, United States of America. · Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #30307945.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine if a protein-calorie supplement (PCS) plus a micronutrient supplement (MNS) improves outcomes for HIV-infected lactating women and their infants. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. SUBJECTS, PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant HIV-infected women enrolled in PMTCT programs who intended to breastfeed for 6 months. INTERVENTION: Randomization 1:1 to administration of a PCS plus MNS versus MNS alone among 96 eligible women beginning in the third trimester and continuing for 6 months of breast-feeding. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Primary: infant weight at 3 months. Secondary: maternal BMI at 6 months. RESULTS: PCS resulted in significant increases in daily energy intake compared to MNS at all time points (range of differences: +388-719 Kcal); and increases in daily protein intake (range of differences: +22-33 gm). Infant birth weight (excluding twins) was higher in the PCS than MNS groups: 3.30 kg vs 3.04 kg (p = 0.04). Infant weight at 3 months did not differ between PCS and MNS groups: 5.63 kg vs 5.99 kg (p = 0.07). Maternal BMI at 6 months did not differ between PCS and MNS groups: 24.3 vs 23.8 kg/m2 (p = 0.68). HIV transmission occurred in 0 infants in the PCS group vs 4 in the MNS group (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to MNS the PCS + MNS intervention was well tolerated, increased maternal energy and protein intake, and increased infant birth weight, but not weight at 3 months or maternal BMI at 6 months. Reduced infant HIV transmission in the PCS + MNS group was observed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.Gov NCT01461863.

8 Article Sexual and reproductive health behavior and unmet needs among a sample of adolescents living with HIV in Zambia: a cross-sectional study. 2018

Okawa, Sumiyo / Mwanza-Kabaghe, Sylvia / Mwiya, Mwiya / Kikuchi, Kimiyo / Jimba, Masamine / Kankasa, Chipepo / Ishikawa, Naoko. ·Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. sumiyo@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp. · Department of Educational Psychology, Sociology, and Special Education, School of Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia. · Paediatric HIV Centre of Excellence, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. · Institute of Decision Science for a Sustainable Society, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. · Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. · Bureau of International Health Cooperation, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. ·Reprod Health · Pubmed #29587791.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV face challenges, such as disclosure of HIV status, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH). These challenges affect their future quality of life. However, little evidence is available on their sexual behaviors and SRH needs in Zambia. This study aimed at assessing their sexual behaviors and SRH needs and identifying factors associated with marriage concerns and a desire to have children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital from April to July 2014. We recruited 200 adolescents aged 15-19 years who were aware of their HIV-positive status. We collected data on their first and recent sexual behavior, concerns about marriage, and desire to have children. We used the Generalized Linear Model to identify factors associated with having concerns about marriage and desire to have children. We performed thematic analysis with open-ended data to determine their perceptions about marriage and having children in the future. RESULTS: Out of 175 studied adolescents, 20.6% had experienced sexual intercourse, and only 44.4% used condoms during the first intercourse. Forty-eight percent had concerns about marriage, and 87.4% desired to have children. Marriage-related concerns were high among those who desired to have children (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.02 to 6.14). Adolescents who had completed secondary school were more likely to desire to have children (ARR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.71). Adolescents who had lost both parents were less likely to want children (ARR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.95). Thematic analysis identified that major concerns about future marriage were fear of disclosing HIV status to partners and risk of infecting partners and/or children. The reasons for their willingness to have children were the desire to be a parent, having children as family assets, a human right, and a source of love and happiness. CONCLUSIONS: Zambian adolescents living with HIV are at risk of engaging in risky sexual relationships and have difficulties in meeting needs of SRH. HIV care service must respond to a wide range of needs.

9 Article Pulmonary involvement of secondary syphilis. 2018

Ogawa, Yoshihiko / Imai, Yuichiro / Yoshihara, Shingo / Fujikura, Hiroyuki / Hirai, Nobuyasu / Sato, Masatoshi / Ogawa, Taku / Uno, Kenji / Kasahara, Kei / Yano, Hisakazu / Mikasa, Keiichi. ·1 Center for Infectious Diseases, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan. · 2 Division of Infectious Diseases, Nara City Hospital, Nara, Japan. · 3 Division of Infectious Diseases, Minami Nara General Medical Center, Nara, Japan. · 4 Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan. ·Int J STD AIDS · Pubmed #28661232.

ABSTRACT: Pulmonary involvement in secondary syphilis is considered a rare occurrence; however, the number of cases has increased in the 2000s. This is likely due to the increased use of computed tomography scans and molecular diagnostic testing. We report a case of an HIV-positive man with pleural chest pain and bilateral subpleural nodules on chest computed tomography. His rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination tests were positive, and the specimen of one of the pulmonary nodules obtained by transthoracic biopsy was positive for the polA gene of Treponema pallidum. Since clinical manifestations of syphilis are highly variable, clinicians should bear in mind that pleural chest pain with bilateral subpleural nodules can be caused by pulmonary syphilis.

10 Article Sero- and Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 in Papua Province, Indonesia. 2017

Yunifiar, Muhammad Qushai / Kotaki, Tomohiro / Witaningrum, Adiana Mutamsari / Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah / Indriati, Dwi Wahyu / Meilani, Meilani / Yeheskiel, Tigor / Ueda, Shuhei / Nasronudin, Nasronudin / Kameoka, Masanori. ·Indonesia-Japan Collaborative Research Center for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia. yunifiar@gmail.com. ·Acta Med Indones · Pubmed #29093230.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cause serious health problems and affect the Indonesian economy. Papua province has the highest prevalence of HIV infection in the country; however, epidemiological data are limited. Therefore, in order to reveal the current situation of HIV/AIDS in Papua province, sero- and molecular epidemiological studies of HIV were conducted. METHODS: serological tests were conducted on 157 healthy individuals from the general population residing in Paniai, Papua. In addition, a molecular epidemiological study was then conducted on HIV type 1 (HIV-1) genes derived from infected individuals. Peripheral blood samples from HIV-1-positive individuals and 15 additionally enrolled, previously confirmed HIV-1-positive individuals were subjected to a genotypic analysis. RESULTS: serological tests revealed that 2 out of 157 (1.27%) healthy individuals were HIV-positive. In addition, HIV-1 subtyping revealed that subtype B and CRF01_AE were the major subtype and circulating recombinant form (CRF) of HIV-1 prevalent in the region, while subtype A1 and a recombinant form including viral gene fragments of CRF01_AE and subtype B was also detected. In addition, HIV drug resistance-associated major mutations were detected in the reverse transcriptase gene derived from infected individual on antiretroviral therapy. CONCLUSION: these results provide important information for clearer understanding on the current situation of HIV/AIDS in Papua province in Indonesia.

11 Article An Alarmingly High Proportion of HIV-1 Isolates Carrying Mutations Corresponding to Resistance to Antiretroviral Drugs among HIV-Positive High-Risk Groups in Central Vietnam: a Substudy of the National Sentinel Survey. 2017

Do, Hung Thai / Nguyen, Dong Thanh / Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi / Do, Duong Huy / Le, Huy Xuan / Trinh, Xuan Mai Thi / Ton, Hong Vy Nu / Sawada, Ikumi / Kitamura, Noriko / Le, Minh Nhat / Yoshihara, Keisuke / Phan, Thu Huong Thi / Bui, Chien Trong / Ariyoshi, Koya / Yoshida, Lay Myint. ·Pasteur Institute in Nha Trang. · Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University. · Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University. · National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology. · Vietnam Administration of HIV/AIDS Control, Ministry of Health. ·Jpn J Infect Dis · Pubmed #28890504.

ABSTRACT: We studied the prevalence of HIV drug resistance among high-risk groups such as injecting drug users (IDUs), female sex workers (FSWs), and men having sex with men (MSM) in central Vietnam. We used HIV-positive blood samples from 2012-2013 sentinel surveillance surveys. Study subjects were screened for HIV infection by standardized screening assays, and the HIV-positive samples were further tested for HIV viral load and drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) by in-house assays. DRMs were identified using the Stanford University online sequence analysis tool. Their risk behaviors were also investigated. During the study period, 6,016 (high-risk) subjects were screened, and 97 tested positive for HIV infection (IDUs: n = 63, 3.0%; FSWs: n = 24, 0.9%; and MSM: n = 10, 1.0%). Ninety-two of the 97 samples (45 from 2012 and 47 from 2013) were available for further testing. HIV RNA was detected in 56 (60.9%) of the 92 samples, and drug resistance genotyping was successfully performed on 40 (71.4%) samples. All these isolates were subtype CRF01_AE, except for 1 (2.5%) IDU whose HIV belongs to subtype B. Thirteen individuals (32.5%) were carrying HIV with at least 1 DRM: 9 IDUs, 1 FSW, and 3 MSM. Thus, HIV seroprevalence among high-risk individuals in central Vietnam is low, but a high proportion of drug resistant HIV-1 isolates is observed in the high-risk group.

12 Article An HIV-positive Case of Obstructive Jaundice Caused by Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Successfully Treated with Corticosteroids. 2017

Watanabe, Naoaki / Sato, Ryota / Nagai, Hideaki / Matsui, Hirotoshi / Yamane, Akira / Kawashima, Masahiro / Suzuki, Junko / Tashimo, Hiroyuki / Ohshima, Nobuharu / Masuda, Kimihiko / Tamura, Atsuhisa / Akagawa, Shinobu / Hebisawa, Akira / Ohta, Ken. ·Center for Pulmonary Diseases, National Hospital Organization Tokyo National Hospital, Japan. · Department of Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Tokyo National Hospital, Japan. ·Intern Med · Pubmed #28883243.

ABSTRACT: A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a persistent fever with enlargement of multiple lymph nodes in the mediastinum and around the pancreatic head. He was diagnosed with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection. We started antiretroviral therapy three weeks after the initiation of anti-tuberculous therapy. Two weeks later, jaundice appeared with dilatation of the biliary tract due to further enlargement of the lymph nodes, which seemed to be immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). The administration of corticosteroids resolved the obstructive jaundice without surgical treatment or endoscopic drainage. Obstructive jaundice caused by IRIS should first be treated with corticosteroids before invasive treatment.

13 Article Coinfection of Sexually Transmitted Infections among HIV-Positive Individuals: Cross-Sectional Results of a Community-Based Positive Living with HIV (POLH) Study in Nepal. 2017

Poudel, Krishna C / Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana / Palmer, Paula H / Mizoue, Tetsuya / Jimba, Masamine / Kobayashi, Jun / Acharya, Bishnu / Pandey, Basu Dev / Oka, Shinichi. ·1 Department of Health Promotion and Policy, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA. · 2 College of Nursing, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA. · 3 School of Community and Global Health, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, CA, USA. · 4 Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. · 5 Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. · 6 Department of Global Health, School of Health Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan. · 7 Bureau of International Medical Cooperation, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. · 8 Laboratory of Cell and Gene Therapy, Institute for Advanced Medical Sciences, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan. · 9 Everest International Clinic and Research Center, Kathmandu, Nepal. · 10 AIDS Clinical Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. ·J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care · Pubmed #26527219.

ABSTRACT: In Asian concentrated HIV epidemics, data on coinfection of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-positive individuals are limited. The authors measured the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), and syphilis, and their correlates among 319 HIV-positive individuals in Kathmandu, Nepal. The authors tested blood samples for syphilis and urine samples for CT and NG. Overall, 17 (5.3%) participants had at least 1 STI (CT: 1.3%, NG: 2.8%, and syphilis: 1.2%). Of 226 participants who had sex in past 6 months, 51.3% did not always use condoms. Older (aged 35-60 years) participants were more likely (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-12.33; P = .024) and those who were currently married (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.09-0.97; P = .046) or on antiretroviral therapy (AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.06-0.71; P = .012) were less likely to have at least 1 STI. Our results suggest the need to strengthen the efforts to screen and treat STIs and to promote safer sexual practices among Nepalese HIV-positive individuals.

14 Article A case of osteoclast-like giant cell-rich epithelioid glioblastoma with BRAF V600E mutation. 2016

Funata, Nobuaki / Nobusawa, Sumihito / Yamada, Ryoji / Shinoura, Nobusada. ·Department of Pathology, Cancer and Infectious Disease Center Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8677, Japan. funata@cick.jp. · Department of Human Pathology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan. · Department of Neurosurgery, Cancer and Infectious Disease Center Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. ·Brain Tumor Pathol · Pubmed #26602910.

ABSTRACT: Epithelioid glioblastomas (E-GBMs) are rare, highly aggressive tumors consisting of closely packed tumor cells with smooth, round cell borders and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. They tend to affect younger patients compared with conventional GBM. BRAF V600E mutation is characteristically found in approximately 50% of all E-GBMs, compared with a low frequency of this mutation in conventional GBM. Here, we report an unusual case of glioma involving the right frontal lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus in an HIV-positive 30-year-old man on antiretroviral therapy. The lesion was composed of abundant discohesive, monotonous epithelioid cells with extensive necrosis, spindle and polyhedral cells, low-grade oligoastrocytoma-like areas, sarcomatous components, and numerous osteoclast-like giant cells (OLGCs) intermingled with epithelioid tumor cells. As the epithelioid cells accounted for more than one-third of the tumor, a pathological diagnosis of E-GBM was made. BRAF V600E mutation was detected in both oligoastrocytoma-like and epithelioid cell components. Similar to previously reported findings on E-GBM associated with low-grade glioma, this case suggested that low-grade astrocytic glioma with BRAF V600E mutation progressed to E-GBM. OLGCs are rarely observed in gliomas, and this is the first case report of E-GBM associated with abundant OLGC infiltration.

15 Article Perceived Family Support and Antiretroviral Adherence in HIV-Positive Individuals: Results from a Community-Based Positive Living With HIV Study. 2015

Poudel, Krishna C / Buchanan, David R / Amiya, Rachel M / Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana. ·Department of Health Promotion and Policy, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA, USA krishna@schoolph.umass.edu. · Department of Health Promotion and Policy, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA, USA The Institute for Global Health, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA, USA. · Department of Family Nursing, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Japan. · College of Nursing, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA, USA. ·Int Q Community Health Educ · Pubmed #26525224.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived family support, either positive or negative, and adherence to antiretroviral medication regimens among HIV-positive individuals in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. We measured past 3-month antiretroviral adherence among 233 HIV-positive individuals, in relation to perceived family support, both positive (in terms of emotional and instrumental support) and negative (in the form of negative interactions), using the 10-item Nepali Family Support and Difficulty Scale. Medium and high levels of perceived emotional support from family were associated with reduced risk of antiretroviral nonadherence, compared with low levels of perceived emotional support (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]  = 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.16, 0.88], and AOR  = 0.23, 95% CI [0.08, 0.64], respectively). Conversely, higher levels of felt emotional distance (AOR  = 1.46, 95% CI [1.00, 2.14]) and experienced physical harm (AOR  = 2.04, 95% CI [1.07, 3.91]) were associated with increased risk of nonadherence. The results support the recommendation that service providers need to be aware of the significant role of family support in shaping antiretroviral adherence and to consider ways to strengthen positive family support while minimizing negative family interactions to increase adherence rates.

16 Article High proportion of HIV serodiscordance among HIV-affected married couples in northern Vietnam. 2015

Sawada, Ikumi / Tanuma, Junko / Do, Cuong Duy / Doan, Tra Thu / Luu, Quynh Phuong / Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi / Vu, Tuong Van Thi / Nguyen, Tuan Quang / Tsuchiya, Naho / Shiino, Teiichiro / Yoshida, Lay-Myint / Pham, Thanh Thuy Thi / Ariyoshi, Koya / Oka, Shinichi. ·Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; AIDS Clinical Center, National Center of Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. · AIDS Clinical Center, National Center of Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam. · Laboratory for Molecular Diagnostics, Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam. · Microbiology Department, Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam. · Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan. · Infectious Diseases Surveillance Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan. · Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #25898138.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the state of HIV transmission among married couples in Vietnam. This study aims to clarify HIV serostatus in this group and elucidate risk factors for intra-marital HIV transmission. METHODS: In 2012, we enrolled a group of HIV-positive married men registered at the HIV outpatient clinic of a referral hospital in northern Vietnam, along with their wives. Sociodemographic, behavioural and clinical data were collected from men and wives. HIV serodiscordant couples were followed until March 2014 to determine seroconversion rate. A phylogenetic analysis was performed based on env V3 sequence to detail cluster formation among men. RESULTS: Of the 163 HIV-positive men enrolled in the study, 101 (62.0%) had wives testing HIV-negative. Half of men reported injecting drug use (IDU) as a likely transmission route. Couples reported a high incidence of unprotected sexual intercourse prior to diagnosis; the median (inter quartile range) was 4 (4-8) times per month. Only 17 couples (10.4%) reported using condoms during at least half these instances. Multivariable analysis revealed IDU history among men was independently associated with HIV-negative wives (adjusted OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.10-0.95, p=0.041). Phylogenetic analysis of 80 samples indicated CRF01_AE. Of these, 69 (86.3%) clustered with IDU-associated viruses from Vietnam. No HIV seroconversion was identified during a follow-up of 61 serodiscordant couples, with 126.5 person-years of observation during which HIV-infected men were on antiretroviral drug therapy (ART). CONCLUSION: High HIV serodiscordance was observed among HIV-affected married couples in northern Vietnam. A large number of at-risk wives therefore remain HIV-negative and can be protected with measures including proper use of ART if couples are made aware of the serodiscordance through screening.

17 Article Multiple Perianal Nodules in an HIV-positive Man: A Quiz. Diagnosis: Condyloma accuminata and seborrhoeic keratosis. 2015

Suzuki, Risa / Niiyama, Shiro / Yokouchi, Yuki / Mukai, Hideki. ·Department of Dermatology, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, 2-17-6 Ohashi, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8515, Japan. ·Acta Derm Venereol · Pubmed #25424147.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

18 Article Trends and barriers to HIV testing among tuberculosis patients in Prey Kabas operational district, Takeo province, Cambodia. 2015

Samrith, Wannak / Rahman, Mahbubur / Harun-Or-Rashid, Md / Sakamoto, Junichi. ·Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan Ministry of Health, Takhmao Town, Cambodia. · University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. · Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan mh_rashid67@yahoo.com. · Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan. ·Asia Pac J Public Health · Pubmed #22593219.

ABSTRACT: Data for this study were obtained from 2375 tuberculosis (TB) patients registered during 2007-2009 and 43 health providers to examine the trend of TB patient referral for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) testing and to investigate provider-associated barriers to the referral in Prey Kabas operational district, Takeo province, Cambodia. Referral rate for HIV testing was 4.4% (30/684) in 2007, 15.4% (116/751) in 2008, and 30.1% (283/940) in 2009, with a significant upward trend over the period of time (P = .009). The main barriers perceived by health providers were poor knowledge about TB/HIV, lack of communication skills, absence of any target plan for TB patient referral for HIV testing, and fear associated with informing positive test results to the TB patients and the associated stigma. Strategies to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS/TB among TB patients and their providers may improve the current state of low referral and its barriers in Cambodia.

19 Article Identification and characterization of a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF59_01B) identified among men-who-have-sex-with-men in China. 2014

Zhang, Weiqing / Han, Xiaoxu / An, Minghui / Zhao, Bin / Hu, Qinghai / Chu, Zhenxing / Xu, Jiancheng / Cai, Weiping / Chen, Xi / Fu, Jihua / Wang, Zhe / Wu, Jianjun / Lu, Lin / Zhuang, Minghua / Wu, Hao / Yan, Hongjing / Liao, Christina / Takebe, Yutaka / Shang, Hong. ·Key Laboratory of AIDS Immunology of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, China. · Infectious Disease Department, Guangzhou No. 8 Renmin Hospital, Guangzhou, China. · AIDS/STIs Prevention and Control Department, Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changsha, China. · Sexually transmitted Disease and AIDS Department, Shandong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan, China. · Henan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, China. · Sexually transmitted Disease and AIDS Department, Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hefei, China. · Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Kunming, China. · Sexually transmitted Disease and AIDS Department, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China. · Infectious Diseases Department, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. · Sexually Transmitted Disease and AIDS Prevention and Control Department, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China. · Key Laboratory of AIDS Immunology of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, China; AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #24978029.

ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 epidemic among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) continues to expand in China. A large-scale national survey we conducted on HIV-1 strains among MSM in 11 provinces in China from 2008 to 2013 (n = 920) identified a novel transmission cluster consisting of six strains (0.7%) that belonged to a new circulating recombinant form (designated CRF59_01B). CRF59_01B contains two subtype B segments of U.S.-European origin (in the pol and vpu-env regions) in a CRF01_AE backbone. CRF59_01B is the second CRF (after CRF55_01B) circulating primarily among MSM in China. CRF59_01B occurs at a low frequency (less than 1%), but it was detected in four different provinces/regions in China: Liaoning (northeast China) (n = 3); Hunan (central China) (n = 1); Guangdong (south China) (n = 1); Yunnan (southwest China) (n = 1). One additional recombinant strain was detected in a heterosexual individual in Liaoning province but is not the focus of this paper. Bayesian molecular clock analyses indicate that CRF59_01B emerged as a result of recombination between CRF01_AE and subtype B around the year 2001. The emergence of multiple forms of recombinants and CRFs reflects the ever-increasing contribution of homosexual transmission in China's HIV epidemic and indicates an active HIV transmission network among MSM in China.

20 Article National trends and in-hospital outcomes in HIV-positive patients undergoing spinal fusion. 2014

Yoshihara, Hiroyuki / Yoneoka, Daisuke. ·*Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY †Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; and ‡Department of Statistical Science, School of Advanced Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tokyo, Japan. ·Spine (Phila Pa 1976) · Pubmed #24921848.

ABSTRACT: STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of population-based national hospital discharge data collected for the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends and in-hospital outcomes of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection undergoing spinal fusion on a national level. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has provided healthier lives and prolonged the life expectancy of HIV-positive patients. However, few previous studies have reported trends and outcomes of HIV-positive patients undergoing spinal surgery. METHODS: Clinical data were derived from the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2000 and 2009. Patients who underwent spinal fusion were identified. Data regarding HIV, patient- and health care system-related characteristics, comorbidities, in-hospital complications, and mortality were retrieved and analyzed. In-hospital outcomes were compared between HIV-positive and -negative patients and analyzed with the use of multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 5,070 HIV-positive patients underwent spinal fusion in the United States during the last decade. From 2000 to 2009, population-adjusted incidence of HIV-positive patients who underwent spinal fusion has increased more than 3-fold (0.094 per 100,000 in 2000 to 0.303 per 100,000 in 2009; P < 0.001). Comparison between HIV-positive and -negative patients showed that HIV-positive patients had a significantly higher respiratory complication rate (6.2% vs. 3.2%), wound-related complication rate (2.7% vs. 1.7%), overall in-hospital complication rate (12.2% vs. 9.5%), and in-hospital mortality rate (1.6% vs. 0.3%), as well as longer hospital stay (6.6 d vs. 4.2 d). The risk of in-hospital mortality was 3.53 times higher in HIV-positive patients after controlling for other factors (95% confidence interval, 2.02-6.14; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: During the last decade, the incidence of HIV-positive patients undergoing spinal fusion has increased in the United States. In this study, HIV infection was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality in patients undergoing spinal fusion. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.

21 Article Poor nutrition status and associated feeding practices among HIV-positive children in a food secure region in Tanzania: a call for tailored nutrition training. 2014

Sunguya, Bruno F / Poudel, Krishna C / Mlunde, Linda B / Urassa, David P / Yasuoka, Junko / Jimba, Masamine. ·Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. · Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America. · School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #24846016.

ABSTRACT: METHODS: We conducted this mixed-method study among 748 children aged 6 months-14 years attending 9 of a total of 32 care and treatment centers in Tanga region, Tanzania. We collected quantitative data using a standard questionnaire and qualitative data through seven focus group discussions (FGDs). RESULTS: HIV-positive children had high magnitudes of undernutrition. Stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness were prevalent among 61.9%, 38.7%, 26.0%, and 21.1% of HIV-positive children, respectively. They also had poor feeding practices: 88.1% were fed at a frequency below the recommendations, and 62.3% had a low level of dietary diversity. Lower feeding frequency was associated with stunting (β = 0.11, p = 0.016); underweight (β = 0.12, p = 0.029); and thinness (β = 0.11, p = 0.026). Lower feeding frequency was associated with low wealth index (β = 0.06, p<0.001), food insecurity (β =  -0.05, p<0.001), and caregiver's education. In the FGDs, participants discussed the causal relationships among the key associations; undernutrition was mainly due to low feeding frequency and dietary diversity. Such poor feeding practices resulted from poor nutrition knowledge, food insecurity, low income, and poverty. CONCLUSION: Feeding practices and nutrition status were poor among HIV-positive children even in food rich areas. Improving feeding frequency may help to ameliorate undernutrition. To improve it, tailored interventions should target children of poor households, the food insecure, and caregivers who have received only a low level of education.

22 Article Family planning practice and predictors of risk of inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive women on anti-retroviral therapy in Cambodia. 2014

Nakaie, Naomi / Tuon, Sovanna / Nozaki, Ikuma / Yamaguchi, Fuzuki / Sasaki, Yuri / Kakimoto, Kazuhiro. ·Graduate School of Nursing, Osaka Prefecture University 3-7-30, 583-8555 Habikino-city, Osaka, Japan. drkaki@yahoo.co.jp. ·BMC Public Health · Pubmed #24528885.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In Cambodia, while anti-retroviral therapy (ART) services are increasingly available, the unmet needs of family planning among general population are high. These facts raise concern on possible exposure of many HIV-positive women on ART to the potential risk of unintended pregnancy. This study aimed to clarify family planning practices in Cambodia and determine predictors of risk of inconsistent condom use among women on ART. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with a structured questionnaire was conducted at five government-run health centers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, from June to September, 2012. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of risk of inconsistent condom use among regular users of contraceptive methods. RESULTS: Of 408 respondents, 40, 17 and 10 used the pill, IUD, and injection, respectively, while 193 used condoms. 374 were not planning to have a child. Among 238 sexually active women who were not planning to have a baby, 59 were exposed to the risk of unintended pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis that did not include variables related to partners identified "seeking family planning information" (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.6, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 1.1-6.2), awareness of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) (AOR: 4.7, 95% CI: 1.9-11.6) and "having a son" (AOR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9) were significant predictors of inconsistent condom use. Another model that included all variables identified "able to ask a partner to use condom at every sexual intercourse" was the only predictor (AOR: 23.7, 95% CI: 5.8-97.6). CONCLUSIONS: About one-quarter of women on ART are at risk to unintended pregnancy although most do not plan to get pregnant. Furthermore, women on ART could be more empowered through improvement of communication and negotiation skills with partners to demand the use of condom during sexual intercourse. The use of other contraceptive methods that do not need partner involvement should be promoted.

23 Article Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for TB in low HIV prevalence settings: is it worthwhile? 2014

Nagai, Shuko / Robinson, Roland / Rahamefy, Jacky Ranaivo / Randriambeloson, Sahondra Jeannine / Ranaivomanana, Denis Andriatahina / Razafindranaivo, Turibio / Rakotobe, Liva / Ranaivo, Adeline / Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund / Harries, Anthony D / Zachariah, Rony. ·HIV Prevention Strengthening Project, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Madagascar. ·Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg · Pubmed #24463718.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We assessed the HIV-positive yield of offering provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) for TB and the costs, in Madagascar, which has a low HIV prevalence and a high TB burden. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of routinely collected records from January 2010 to June 2011. RESULTS: A total of 37 596 TB patients were registered in 205 TB centres. HIV testing was available in 95 (46%) of centres where 7524 (40%) of those offered testing accepted it. Only 35 (0.5%) individuals were found HIV positive. Initial costs were about US$1.4 million and annual recurrent costs about US$0.1 million. CONCLUSION: There are concerns of cost investment for countrywide introduction of PITC in a low HIV prevalence setting.

24 Article [Evaluation of a new vesion of the human immunodeficiency virus antigen and antibody combination assay with improved sensitivity in HIV-1 p24 antigen detection]. 2013

Sano, Takako / Kondo, Makiko / Yoshimura, Yukihiro / Tachikawa, Natsuo / Sagara, Hiroko / Itoda, Ichiro / Yamanaka, Kou / Sudo, Koji / Kato, Shingo / Imai, Mitsunobu. ·Division of Microbiology, Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health. ·Kansenshogaku Zasshi · Pubmed #23984590.

ABSTRACT: The performance of a new version of the HIV p24 antigen and antibody combination assays (Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab) was evaluated by comparing it with three other fourth-generation enzyme immunoassays (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay, VIDAS HIV DUO Quick and Genscreen Plus HIV Ag-Ab). The assays were examined with 200 HIV positive samples, 1,000 HIV negative samples, 30 samples (28 positives including 24 samples of subtype A, B, B', C, D, F, G, B/D, CRF01_AE in HIV-1 group M, one sample of HIV-1 group O, three samples of HIV-2 and two negatives) of one worldwide HIV performance panel, 59 samples of ten HIV-1 seroconversion panels and the WHO international standard HIV-1 p24 antigen. Both the sensitivity and specificity of Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab were 100%. All of the 28 positive samples in the worldwide HIV performance panel were positive. The days of the earliest detection in the ten seroconversion panels were the same in three assays (Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab, Architect HIV Ag/Ab combo assay and VIDAS HIV DUO Quick). Genscreen Plus HIV Ag-Ab which is a former version of the Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab detected the earliest positive sample one bleed slower than the other three assays in 5 of 10 seroconversion panels. The p24 antigen limit of detection was determined in two ways, using the WHO international standard and three samples from HIV-1 antigen panels; the values obtained were 1IU/mL and 3.5-9.9 pg/mL for Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab, 1U/mL and 7.1-9.9 pg/mL for Architect HIV Ag/Ab combo assay, 0.5IU/mL and 4.0-7.1 pg/mL for VIDAS HIV DUO Quick, and 32.0-56.5 pg/mL for Genscreen Plus HIV Ag-Ab. In this study, we have shown that Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab has the sensitivity, specificity and p24 antigen limit of detection that is equal to those of two typical fourth-generation assays. This assay can be considered useful and reliable for HIV screening.

25 Article Facial-oropharyngeal Kaposi sarcoma in a HIV-seropositive man. 2012

Hirai, Yuji / Yoshihara, Toshio / Motoji, Toshiko / Totsuka, Kyoichi. ·Department of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Japan. yuji-hirai@clabo.twmu.ac.jp ·Intern Med · Pubmed #23064585.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

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