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HIV Seropositivity: HELP
Articles from Norway
Based on 15 articles published since 2008
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These are the 15 published articles about HIV Seropositivity that originated from Norway during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Clinical Trial Sequential Vacc-4x and romidepsin during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART): Immune responses to Vacc-4x regions on p24 and changes in HIV reservoirs. 2017

Tapia, G / Højen, J F / Ökvist, M / Olesen, R / Leth, S / Nissen, S K / VanBelzen, D J / O'Doherty, U / Mørk, A / Krogsgaard, K / Søgaard, O S / Østergaard, L / Tolstrup, M / Pantaleo, G / Sommerfelt, M A. ·Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Rue du Bugnon 46, BH10-527, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark. · Bionor Pharma AS, P.O.Box 1477 Vika, NO-0116 Oslo, Norway. · University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 19104 PA, USA. · Bionor Pharma AS, P.O.Box 1477 Vika, NO-0116 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: ms@bionorpharma.com. ·J Infect · Pubmed #28917661.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The REDUC clinical study Part B investigated Vacc-4x/rhuGM-CSF therapeutic vaccination prior to HIV latency reversal using romidepsin. The main finding was a statistically significant reduction from baseline in viral reservoir measurements. Here we evaluated HIV-specific functional T-cell responses following Vacc-4x/rhuGM-CSF immunotherapy in relation to virological outcomes on the HIV reservoir. METHODS: This study, conducted in Aarhus, Denmark, enrolled participants (n = 20) with CD4>500 cells/mm RESULTS: The frequency of participants with CD8+ T-cell proliferation assay positivity was 8/16 (50%) at baseline, 11/15 (73%) post-vaccination, 6/14 (43%) during romidepsin, and 9/15 (60%)post-romidepsin. Participants with CD8+ T-cell proliferation assay positivity post-vaccination showed reductions in total HIV DNA post-vaccination (p = 0.006; q = 0.183), post-latency reversal (p = 0.005; q = 0.183), and CA-RNA reductions post-vaccination (p = 0.015; q = 0.254). Participants (40%) were defined as proliferation 'Responders' having ≥2-fold increase in assay positivity post-baseline. Robust ELISpot baseline responses were found in 87.5% participants. No significant changes were observed in the proportion of polyfunctional CD8+ T-cells to HIV CONCLUSIONS: In this 'shock and kill' approach supported by therapeutic vaccination, CD8+ T-cell proliferation represents a valuable means to monitor functional immune responses as part of the path towards functional HIV cure.

2 Article Time trends in management of HIV-positive pregnant women in Northern Tanzania: A registry-based study. 2017

Rebnord, Tormod / Østbye, Truls / Mmbaga, Blandina Theophil / Mchome, Bariki / Lie, Rolv Terje / Daltveit, Anne Kjersti. ·Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care (IGS), Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. · Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America. · Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Moshi, Tanzania. · Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute, Moshi, Tanzania. · Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #28957345.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine time trends in antenatal factors and delivery characteristics in Northern Tanzania, and relate these to national guidelines for HIV in pregnancy. DESIGN: Registry-based study. SETTING: Northern Tanzania, 2000-2014. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: Deliveries (n = 33 346). METHODS: HIV-positive women were compared with HIV-negative women during four periods spanning changing national guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Known maternal HIV status, HIV treatment for woman, number of antenatal care (ANC) visits, routine folate/iron in pregnancy, anemia, delivery complications/interventions. RESULTS: We observed an increase in deliveries with known maternal HIV status and women receiving HIV treatment, and a decline in deliveries with positive maternal HIV status (p-values for trend <0.001). The proportion of women with less than four ANC visits increased to above 30 percent irrespective of HIV status. Use of routine folate/iron increased, corresponding to a decrease in anemia which was strongest in HIV-negative women. Incidence of elective caesarean section (CS) and emergency CS remained unchanged for HIV-positive women (7.1% and 25.5%, respectively, in the last period). Use of invasive procedures declined in both groups of women. Mothers who were young, single, had low education, high parity or lived in the rural area more often had indicators of poor antenatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing adherence to national guidelines over time was found for most selected outcomes. Still, a high occurrence of insufficient ANC, anemia and emergency CS call for efforts to explore and identify barriers that hinder optimal care.

3 Article Adaptive working memory training improved brain function in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients. 2017

Chang, Linda / Løhaugen, Gro C / Andres, Tamara / Jiang, Caroline S / Douet, Vanessa / Tanizaki, Naomi / Walker, Christina / Castillo, Deborrah / Lim, Ahnate / Skranes, Jon / Otoshi, Chad / Miller, Eric N / Ernst, Thomas M. ·Department of Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI. · The Queen's Medical Center, Honolulu, HI. · Department of Child Neurology and Rehabilitation (HABU-A), Sørlandet Sykehus HF, HABU, Arendal, Norway, and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and Women's Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, MTFS, Trondheim, Norway. · Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA. ·Ann Neurol · Pubmed #27761943.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an adaptive working memory (WM) training (WMT) program, the corresponding neural correlates, and LMX1A-rs4657412 polymorphism on the adaptive WMT, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) participants compared to seronegative (SN) controls. METHODS: A total of 201 of 206 qualified participants completed baseline assessments before randomization to 25 sessions of adaptive WMT or nonadaptive WMT. A total of 74 of 76 (34 HIV, 42 SN) completed adaptive WMT and all 40 completed nonadaptive WMT (20 HIV, 20 SN) and were assessed after 1 month, and 55 adaptive WMT participants were also assessed after 6 months. Nontrained near-transfer WM tests (Digit-Span, Spatial-Span), self-reported executive functioning, and functional magnetic resonance images during 1-back and 2-back tasks were performed at baseline and each follow-up visit, and LMX1A-rs4657412 was genotyped in all participants. RESULTS: Although HIV participants had slightly lower cognitive performance and start index than SN at baseline, both groups improved on improvement index (>30%; false discovery rate [FDR] corrected p < 0.0008) and nontrained WM tests after adaptive WMT (FDR corrected, p ≤ 0.001), but not after nonadaptive WMT (training by training type corrected, p = 0.01 to p = 0.05) 1 month later. HIV participants (especially LMX1A-G carriers) also had poorer self-reported executive functioning than SN, but both groups reported improvements after adaptive WMT (Global: training FDR corrected, p = 0.004), and only HIV participants improved after nonadaptive WMT. HIV participants also had greater frontal activation than SN at baseline, but brain activation decreased in both groups at 1 and 6 months after adaptive WMT (FDR corrected, p < 0.0001), with normalization of brain activation in HIV participants, especially the LMX1A-AA carriers (LMX1A genotype by HIV status, cluster-corrected-p < 0.0001). INTERPRETATION: Adaptive WMT, but not nonadaptive WMT, improved WM performance in both SN and HIV participants, and the accompanied decreased or normalized brain activation suggest improved neural efficiency, especially in HIV-LMX1A-AA carriers who might have greater dopaminergic reserve. These findings suggest that adaptive WMT may be an effective adjunctive therapy for WM deficits in HIV participants. ANN NEUROL 2017;81:17-34.

4 Article Association between Taenia solium infection and HIV/AIDS in northern Tanzania: a matched cross sectional-study. 2016

Schmidt, Veronika / Kositz, Christian / Herbinger, Karl-Heinz / Carabin, Hélène / Ngowi, Bernard / Naman, Ezra / Wilkins, Patricia P / Noh, John / Matuja, William / Winkler, Andrea Sylvia. ·Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich (TUM), Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany. veronika.schmidt@tum.de. · Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich (TUM), Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany. · Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine (DITM), Medical Center of the University of Munich, Munich, Germany. · Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, USA. · Muhimbili Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. · HIV Care and Treatment Centre, Haydom Lutheran Hospital, Haydom, Tanzania. · Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, USA. · Department of Neurology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. · Centre of Global Health, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. ·Infect Dis Poverty · Pubmed #27903304.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The frequency of Taenia solium, a zoonotic helminth, is increasing in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also high. However, little is known about how these two infections interact. The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of HIV positive (+) and negative (-) individuals who are infected with Taenia solium (TSOL) and who present with clinical and neurological manifestations of cysticercosis (CC). METHODS: In northern Tanzania, 170 HIV+ individuals and 170 HIV- controls matched for gender, age and village of origin were recruited. HIV staging and serological tests for TSOL antibodies (Ab) and antigen (Ag) were performed. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) was determined by computed tomography (CT) using standard diagnostic criteria. Neurological manifestations were confirmed by a standard neurological examination. In addition, demographic, clinical and neuroimaging data were collected. Further, CD4 RESULTS: No significant differences between HIV+ and HIV- individuals regarding the sero-prevalence of taeniosis-Ab (0.6% vs 1.2%), CC-Ab (2.4% vs 2.4%) and CC-Ag (0.6% vs 0.0%) were detected. A total of six NCC cases (3 HIV+ and 3 HIV-) were detected in the group of matched participants. Two individuals (1 HIV+ and 1 HIV-) presented with headaches as the main symptom for NCC, and four with asymptomatic NCC. Among the HIV+ group, TSOL was not associated with CD4 CONCLUSIONS: This study found lower prevalence of taeniosis, CC and NCC than had been reported in the region to date. This low level of infection may have resulted in an inability to find cross-sectional associations between HIV status and TSOL infection or NCC. Larger sample sizes will be required in future studies conducted in that area to conclude if HIV influences the way NCC manifests itself.

5 Article The associations between resilience, social capital and self-rated health among HIV-positive South Africans. 2015

Dageid, Wenche / Grønlie, Anette A. ·University of Oslo, Norway wencheda@psykologi.uio.no wenchedag@yahoo.com. · University of Oslo, Norway The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, Norway. ·J Health Psychol · Pubmed #24345683.

ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between resilience, social capital and self-rated health among 263 HIV-positive South Africans living in poverty, using questionnaires. Self-rated good health was predicted by younger age, trust in community-based organizations and having contacts of different religions. The findings highlight the importance of community-based networks and resources for care and support for persons living with HIV/AIDS in poor, rural areas. Furthermore, resilience, which also related positively to education and income, contributed positively to self-rated health, drawing attention to the interplay between resources at individual and community levels.

6 Article Natural history of HIV-control since seroconversion. 2013

Madec, Yoann / Boufassa, Faroudy / Porter, Kholoud / Prins, Maria / Sabin, Caroline / d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella / Amornkul, Pauli / Bartmeyer, Barbara / Sannes, Mette / Venet, Alain / Lambotte, Olivier / Meyer, Laurence / Anonymous5220765. ·aInstitut Pasteur, Emerging Diseases Epidemiology Unit, Paris bINSERM U1018, Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Santé des Populations, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre cFaculté de Médecine Paris Sud, Université Paris Sud, Paris dDepartment of Public Health, AP-HP, Bicêtre Hospital, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France eMedical Research Council, Clinical Trials Unit, London, UK fCluster Infectious Diseases, Department of Research, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Public Health Service, Amsterdam, The Netherlands gResearch Department of Infection and Population Health, UCL Medical School, London, UK hSan Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy iInternational AIDS Vaccine Initiative, San Francisco, USA jRobert Koch Institut, Berlin, Germany kUlleval Hospital, Oslo, Norway lINSERM U1012, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre mDepartment of Internal Medicine, AP-HP, Bicêtre Hospital, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre nUniversité Paris-Sud, Paris, France. ·AIDS · Pubmed #23912979.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: HIV-controllers spontaneously maintain HIV viremia at an undetectable level. We aimed to describe the delay to control from seroconversion, the duration of control, and risk factors for losing control. METHODS: HIV-controllers were identified from a pooled dataset of 24 seroconverter cohorts from Europe, Australia, and Canada (CASCADE). HIV-controllers had at least five consecutive viral loads less than 400/500 copies/ml, while antiretroviral therapy naive, for at least 5 years after seroconversion. End of control was defined as two consecutive viral loads above 2000 copies/ml. Duration of control was described using Kaplan-Meier estimates; factors associated with duration of control were identified using a Cox model. CD4⁺ cell count evolution during control was described using a mixed model. RESULTS: Of 9896 eligible seroconverters, we identified 140 (1.4%) HIV-controllers, the largest database of HIV-controllers followed from seroconversion. For 64 with viral load measured within 24 months from seroconversion, median delay to control was 16.7 (interquartile range: 7.8-37.9) months. Probability of maintaining control 20 years after seroconversion was 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-0.85]. Occurrence of blips followed by return to undetectability did not increase the risk of loss of control [hazard ratio: 0.81 (95% CI: 0.10-6.70)]. However, CD4⁺ cell loss during control was significantly accelerated in individuals with blips. CONCLUSION: In most individuals, control occurred rapidly after seroconversion; however, more than 3 years were required to achieve control in 25% of HIV-controllers. Control may be sustained even when CD4⁺ cell levels are below 500 cells/μl, opening important new perspectives to understand the physiopathology underlying control.

7 Article Molecular investigation of multiple strain infections in patients with tuberculosis in Mubende district, Uganda. 2013

Muwonge, Adrian / Kankya, Clovice / Olea-Popelka, Francisco / Biffa, Demelash / Ssengooba, Willy / Berit, Djønne / Skjerve, Eystein / Johansen, Tone B. ·Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, PO Box 8146 Dep, 0033 Oslo, Norway. adrian.muwonge@nvh.no ·Infect Genet Evol · Pubmed #23548804.

ABSTRACT: Multiple strain tuberculosis (TB) infections are now an acceptable facet of tuberculosis epidemiology. Identification of patients infected with more than one strain gives an insight in disease dynamics at individual and population level. This study therefore aimed at identifying multiple strain infections among TB infected patients. Furthermore, to determine factors associated with multiple strain infections in Mubende district of Uganda. A total of 72 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients at Mubende regional referral hospital were characterized using 15 loci MIRU-VNTR, Spoligotyping and deletion analysis. Genotypic and epidemiological data were analyzed using MIRU-VNTR plus, Bionumerics software version 6.1 and an exact logistic regression model respectively. Eight (11.1%) of the 72 patients had mixed TB infections. Five were exclusively pulmonary mixed infections while three had both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary infections (Compartmentalized TB infections). Unlike previous studies that have linked this phenomenon to Beijing strains, multiple strains in this study belonged to T2-Uganda, X2 and T1 lineages. Two of the pulmonary mixed infections were resistant to rifampicin or isoniazid. All except one were HIV positive, newly diagnosed cases and urban residents of Mubende district. The study revealed that one in nine urban dwelling, HIV/TB co-infected patient were infected with more than one M. tuberculosis strains. The molecular findings give indications of a vital component of the disease dynamics that is most likely under looked at clinical level.

8 Article Circulating levels of HMGB1 are correlated strongly with MD2 in HIV-infection: possible implication for TLR4-signalling and chronic immune activation. 2013

Trøseid, Marius / Lind, Andreas / Nowak, Piotr / Barqasho, Babilonia / Heger, Bernt / Lygren, Idar / Pedersen, Karin K / Kanda, Tatsuo / Funaoka, Hiroyuki / Damås, Jan K / Kvale, Dag. ·Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway. troseid@hotmail.com ·Innate Immun · Pubmed #23070967.

ABSTRACT: Progressive HIV infection is characterized by profound enterocyte damage, microbial translocation and chronic immune activation. We aimed to test whether High Mobility Group Box protein 1(HMGB1), a marker of cell death, alone, or in combination with LPS, might contribute to HIV-associated immune activation and progression. Altogether, 29 untreated HIV-infected individuals, 25 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and 30 controls were included. HIV-infected patients had lower plasma LPS levels than IBD patients, but higher levels of soluble CD14 and Myeloid Differentiation (MD) 2, which interacts with TLR4 to initiate LPS-signalling. Furthermore, plasma levels of HMGB1 and MD2 were correlated directly within the HIV-infected cohort (r = 0.89, P < 0.001) and the IBD-cohort (r = 0.85, P < 0.001), implying HMGB1 signalling through the MD2/TLR4-pathway. HMGB1 and LPS, although not inter-correlated, were both moderately (r = 0.4) correlated with CD38 density on CD8+ T cells in HIV progressors. The highest levels of CD38 density and MD2 were found in progressors with plasma levels of both LPS and HMGB1 above the fiftieth percentile. Our results could imply that, in some patients, immune activation is triggered by microbial translocation, in some by cell death and in some by HMGB1 in complex with bacterial products through activation of the MD2/TLR4-pathway.

9 Article Decline in HIV prevalence among young women in Zambia: national-level estimates of trends mask geographical and socio-demographic differences. 2012

Kayeyi, Nkomba / Fylkesnes, Knut / Michelo, Charles / Makasa, Mpundu / Sandøy, Ingvild. ·Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. nkayeyi@yahoo.co.uk ·PLoS One · Pubmed #22496759.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A decline in HIV incidence has been reported in Zambia and a number of other sub-Saharan countries. The trend of HIV prevalence among young people is a good marker of HIV incidence. In this study, different data sources are used to examine geographical and sub-population group differentials in HIV prevalence trends among men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analysed ANC data for women aged 15-24 years from 22 sentinel sites consistently covered in the period 1994-2008, and HIV data for young men and women aged 15-24 years from the ZDHS 2001/2 and 2007. In addition, we systematically reviewed peer-reviewed articles that have reported findings on HIV prevalence and incidence among young people. FINDINGS: Overall trends of the ANC surveillance data indicated a substantial HIV prevalence decline among young women in both urban and rural areas. However, provincial declines differed substantially, i.e. between 10% and 68% among urban women, and from stability to 86% among rural women. Prevalence declines were steeper among those with the highest educational attainments than among the least educated. The ZDHS data indicated a significant reduction in prevalence between the two survey rounds among young women only. Provincial-level ZDHS changes were difficult to assess because the sample sizes were small. ANC-based trend patterns were consistent with those observed in PMTCT-based data (2002-2006), whereas population-based surveys in a selected urban community (1995-2003) suggested that the ANC-based data underestimated the prevalence declines in the general populations of both young both men and women. CONCLUSION: The overall HIV prevalence declined substantially among young women in Zambia and this is interpreted as indicating a decline in HIV incidence. It is noteworthy that overall national trends masked substantial differences by place and by educational attainment, demonstrating critical limitations in the current focus on overall country-level trends in epidemiological reports.

10 Article Declining syphilis trends in concurrence with HIV declines among pregnant women in Zambia: observations over 14 years of national surveillance. 2012

Makasa, Mpundu / Fylkesnes, Knut / Michelo, Charles / Kayeyi, Nkomba / Chirwa, Ben / Sandoy, Ingvild. ·Lusaka District Health Management Team, Ministry of Health, Lusaka, Zambia. Mpundu.Makasa@cih.uib.no ·Sex Transm Dis · Pubmed #22337102.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Zambia has a serious HIV epidemic and syphilis infection remains prevalent in the adult population. We investigated syphilis trends using national antenatal clinic (ANC) sentinel surveillance data in Zambia and compared the findings with population-based data. METHODS: The analyses are based on ANC data from 22 sentinel sites from five survey rounds conducted between 1994 and 2008. The data comprised information from interviews and syphilis and HIV test results. The syphilis estimates for 2002 and 2008 were compared with data from the Demographic and Health Surveys 2001/2002 and 2007, which are nationally representative data, and also included syphilis testing and HIV. RESULTS: The overall syphilis prevalence dropped during the period 1994-2008 among both urban and rural women aged 15 to 49 years (9.8% to 2.8% and 7.5% to 3.2%, respectively). However, provincial variations were striking. The decline was steep irrespective of educational level, but among those with the highest level the decline started earlier and was steeper than among those with low education. The comparison with Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys 2001/2002 and 2007 findings also showed an overall reduction in syphilis prevalence among urban and rural men and women in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The syphilis prevalence declined by 65% in urban and 59% in rural women. Provincial variations need to be further studied to better guide specific sexually transmitted infection prevention and control programmes in different geographical settings. The national ANC-based HIV and syphilis surveillance system provided good proxies of syphilis prevalence and trends.

11 Article A 7-item version of the fatigue severity scale has better psychometric properties among HIV-infected adults: an application of a Rasch model. 2011

Lerdal, Anners / Kottorp, Anders / Gay, Caryl / Aouizerat, Bradley E / Portillo, Carmen J / Lee, Kathryn A. ·Lovisenberg Deaconal University College, Lovisenbergveien 15b, 0456, Oslo, Norway. Anners.Lerdal@ldh.no ·Qual Life Res · Pubmed #21547359.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To examine the psychometric properties of the 9-item Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) using a Rasch model application. METHODS: A convenience sample of HIV-infected adults was recruited, and a subset of the sample was assessed at 6-month intervals for 2 years. Socio-demographic, clinical, and symptom data were collected by self-report questionnaires. CD4 T-cell count and viral load measures were obtained from medical records. The Rasch analysis included 316 participants with 698 valid questionnaires. RESULTS: FSS item 2 did not advanced monotonically, and items 1 and 2 did not show acceptable goodness-of-fit to the Rasch model. A reduced FSS 7-item version demonstrated acceptable goodness-of-fit and explained 61.2% of the total variance in the scale. In the FSS-7 item version, no uniform Differential Item Functioning was found in relation to time of evaluation or to any of the socio-demographic or clinical variables. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the FSS-7 has better psychometric properties than the FSS-9 in this HIV sample and that responses to the different items are comparable over time and unrelated to socio-demographic and clinical variables.

12 Article [Positive for HIV positive mothers]. 2010

Holen, Oyunn. ·Medisinsk avdelning,Oslo universitetssykehus. oeyhole@online.no ·Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen · Pubmed #20352661.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

13 Article [A dilemma which was killed by silence]. 2010

Lie, Anne Kveim. ·Avdeling for allmenn- og samfunnsmedisin, Universitetet i Oslo, og Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening. a.h.k.lie@medisin.uio.no ·Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen · Pubmed #20224611.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

14 Article Phenotypic and genomic characterization of pneumococcus-like streptococci isolated from HIV-seropositive patients. 2010

Leegaard, Truls M / Bootsma, Hester J / Caugant, Dominique A / Eleveld, Marc J / Mannsåker, Turid / Frøholm, Leif Oddvar / Gaustad, Peter / Høiby, E Arne / Hermans, Peter W M. ·Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. truls.leegaard@rikshospitalet.no ·Microbiology · Pubmed #19959577.

ABSTRACT: Accurate differentiation between pneumococci and other viridans streptococci is essential given their differences in clinical significance. However, classical phenotypic tests are often inconclusive, and many examples of atypical reactions have been reported. In this study, we applied various phenotypic and genotypic methods to discriminate between a collection of 12 streptococci isolated from the upper respiratory tract of HIV-seropositive individuals in 1998 and 1999. Conventional phenotypic characterization initially classified these streptococci as Streptococcus pneumoniae, as they were all sensitive to optochin and were all bile soluble. However, they did not agglutinate with anti-pneumococcal capsular antibodies and were also far more resistant to antimicrobial agents than typeable pneumococci isolated in the same period. Genotypic characterization of these isolates and control isolates by both multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) showed that only a single isolate was genetically considered to be a true S. pneumoniae isolate, and that the remaining 11 non-typable isolates were indeed distinct from true pneumococci. Of these, 10 most closely resembled a subgroup of Streptococcus mitis isolates genetically, while one strain was identified as a Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae isolate. CGH also showed that a considerable part of the proposed pneumococcal core genome, including many of the known pneumococcal virulence factors, was conserved in the non-typable isolates. Sequencing of part of the 16S rRNA gene and investigation for the presence of ply by PCR corroborated these results. In conclusion, our findings confirm the close relationship between streptococci of the Mitis group, and show that both MLSA and CGH enable pneumococci to be distinguished from other Mitis group streptococci.

15 Article Hypertension in an urban HIV-positive population compared with the general population: influence of combination antiretroviral therapy. 2008

Baekken, Morten / Os, Ingrid / Sandvik, Leiv / Oektedalen, Olav. ·Department of Infectious Diseases, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. morten.baekken@medisin.uio.no ·J Hypertens · Pubmed #18854751.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected patients has changed their prognosis substantially, but there is an additional cost from the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to assess the prevalence of hypertension in an HIV-infected population and to identify possible predictors. METHODS: A cohort of 542 unselected HIV-infected individuals had their blood pressure measured at three consecutive clinical visits. They were compared with an age-matched, sex-matched and body mass index-matched population-based control group (n=24 968). RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension among the white HIV-infected individuals was 36.5%, which was not significantly different from the general population. The mean diastolic blood pressure was higher in HIV-infected individuals. The highest prevalence of hypertension was found in those who had been treated by combination antiretroviral therapy for more than 5 years (44.4%). Patients with hypertension were characterized by older age, male sex, white ethnicity, higher body mass index, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lower glomerular filtration rate, more frequent microalbuminuria, longer time with known HIV-positive status and longer combination antiretroviral therapy duration compared with normotensive individuals. Multivariate analysis revealed age, sex, body mass index, cholesterol, combination antiretroviral therapy duration and microalbuminuria as independent predictors of hypertension. CONCLUSION: Diastolic blood pressure was increased in these white HIV-infected patients compared with the general population, but there was no difference in the prevalence of hypertension. However, the duration of combination antiretroviral therapy predicted hypertension independently.