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HIV Seropositivity: HELP
Articles from South Africa
Based on 322 articles published since 2008
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These are the 322 published articles about HIV Seropositivity that originated from South Africa during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13
1 Editorial Morbidity and mortality of black HIV-positive patients with end-stage kidney disease receiving chronic haemodialysis in South Africa. 2015

Wearne, Nicola. ·Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. nicola.wearne@uct.ac.za. ·S Afr Med J · Pubmed #26242526.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Overcoming Impediments to Global Implementation of Early Antiretroviral Therapy. 2015

Abdool Karim, Salim S. ·From the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; and the Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York. ·N Engl J Med · Pubmed #26193047.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Review Treatment of cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women from developing countries: a protocol for a systematic review. 2018

Mapanga, Witness / Chipato, Tsungai / Feresu, Shingairai A. ·School of Health Systems and Public Health, Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of Pretoria, 5-10 H.W. Snyman Building, Pretoria, South Africa. witnessmapanga@yahoo.co.uk. · , 47 Newstead Road, Harare, Marlborough, Zimbabwe. witnessmapanga@yahoo.co.uk. · College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe-University of California, San Francisco Collaborative Research Programme, University of Zimbabwe, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. · School of Health Systems and Public Health, Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of Pretoria, 5-10 H.W. Snyman Building, Pretoria, South Africa. ·Syst Rev · Pubmed #29370853.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer has become the most common cancer affecting women in Africa. Significantly, 85% of these annual deaths occur in the developing world, with the majority being middle-aged women. Research has shown that in sub-Saharan Africa, cervical cancer trends are on the rise in the past two decades because of HIV and this has resulted in an increase in cervical cancer cases among young women. However, little or no information exists that has shown that any of the available treatment methods are more effective than others when it comes to treating cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women. The aim of this protocol is to offer a plan on how to systematically review cervical cancer treatment methods available for HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. METHODS/DESIGN: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement was used to develop the protocol for the systematic review which will be reported in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. A number of databases, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Library, will be searched for relevant studies, and citation and reference list tracking will be used to search for additional studies. Prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-control, randomised controlled trials and cross-sectional studies that were carried out in and for the developing world will be eligible for inclusion. Peer-reviewed studies and grey literature examining cervical cancer treatment modalities in HIV-seropositive women will be included. Descriptive statistics and tables will be used to summarise results, and meta-analysis will be used where appropriate. DISCUSSION: The review findings will provide the current picture of the existing treatment methods being used to treat cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. The findings might be used for the establishment of evidence-based guidelines for treatment of cervical cancer in seropositive women as well as prompt policy-makers and governments to decide and support future research in a way to find a lasting solution. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017054676 https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?RecordID=54676.

4 Review Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Hip and Knee Arthroplasty. 2017

Dimitriou, Dimitrios / Ramokgopa, Mmampapatla / Pietrzak, Jurek R T / van der Jagt, Dick / Mokete, Lipalo. ·1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. ·JBJS Rev · Pubmed #28953137.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Modern management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has afforded patients longevity while increasing the burden of arthroplasty procedures because of the increased risk of osteonecrosis, fragility fractures, and degenerative joint disease. Early publications on hip and knee arthroplasty in HIV-positive patients reported a high risk of complications, although some more recent publications demonstrated acceptable outcomes. Despite the widespread nature of the HIV pandemic, there is a paucity of literature addressing outcomes following joint arthroplasty in infected patients. We pooled available studies to obtain the best evidence regarding the safety of total hip and knee arthroplasty procedures in HIV-positive patients. The studies identified were heterogeneous, precluding a meta-analysis. However, we performed a review of the literature focusing on complications and outcomes. METHODS: Twenty-one published English-language articles involving 6,516,186 joints were identified by a systematic review as suitable for inclusion in the study. The articles were analyzed for complication and prosthesis survivorship rates and relative risks. RESULTS: An overall complication rate of 3.3% was found across the 19 articles that provided such data. HIV-positive patients had a significantly elevated risk of periprosthetic joint infection, at 7.6%, compared with HIV-negative patients, at 3.3% (relative risk = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 2.14 to 2.43). Eleven articles were suitable for analysis of prosthesis survivorship, and survivorship rates did not differ significantly between HIV-positive and negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: Total hip and total knee arthroplasty appear to be safe procedures with acceptable outcomes in HIV-positive patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

5 Review Prevalence of HIV-Seropositivity and Associated Impact on Mortality among Injured Patients from Low-and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 2017

Aluisio, Adam R / Rege, Soham / Stewart, Barclay T / Kinuthia, John / Levine, Adam C / Mello, Michael J / Farquhar, Carey. ·Department of Emergency Medicine, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. · Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. · Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. · Department of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa. · Department of Research & Programs, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. · Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. · Department of hMedicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. ·Curr HIV Res · Pubmed #28933280.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although HIV and injury contribute substantially to disease burdens in lowand middle-income countries (LMIC), their intersection is poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review assessed the prevalence and associated mortality impact of HIVseropositivity among injured patients in LMIC. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL, POPLINE and Cochrane databases through August 2016 was performed. Prospective and cross-sectional reports of injured patients from LMIC that evaluated HIV-serostatus were included. Two reviewers identified eligible records (kappa=0.83); quality was assessed using GRADE criteria. HIV-seroprevalence and mortality risks were summarized and pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects models with heterogeneity assessed. RESULTS: Of 472 retrieved records, sixteen met inclusion. All reports were of low or very low quality and derived from sub-Saharan Africa. HIV-serostatus was available for 3,994 patients. Individual report and pooled HIV-seroprevalence estimates were uniformly greater than temporally matched national statistics (range: 4.5-35.0%). Pooled reports from South Africa were three-fold greater than matched national prevalence (32.0%, 95% CI, 28.0-37.0%). Mortality data were available for 1,398 patients. Heterogeneity precluded pooled mortality analysis. Among individual reports, 66.7% demonstrated significantly increased relative risks (RR) of death; none found reduced risk of death among HIV-seropositive patients. Increased mortality risk among HIV-seropositive patients ranged from 1.86 (95% CI, 1.11-3.09) in Malawi to 10.7 (95% CI, 1.32-86.1) in South Africa. CONCLUSION: The available data indicate that HIV-seropositivity among the injured is high relative to national rates and may increase mortality, suggesting that integrated HIV-injury programming could be beneficial. Given the data limitations, further study of the HIV-injury intersection is crucially needed.

6 Review Interventions for treating tuberculous pericarditis. 2017

Wiysonge, Charles S / Ntsekhe, Mpiko / Thabane, Lehana / Volmink, Jimmy / Majombozi, Dumisani / Gumedze, Freedom / Pandie, Shaheen / Mayosi, Bongani M. ·Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council, Francie van Zijl Drive, Parow Valley, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa, 7505. ·Cochrane Database Syst Rev · Pubmed #28902412.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tuberculous pericarditis can impair the heart's function and cause death; long term, it can cause the membrane to fibrose and constrict causing heart failure. In addition to antituberculous chemotherapy, treatments include corticosteroids, drainage, and surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of treatments for tuberculous pericarditis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 March 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library (2017, Issue 2); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 March 2017); Embase (1974 to 27 March 2017); and LILACS (1982 to 27 March 2017). In addition we searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal using 'tuberculosis' and 'pericard*' as search terms on 27 March 2017. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and contacted researchers in the field of tuberculous pericarditis. This is a new version of the original 2002 review. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened search outputs, evaluated study eligibility, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data; and we resolved any discrepancies by discussion and consensus. One trial assessed the effects of both corticosteroid and Mycobacterium indicus pranii treatment in a two-by-two factorial design; we excluded data from the group that received both interventions. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analysis and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Seven trials met the inclusion criteria; all were from sub-Saharan Africa and included 1959 participants, with 1051/1959 (54%) HIV-positive. All trials evaluated corticosteroids and one each evaluated colchicine, M. indicus pranii immunotherapy, and open surgical drainage. Four trials (1841 participants) were at low risk of bias, and three trials (118 participants) were at high risk of bias.In people who are not infected with HIV, corticosteroids may reduce deaths from all causes (risk ratio (RR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 1.09; 660 participants, 4 trials, low certainty evidence) and the need for repeat pericardiocentesis (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.04; 492 participants, 2 trials, low certainty evidence). Corticosteroids probably reduce deaths from pericarditis (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.80; 660 participants, 4 trials, moderate certainty evidence). However, we do not know whether or not corticosteroids have an effect on constriction or cancer among HIV-negative people (very low certainty evidence).In people living with HIV, only 19.9% (203/1959) were on antiretroviral drugs. Corticosteroids may reduce constriction (RR 0.55, 0.26 to 1.16; 575 participants, 3 trials, low certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether corticosteroids have an effect on all-cause death or cancer (very low certainty evidence); and may have little or no effect on repeat pericardiocentesis (RR 1.02, 0.89 to 1.18; 517 participants, 2 trials, low certainty evidence).For colchicine among people living with HIV, we found one small trial (33 participants) which had insufficient data to make any conclusions about any effects on death or constrictive pericarditis.Irrespective of HIV status, due to very low certainty evidence from one trial, it is uncertain whether adding M. indicus pranii immunotherapy to antituberculous drugs has an effect on any outcome.Open surgical drainage for effusion may reduce repeat pericardiocentesis In HIV-negative people (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.76; 122 participants, 1 trial, low certainty evidence) but may make little or no difference to other outcomes. We did not find an eligible trial that assessed the effects of open surgical drainage in people living with HIV.The review authors found no eligible trials that examined the length of antituberculous treatment needed nor the effects of other adjunctive treatments for tuberculous pericarditis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: For HIV-negative patients, corticosteroids may reduce death. For HIV-positive patients not on antiretroviral drugs, corticosteroids may reduce constriction. For HIV-positive patients with good antiretroviral drug viral suppression, clinicians may consider the results from HIV-negative patients more relevant.Further research may help evaluate percutaneous drainage of the pericardium under local anaesthesia, the timing of pericardiectomy in tuberculous constrictive pericarditis, and new antibiotic regimens.

7 Review Interleukin-2 as an adjunct to antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive adults. 2017

Onwumeh, Jennifer / Okwundu, Charles I / Kredo, Tamara. ·Community Health Division, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa, 7505. · Centre for Evidence-based Health Care, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Francie van Zijl Drive, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa, 7505. · Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council, PO Box 19070, Cape Town, South Africa. ·Cochrane Database Syst Rev · Pubmed #28542796.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Although antiretroviral drugs have helped to improve the quality of life and life expectancy of HIV-positive individuals, there is still a need to explore other interventions that will help to further reduce the disease burden. One potential strategy is the use of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in combination with antiretroviral therapy (ART). IL-2 is a cytokine that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes and may help to boost the immune system. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interleukin-2 (IL-2) as an adjunct to antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following sources up to 26 May 2016: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; Embase; the Web of Science; LILACS; the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP); and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also checked conference abstracts, contacted experts and relevant organizations in the field, and checked the reference list of all studies identified by the above methods for any other potentially eligible studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of IL-2 as an adjunct to ART in reducing the morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive adults. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened records and selected trials that met the inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. Where possible, we compared the effects of interventions using risk ratios (RR), and presented them with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the overall certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Following a comprehensive literature search up to 26 May 2016, we identified 25 eligible trials. The interventions involved the use of IL-2 in combination with ART compared with ART alone. There was no difference in mortality apparent between the IL-2 group and the ART alone group (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.17; 6 trials, 6565 participants, high certainty evidence). Seventeen of 21 trials reported an increase in the CD4 cell count with the use of IL-2 compared to control using different measures (21 trials, 7600 participants). Overall, there was little or no difference in the proportion of participants with a viral load of less than 50 cells/mL or less than 500 cells/mL by the end of the trials (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.15; 5 trials, 805 participants, high certainty evidence) and (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.12; 4 trials, 5929 participants, high certainty evidence) respectively. Overall there may be little or no difference in the occurrence of opportunistic infections (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.13; 7 trials, 6141 participants, low certainty evidence). There was probably an increase in grade 3 or 4 adverse events (RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.96; 6 trials, 6291 participants, moderate certainty evidence). None of the included trials reported adherence. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is high certainty evidence that IL-2 in combination with ART increases the CD4 cell count in HIV-positive adults. However, IL-2 does not confer any significant benefit in mortality, there is probably no difference in the incidence of opportunistic infections, and there is probably an increase in grade 3 or 4 adverse effects. Our findings do not support the use of IL-2 as an adjunct to ART in HIV-positive adults. Based on our findings, further trials are not justified.

8 Review Transplantation in resource-limited setting: using HIV-positive donors for HIV-positive patients. 2015

Muller, Elmi. ·Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa. ·Clin Nephrol · Pubmed #25725240.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A HIV positive-to-positive program was started in South Africa in 2008. The program was started because dialysis is not freely available to everyone, but severely limited and only available to a selected group of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between September 2008 and March 2015, 29 patients were transplanted from HIV-positive brain-dead donors at Groote Schuur Hospital transplant team. Donors were either naïve to anti-retroviral therapy or on first line therapy. The recipients were selected to have undetectable plasma HIV type 1 RNA levels and be on a stable antiretroviral regimen. CD4+ T-cell counts of at least 200/mm3 in last 6 months prior to transplant, with no previous serious opportunistic infections. RESULTS: Survivors in the study were followed for a median of 2.4 years. The rate of patient survival was 84% at 1 year and 74% at 5 years. The corresponding graft survival rate was 93% and 84%. CONCLUSION: Using HIV-positive donors might resolve some of the problems we are experiencing in getting enough donors for our patients wit ESRD. In the USA the HOPE act was accepted in 2014 and this might now also impact on the use of HIV positive donors elsewhere in the world.

9 Review Renal transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive children. 2015

McCulloch, Mignon I / Kala, Udai K. ·Department of Paediatrics, Red Cross Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, mignonmcculloch@yahoo.co.uk. ·Pediatr Nephrol · Pubmed #24691821.

ABSTRACT: Renal transplantation is being performed in adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and increasingly in paediatric patients as well. A multidisciplinary team involving an infectious disease professional is required to assist with HIV viral-load monitoring and in choosing the most appropriate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Drug interactions complicate immunosuppressant therapy and require careful management. The acute rejection rates appear to be similar in adults to those in noninfective transplant recipients. Induction with basiliximab and calcineurin-based immunosuppression appears to be safe and effective in these recipients. Prophylaxis is advised for a variety of infections and may need life-long administration, especially in children. Organ shortage remains a significant problem, and kidneys from deceased HIV-positive donors have been used successfully in a small study population. Overall, with careful planning and close follow-up, successful renal transplantation for paediatric HIV-infected recipients is possible.

10 Review Effect of HIV infection on the outcome of cancer therapy in children. 2014

Stefan, Daniela C. ·Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Hospital and Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address: Cristina.Stefan@mrc.ac.za. ·Lancet Oncol · Pubmed #25439698.

ABSTRACT: SUMMARY: Systematic studies comparing the outcomes of cancer treatment between children with and without HIV are scarce. The literature seems to suggest that, even with present therapeutic advances, prognosis is poor with HIV infection. The aim of this Review was to assess scientific publications from 1990 to present, addressing the difficulties associated with treatment of cancer in children with AIDS and the adaptive changes in therapy. Although much progress has been achieved, further research is needed about antiretroviral and cytotoxic drug interactions, the optimum use of supportive therapy including stem cells and bone marrow transplant, the timing of the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and the optimum use of protease inhibitors.

11 Review Melanocyte biology and function with reference to oral melanin hyperpigmentation in HIV-seropositive subjects. 2014

Feller, Liviu / Chandran, Rakesh / Kramer, Beverley / Khammissa, Razia A G / Altini, Mario / Lemmer, Johan. ·1 Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, University of Limpopo , Medunsa Campus, South Africa . ·AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · Pubmed #25026474.

ABSTRACT: The color of normal skin and of oral mucosa is not determined by the number of melanocytes in the epithelium but rather by their melanogenic activity. Pigmented biopolymers or melanins are synthesized in melanosomes. Tyrosinase is the critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of both brown/black eumelanin and yellow/red pheomelanin. The number of the melanosomes within the melanocytes, the type of melanin within the melanosomes, and the efficacy of the transfer of melanosomes from the melanocytes to the neighboring keratinocytes all play an important role in tissue pigmentation. Melanin production is regulated by locally produced factors including proopiomelanocortin and its derivative peptides, particularly alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), adrenergic and cholinergic agents, growth factors, cytokines, and nitric oxide. Both eumelanin and pheomelanin can be produced by the same melanocytes, and the proportion of the two melanin types is influenced by the degree of functional activity of the α-MSH/MC1R intracellular pathway. The cause of HIV oral melanosis is not fully understood but may be associated with HIV-induced cytokine dysregulation, with the medications commonly prescribed to HIV-seropositive persons, and with adrenocortical dysfunction, which is not uncommon in HIV-seropositive subjects with AIDS. The purpose of this article is to discuss some aspects of melanocyte biology and HIV-associated oral melanin hyperpigmentation.

12 Review Drug-drug interactions in HIV positive cancer patients. 2014

Flepisi, Brian Thabile / Bouic, Patrick / Sissolak, Gerhard / Rosenkranz, Bernd. ·Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address: brian2@sun.ac.za. · Department of Medical Microbiology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address: pbouic@synexagroup.com. · Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Haematology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address: sissolak1@telkomsa.net. · Department of Medicine, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address: rosenkranz@sun.ac.za. ·Biomed Pharmacother · Pubmed #24863536.

ABSTRACT: Clinically relevant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) refer to the pharmacological or clinical response to the administration or co-exposure of a drug with another drug that modifies the patient's response. Treatment regimens, which include agents that are involved in the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme system and transporter systems, such as P-glycoprotein may be associated with higher risk of clinically significant drug interactions. In addition, potential DDIs increase with the increasing number of concomitant drugs. HIV positive cancer patients who receive concomitant chemotherapy and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may achieve better response rates and higher rates of survival than those who receive chemotherapy alone, but they may be at increased risk of drug interactions. DDIs in HIV positive cancer patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy and cART may increase or decrease antineoplastic drug concentrations, potentially resulting in life threatening interactions, increased toxicity or loss of efficacy. Avoiding and managing potential interactions between cART and antineoplastic agents is an increasingly important challenge. Based on the current literature, more safety and pharmacokinetic studies are needed with the aim to document a clear survival benefit for patients undergoing chemotherapy and concomitant or sequential administration of cART.

13 Review Systematic review of the performance of HIV viral load technologies on plasma samples. 2014

Sollis, Kimberly A / Smit, Pieter W / Fiscus, Susan / Ford, Nathan / Vitoria, Marco / Essajee, Shaffiq / Barnett, David / Cheng, Ben / Crowe, Suzanne M / Denny, Thomas / Landay, Alan / Stevens, Wendy / Habiyambere, Vincent / Perrins, Jos / Peeling, Rosanna W. ·Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom. · Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America. · Department of HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. · HIV, Medicine and Science, Clinton Health Access Initiative, New York, New York, United States of America. · Department of Haematology, United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service (UK NEQAS) for Leucocyte Immunophenotyping, Sheffield, United Kingdom. · Department of Technology and Innovation, Pangaea Global AIDS Foundation, San Fransisco, California, United States of America. · Centre for Biomedical Research, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia. · Department of Medicine, Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America. · Department of Immunology- Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America. · Department of Molecular Medicine and Haematology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #24558359.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Viral load (VL) monitoring is the standard of care in developing country settings for detecting HIV treatment failure. Since 2010 the World Health Organization has recommended a phase-in approach to VL monitoring in resource-limited settings. We conducted a systematic review of the accuracy and precision of HIV VL technologies for treatment monitoring. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A search of Medline and Embase was conducted for studies evaluating the accuracy or reproducibility of commercially available HIV VL assays. 37 studies were included for review including evaluations of the Amplicor Monitor HIV-1 v1.5 (n = 25), Cobas TaqMan v2.0 (n = 11), Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (n = 23), Versant HIV-1 RNA bDNA 3.0 (n = 15), Versant HIV-1 RNA kPCR 1.0 (n = 2), ExaVir Load v3 (n = 2), and NucliSens EasyQ v2.0 (n = 1). All currently available HIV VL assays are of sufficient sensitivity to detect plasma virus levels at a lower detection limit of 1,000 copies/mL. Bias data comparing the Abbott RealTime HIV-1, TaqMan v2.0 to the Amplicor Monitor v1.5 showed a tendency of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 to under-estimate results while the TaqMan v2.0 overestimated VL counts. Compared to the Amplicor Monitor v1.5, 2-26% and 9-70% of results from the Versant bDNA 3.0 and Abbott RealTime HIV-1 differed by greater than 0.5log10. The average intra and inter-assay variation of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 were 2.95% (range 2.0-5.1%) and 5.44% (range 1.17-30.00%) across the range of VL counts (2log10-7log10). CONCLUSIONS: This review found that all currently available HIV VL assays are of sufficient sensitivity to detect plasma VL of 1,000 copies/mL as a threshold to initiate investigations of treatment adherence or possible treatment failure. Sources of variability between VL assays include differences in technology platform, plasma input volume, and ability to detect HIV-1 subtypes. Monitoring of individual patients should be performed on the same technology platform to ensure appropriate interpretation of changes in VL. Prospero registration # CD42013003603.

14 Review Systematic review of neuroimaging studies in vertically transmitted HIV positive children and adolescents. 2014

Hoare, Jacqueline / Ransford, Gabrielle L / Phillips, Nicole / Amos, Taryn / Donald, Kirsten / Stein, Dan J. ·Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road Observatory, 7925, Cape Town, South Africa, hoare.jax@googlemail.com. ·Metab Brain Dis · Pubmed #24338026.

ABSTRACT: One of the most serious consequences of vertical HIV-infection is its impact on the central nervous system (CNS). Although much work has been done to elucidate the complex mechanism of HIV associated neurotoxicity, several questions remain unanswered. The purpose of this review is to summarise what is already known in the field of neuroimaging in vertically acquired HIV, addressing three aims and to highlight possible future directions in using neuroimaging and neurocognitive testing to understand the spectrum of neurocognitive disorders in HIV positve children. Here we aim to address several clinically relevant questions in pediatric neuroHIV, using the current evidence base by conducting a systematic review. We aim to investigate what is known about the relationship between cognitive impairment and central nervous system damage in HIV as seen in neuroimaging studies, and to search for any evidence in the current literature which suggests a spectrum of neuocognitive disorders in vertically infected HIV. Secondly, we aim to enquire whether children with a clinical diagnosis of encephalopathy are clearly distinguishable from HIV positive children without encephalopathy on neuroimaging and neurocognitive testing. Finally aim to investigate what is known about the effect on the CNS of antiretroviral therapy in paediatric HIV. Three separate databases were searched and two investigators systematically evaluated the titles, abstracts, and keywords associated with each individual article to determine those that may have met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Following this process 11 studies were included in the review. Thus there was limited available data to address the 3 questions posed.

15 Review Salmonella thyroiditis: a case report and review of the literature. 2013

Maraj, Amisha / Kiss, A / Luvhengo, Thifhelimbilu E. ·Department of General Surgery, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital and University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. docmish@hotmail.co.uk. ·S Afr J Surg · Pubmed #24209705.

ABSTRACT: Thyroid abscesses are rare, and Staphylococcus aureus is the main causative organism. Abscesses caused by other organisms are even rarer. This report describes a case of salmonella thyroiditis in an HIV-positive patient. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed and Salmonella sp. were cultured. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics and incision and drainage.

16 Review Challenges in lymphoma diagnosis in HIV positive patients in the South African setting. 2013

Wiggill, T M / Mayne, E S / Willem, P. ·Department of Molecular Medicine and Haematology, National Health Laboratory Service and University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address: tracey.wiggill@nhls.ac.za. ·Transfus Apher Sci · Pubmed #23981653.

ABSTRACT: An increase in high grade B-cell lymphomas has been noted in HIV infection. Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicentre of the epidemic and in Gauteng, South Africa >90% of patients with high grade lymphoma tested positive for HIV infection. The diagnosis of lymphoma may be challenging in HIV because of reactive conditions which mimic lymphomas, the atypical clinical presentation and the atypical histological findings. The WHO classification divides lymphomas into discrete categories. Despite this, tumours in HIV positive patients commonly show atypical morphological, immunophenotypic, molecular and cytogenetic features, making exact classification difficult. This has lead to an increase in the diagnosis of the highly aggressive B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL. It appears likely that HIV-associated lymphomas represent a continuum of disease.

17 Review Sanctuary or double-edged sword? Challenges confronting adolescents living at Nkosi's Haven in Johannesburg, South Africa. 2012

Dube, Nkosiyazi / Ross, Eleanor. ·School of Human and Community Development, Department of Social Work, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. ·SAHARA J · Pubmed #23234348.

ABSTRACT: Living in an institution associated with HIV and AIDS is likely to exacerbate difficulties experienced by teenagers who have to cope with the normal stresses of adolescence. The aim of the study was to explore the challenges that adolescents living at Nkosi's Haven encounter and whether they experience any problems when interacting with their peers and other members of the community. The study was located within a qualitative research paradigm and utilised a purposive, non-probability sample of 15 participants recruited from two Nkosi's Havens. A semi-structured interview schedule was employed as the research tool, with in-depth one-on-one interviews adopted as the method of data collection. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data collected during the interviews. The main finding that emanated from the study was that Nkosi's Haven is indeed a place of care and nurturing as adolescents are afforded the opportunity to continue with their educational needs while basic and psychosocial needs are also addressed. However, it also emerged that rejection, discrimination, social exclusion and stigmatisation associated with the setting make it difficult for resident adolescents to integrate freely with their peers at school and in the community. The conclusion drawn is that Nkosi's Haven can be regarded as a double-edged sword as it presents both positive and negative factors that impact on its resident adolescents. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for community awareness programmes, policies and practice changes regarding employment and training of staff, and visiting of parents as well as future research.

18 Review Interventions to improve psychological functioning and health outcomes of HIV-infected individuals with a history of trauma or PTSD. 2012

Seedat, Soraya. ·Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, Cape Town, South Africa. sseedat@sun.ac.za ·Curr HIV/AIDS Rep · Pubmed #23007792.

ABSTRACT: The experience of early or later life trauma in HIV-positive adults can have devastating mental and physical health consequences. Women bear the brunt of this double burden. Depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcohol and drug use disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders documented, both in infected women and men, in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Traumatized individuals, particularly those with childhood sexual abuse characterized by repeated traumatization, are at high risk of engaging in risky behaviors, including substance abuse and sexual promiscuity. These issues are further compounded by stigma, discrimination, poverty, and low social support. While there is a significant need to pay more attention to psychiatric and psychological outcomes in the context of HIV-trauma and improve screening for traumatic stress in HIV care settings, there are currently few treatment and secondary prevention studies. Group cognitive-behavioral strategies, including prolonged exposure, coping skills training, and stress management have, to date, shown some evidence for efficacy in HIV-positive individuals with childhood trauma and in those with PTSD.

19 Review Primary drug resistance in South Africa: data from 10 years of surveys. 2012

Manasa, Justen / Katzenstein, David / Cassol, Sharon / Newell, Marie-Louise / de Oliveira, Tulio / Anonymous4300715. ·Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson Mandela School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. ·AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · Pubmed #22251009.

ABSTRACT: HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) could reverse the gains of antiretroviral rollout. To ensure that current first-line therapies remain effective, TDR levels in recently infected treatment-naive patients need to be monitored. A literature review and data mining exercise was carried out to determine the temporal trends in TDR in South Africa. In addition, 72 sequences from seroconvertors identified from Africa Centre's 2010 HIV surveillance round were also examined for TDR. Publicly available data on TDR were retrieved from GenBank, curated in RegaDB, and analyzed using the Calibrated Population Resistance Program. There was no evidence of TDR from the 2010 rural KwaZulu Natal samples. Ten datasets with a total of 1618 sequences collected between 2000 and 2010 were pooled to provide a temporal analysis of TDR. The year with the highest TDR rate was 2002 [6.67%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.09-13.79%; n=6/90]. After 2002, TDR levels returned to <5% (WHO low-level threshold) and showed no statistically significant increase in the interval between 2002 and 2010. The most common mutations were associated with NNRTI resistance, K103N, followed by Y181C and Y188C/L. Five sequences had multiple resistance mutations associated with NNRTI resistance. There is no evidence of TDR in rural KwaZulu-Natal. TDR levels in South Africa have remained low following a downward trend since 2003. Continuous vigilance in monitoring of TDR is needed as more patients are initiated and maintained onto antiretroviral therapy.

20 Review Interventions to improve the performance of HIV health systems for treatment-as-prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the experimental evidence. 2012

Bärnighausen, Till / Tanser, Frank / Dabis, François / Newell, Marie-Louise. ·Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Mtubatuba, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. tbarnighausen@africacentre.ac.za ·Curr Opin HIV AIDS · Pubmed #22248917.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To reduce HIV incidence, treatment-as-prevention (TasP) requires high rates of HIV testing, and antiretroviral treatment (ART) uptake, retention, and adherence, which are currently not achieved in general populations in sub-Saharan Africa. We review the experimental evidence on interventions to increase these rates. RECENT FINDINGS: In four rapid reviews, we found nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on HIV-testing uptake, two on ART uptake, one on ART retention, and 15 on ART adherence in sub-Saharan Africa. Only two RCTs on HIV testing investigated an intervention in general populations; the other examined interventions in selected groups (employees, or individuals attending public-sector facilities for services). One RCT demonstrated that nurse-managed ART led to the same retention rates as physician-managed ART, but failed to show how to increase retention to the rates required for successful TasP. Although the evidence on ART adherence is strongest - several RCTs demonstrate the effectiveness of cognitive and behavioural interventions - contradictory results in different settings suggest that the precise intervention content, or the context, are crucial for effectiveness. SUMMARY: Future studies need to test the effectiveness of interventions to increase testing and treatment uptake, retention, and adherence under TasP, that is, ART for all HIV-infected individuals, independent of disease stage.

21 Review Socio-demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors of female sex workers in sub-saharan Africa: a systematic review. 2012

Scorgie, Fiona / Chersich, Matthew F / Ntaganira, Innocent / Gerbase, Antonio / Lule, Frank / Lo, Ying-Ru. ·Maternal, Adolescent and Child Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Durban, South Africa. fscorgie@gmail.com ·AIDS Behav · Pubmed #21750918.

ABSTRACT: Sex work remains an important contributor to HIV transmission within early, advanced and regressing epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa, but its social and behavioral underpinnings remain poorly understood, limiting the impact of HIV prevention initiatives. This article systematically reviews the socio-demographics of female sex workers (FSW) in this region, their occupational contexts and key behavioral risk factors for HIV. In total 128 relevant articles were reviewed following a search of Medline, Web of Science and Anthropological Index. FSW commonly have limited economic options, many dependents, marital disruption, and low education. Their vulnerability to HIV, heightened among young women, is inextricably linked to the occupational contexts of their work, characterized most commonly by poverty, endemic violence, criminalization, high mobility and hazardous alcohol use. These, in turn, predict behaviors such as low condom use, anal sex and co-infection with other sexually transmitted infections. Sex work in Africa cannot be viewed in isolation from other HIV-risk behaviors such as multiple concurrent partnerships-there is often much overlap between sexual networks. High turn-over of FSW, with sex work duration typically around 3 years, further heightens risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Targeted services at sufficiently high coverage, taking into account the behavioral and social vulnerabilities described here, are urgently required to address the disproportionate burden of HIV carried by FSW on the continent.

22 Review Oral ulcers and necrotizing gingivitis in relation to HIV-associated neutropenia: a review and an illustrative case. 2012

Feller, Liviu / Khammissa, Razia A G / Wood, Neil H / Meyerov, Robin / Pantanowitz, Liron / Lemmer, Johan. ·Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, University of Limpopo, Pretoria, South Africa. lfeller@ul.ac.za ·AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · Pubmed #21728927.

ABSTRACT: An unusual case of necrotizing gingivitis and neutropenic oral ulcers in an HIV-seropositive patient is presented. In spite of a very low CD4(+) T cell count and severe neutropenia, the necrotizing gingivitis responded favorably to standard periodontal treatment, and the oral ulcers healed after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Nonspecific oral ulcers in HIV-seropositive subjects with neutropenia should be regarded as neutropenic ulcers. The term nonspecific ulcers should be restricted to those ulcers with nonspecific histopathological features in patients without neutropenia or a nutritional deficiency such as iron, folic acid, and vitamin B.

23 Review Syphilis in the context of HIV infection. 2011

Feller, L / Chandran, R / Marnewick, J C / Chikte, U M E / Gugushe, T S / Meyerov, R / Lemmer, J. ·Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, School of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus, South Africa. Ifeller@ul.ac.za ·SADJ · Pubmed #23198478.

ABSTRACT: Both HIV infection and syphilis are sexually transmitted diseases, share the same risk factors for acquisition and often occur concurrently. Syphilis may promote HIV acquisition and transmission and HIV infection may alter the course and response of syphilis to treatment. Oral lesions may occur at any symptomatic stage during the course of a syphilitic infection, usually presenting as any one of a number of distinct clinical forms, but not infrequently with a variety of nonspecific clinical features, or clinical features mimicking other disease entities. In South Africa where HIV infection is epidemic, syphilis is prevalent. It is the purpose of this paper to review the interrelationship between syphilis and HIV infection, and the oral manifestations of syphilis.

24 Review Space-time confounding adjusted determinants of child HIV/TB mortality for large zero-inflated data in rural South Africa. 2011

Musenge, Eustasius / Vounatsou, Penelope / Kahn, Kathleen. ·MRC/Wits Rural Public Health & Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa. Eustasius.Musenge@wits.ac.za ·Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol · Pubmed #22748220.

ABSTRACT: South Africa is experiencing a major burden of HIV/TB. We used longitudinal data from the Agincourt sub-district in rural northeast South Africa over the years 2000 to 2005. A total of 187 HIV/TB deaths were observed among 16,844 children aged 1-5 years coming from 8,863 households. In this paper we used Bayesian models to assess risk factors for child HIV/TB mortality taking into account the presence of spatial correlation. Bayesian zero inflated spatiotemporal models were able to detect hidden patterns within the data. Our main finding was that maternal orphans experienced a threefold greater risk of HIV/TB death compared to those with living mothers (AHR=2.93, 95% CI[1.29;6.93]). Risk factor analyses which adjust for person, place and time provide evidence for policy makers that includes a spatial distribution of risk. Child survival is dependent on the mother's survival; hence programs that promote maternal survival are critical.

25 Review HPV-associated oral warts. 2011

Feller, L / Khammissa, R A G / Wood, N H / Marnewick, J C / Meyerov, R / Lemmer, J. ·Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, School of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus, South Africa. Ifeller@ul.ac.za ·SADJ · Pubmed #21608502.

ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts.

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