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HIV Seropositivity: HELP
Articles from Miscellaneous institutions in Amsterdam
Based on 29 articles published since 2008
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These are the 29 published articles about HIV Seropositivity that originated from Miscellaneous institutions in Amsterdam during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2
1 Review HIV-related stigma within communities of gay men: a literature review. 2012

Smit, Peter J / Brady, Michael / Carter, Michael / Fernandes, Ricardo / Lamore, Lance / Meulbroek, Michael / Ohayon, Michel / Platteau, Tom / Rehberg, Peter / Rockstroh, Jürgen K / Thompson, Marc. ·Dutch HIV Association, 'Hivnieuws' Editorial Board, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.smit@hivnet.org ·AIDS Care · Pubmed #22117138.

ABSTRACT: While stigma associated with HIV infection is well recognised, there is limited information on the impact of HIV-related stigma between men who have sex with men and within communities of gay men. The consequences of HIV-related stigma can be personal and community-wide, including impacts on mood and emotional well-being, prevention, testing behaviour, and mental and general health. This review of the literature reports a growing division between HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men, and a fragmentation of gay communities based along lines of perceived or actual HIV status. The literature includes multiple references to HIV stigma and discrimination between gay men, men who have sex with men, and among and between many gay communities. This HIV stigma takes diverse forms and can incorporate aspects of social exclusion, ageism, discrimination based on physical appearance and health status, rejection and violence. By compiling the available information on this understudied form of HIV-related discrimination, we hope to better understand and target research and countermeasures aimed at reducing its impact at multiple levels.

2 Clinical Trial Low- and high-risk human papillomavirus genotype infections in intra-anal warts in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. 2016

Siegenbeek van Heukelom, M L / Richel, O / de Vries, H J C / van de Sandt, M M / Beck, S / van den Munckhof, H A M / Pirog, E C / de Koning, M N C / Prins, J M / Quint, K D. ·Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, 1105AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. m.l.vanheukelom@amc.uva.nl. · Center for Infection and Immunology Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, 1105AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. m.l.vanheukelom@amc.uva.nl. · Department of Dermatology, Academic Medical Center, 1105AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. m.l.vanheukelom@amc.uva.nl. · Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, 1105AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · Center for Infection and Immunology Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, 1105AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · Department of Dermatology, Academic Medical Center, 1105AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · STI Outpatient Clinic, Public Health Service of Amsterdam (GGD Amsterdam), 1018 WT, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · DDL Diagnostic Laboratory, 2288 ER, Rijswijk, the Netherlands. · Department of Pathology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, 10065, U.S.A. · Department of Dermatology, The Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC, Leiden, the Netherlands. · Department of Dermatology, Roosevelt Clinics, 2321 BL, Leiden, the Netherlands. ·Br J Dermatol · Pubmed #26994411.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Anogenital warts are often presumed to represent nondysplastic or low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (LGAIN). We previously demonstrated that up to 20% of intra-anal warts in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) contain regions of high-grade AIN (HGAIN). OBJECTIVES: To determine the causative human papillomavirus (HPV) types of low- and high- grade dysplastic areas in warts from HIV-positive MSM. METHODS: A total of 42 intra-anal warts from 41 HIV-positive MSM were graded as nondysplastic, LGAIN or HGAIN. Whole-tissue sections (WTS) were analysed with the SPF10 polymerase chain reaction/LiPA25 HPV genotyping system. If the WTS contained multiple HPV types, dysplastic regions were isolated by laser capture microdissection (LCM) for HPV genotyping. RESULTS: Overall, 38 of 42 (91%) WTS tested positive for HPV DNA. Of these, 23 (61%) contained a single HPV type and 15 (39%) contained multiple HPV types. All LCM-selected regions contained no more than one HPV type. Ten of 42 (24%) WTS contained HGAIN disease, of which six (60%) were associated with a high-risk HPV (hrHPV) genotype. Twenty-three of 42 WTS contained LGAIN disease, of which two (9%) were associated with hrHPV. AIN lesions containing hrHPV types were identified using p16 staining. CONCLUSIONS: LGAIN lesions can be caused by high-risk HPV genotypes and vice versa. We therefore recommend routine follow-up and treatment of all dysplastic intra-anal warts for HIV-positive MSM.

3 Article Cryotherapy for Intra- and Perianal High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in HIV-Positive Men who have Sex with Men. 2018

Siegenbeek van Heukelom, Matthijs L / Gosens, Karien C M / Prins, Jan M / de Vries, Henry J C. ·Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, Room F4-106, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. m.l.vanheukelom@amc.uva.nl. · Center for Infection and Immunology Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. m.l.vanheukelom@amc.uva.nl. · Department of Dermatology, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. m.l.vanheukelom@amc.uva.nl. · Center for Infection and Immunology Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Dermatology, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, Room F4-106, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · STI Outpatient Clinic, Public Health Service of Amsterdam (GGD Amsterdam), 1018 WT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ·Am J Clin Dermatol · Pubmed #28695429.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Available treatment options for anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are limited by low response rates and frequent recurrences. Cryotherapy is an established therapeutic option for several pre-malignant skin disorders. METHODS: This retrospective, non-randomized study included HIV-positive MSM who received intra- and/or perianal HSIL cryotherapy treatment between 30 December 2008 and 23 April 2015. Cryotherapy was applied in sessions 4-6 weeks apart for a maximum of five sessions. Patients received a follow-up high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) to assess treatment response. Complete and partial treatment responders were followed-up after 6 months and then every 6-12 months to investigate recurrent HSILs. RESULTS: Of 64 patients [median age 48 years; interquartile range (IQR) 42-56] included in the study, six were lost to follow-up. In total, 35 (60%) of 58 patients responded to treatment. Of 64 patients, 31 (48%) reported one or more side effects, of which anal pain or tenderness and mild blood loss were reported most frequently. A total of 19 patients who responded to cryotherapy were adequately followed-up for over 18 months, of whom 13 (68%) had recurrent HSILs. CONCLUSION: Cryotherapy is capable of clearing HSIL in HIV-positive MSM, and treatment success rates are comparable with those reported for current treatment modalities. The treatment is well tolerated, and side effects are relatively mild. Future studies should therefore compare the efficacy and tolerability of cryotherapy with those of current treatment modalities in randomized controlled trials.

4 Article Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk: A prospective analysis of the D:A:D observational study. 2017

Boyd, Mark A / Mocroft, Amanda / Ryom, Lene / Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio / Sabin, Caroline / El-Sadr, Wafaa M / Hatleberg, Camilla Ingrid / De Wit, Stephane / Weber, Rainer / Fontas, Eric / Phillips, Andrew / Bonnet, Fabrice / Reiss, Peter / Lundgren, Jens / Law, Matthew. ·Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. · Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. · Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. · Centre of Excellence for Health, Immunity and Infections, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Clinica di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali, Azienda Ospedaliera-Polo Universitario San Paolo, Milan, Italy. · ICAP at Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America. · Division of Infectious Diseases, Saint-Pierre University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. · Department of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Department of Public Health, Nice University Hospital, Nice, France. · Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. · Bordeaux Population Health, INSERM U1219, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. · Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · HIV Monitoring Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ·PLoS Med · Pubmed #29112958.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) events in HIV-positive people. We hypothesized that participants in D:A:D at high (>5%) predicted risk for both CVD and CKD would be at even greater risk for CVD and CKD events. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included all participants with complete risk factor (covariate) data, baseline eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and a confirmed (>3 months apart) eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 thereafter to calculate CVD and CKD risk scores. We calculated CVD and CKD event rates by predicted 5-year CVD and CKD risk groups (≤1%, >1%-5%, >5%) and fitted Poisson models to assess whether CVD and CKD risk group effects were multiplicative. A total of 27,215 participants contributed 202,034 person-years of follow-up: 74% male, median (IQR) age 42 (36, 49) years, median (IQR) baseline year of follow-up 2005 (2004, 2008). D:A:D risk equations predicted 3,560 (13.1%) participants at high CVD risk, 4,996 (18.4%) participants at high CKD risk, and 1,585 (5.8%) participants at both high CKD and high CVD risk. CVD and CKD event rates by predicted risk group were multiplicative. Participants at high CVD risk had a 5.63-fold (95% CI 4.47, 7.09, p < 0.001) increase in CKD events compared to those at low risk; participants at high CKD risk had a 1.31-fold (95% CI 1.09, 1.56, p = 0.005) increase in CVD events compared to those at low risk. Participants' CVD and CKD risk groups had multiplicative predictive effects, with no evidence of an interaction (p = 0.329 and p = 0.291 for CKD and CVD, respectively). The main study limitation is the difference in the ascertainment of the clinically defined CVD endpoints and the laboratory-defined CKD endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: We found that people at high predicted risk for both CVD and CKD have substantially greater risks for both CVD and CKD events compared with those at low predicted risk for both outcomes, and compared to those at high predicted risk for only CVD or CKD events. This suggests that CVD and CKD risk in HIV-positive persons should be assessed together. The results further encourage clinicians to prioritise addressing modifiable risks for CVD and CKD in HIV-positive people.

5 Article Acquisition of wild-type HIV-1 infection in a patient on pre-exposure prophylaxis with high intracellular concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate: a case report. 2017

Hoornenborg, Elske / Prins, Maria / Achterbergh, Roel C A / Woittiez, Lycke R / Cornelissen, Marion / Jurriaans, Suzanne / Kootstra, Neeltje A / Anderson, Peter L / Reiss, Peter / de Vries, Henry J C / Prins, Jan M / de Bree, Godelieve J / Anonymous23980919. ·Department of Infectious Diseases, Research and Prevention, Public Health Service of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Department of Infectious Diseases, Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Infections, Public Health Service of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address: ehoornenborg@ggd.amsterdam.nl. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute (AI&II), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Infections, Public Health Service of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Medical Microbiology, Experimental Virology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Medical Microbiology, Clinical Virology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute (AI&II), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Department of Global Health and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; HIV Monitoring Foundation, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute (AI&II), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Department of Dermatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Center for Infectious Disease Control, Bilthoven, Netherlands. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute (AI&II), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Department of Global Health and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands. ·Lancet HIV · Pubmed #28919303.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly effective against acquisition of HIV infection, and only two cases of infection with a multidrug-resistant virus have been reported under adequate long-term adherence, as evidenced by tenofovir diphosphate concentrations in dried blood spots. We report a case of wild-type HIV-1 infection despite consistent use of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. METHODS: The patient participated in the Amsterdam PrEP project, a demonstration project of daily and event-driven PrEP. We did extensive testing for HIV, including plasma HIV RNA and nested PCR on bulk peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and sigmoid biopsies after seroconversion. FINDINGS: A 50-year-old man who has sex with men and had been on daily emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for 8 months presented with fever, urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli, anal lymphogranuloma venereum infection, and a positive fourth-generation HIV test. We found an atypical seroconversion pattern, with initially only gp160 antibodies detected in the western blot. HIV RNA could not be detected in plasma, and nested PCR for HIV RNA and DNA on bulk PBMCs and sigmoid biopsies were negative. PrEP was discontinued; 3 weeks later HIV RNA was detected in plasma. No drug-resistant mutations were detected. Tenofovir diphosphate concentrations in dried blood spots were stable and high. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first detailed case report suggesting wild-type HIV-1 infection despite good adherence, evidenced by repeatedly high concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate in dried blood spots. PrEP providers need to be aware that infection can occur despite good adherence. Regular HIV testing and awareness of atypical patterns of seroconversion is highly recommended. FUNDING: ZonMw, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Internal GGD research funds, Aidsfonds, Stichting AmsterdamDiner Foundation, Gilead Sciences, Janssen Pharmaceutica, M A C AIDS Fund, and ViiV Healthcare.

6 Article Terminal differentiation of T cells is strongly associated with CMV infection and increased in HIV-positive individuals on ART and lifestyle matched controls. 2017

Booiman, Thijs / Wit, Ferdinand W / Girigorie, Arginell F / Maurer, Irma / De Francesco, Davide / Sabin, Caroline A / Harskamp, Agnes M / Prins, Maria / Franceschi, Claudio / Deeks, Steven G / Winston, Alan / Reiss, Peter / Kootstra, Neeltje A / Anonymous1540916. ·Department of Experimental Immunology, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Global Health & Division of Infectious Disease, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · HIV Monitoring Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. · Public health service, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. · Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America. · Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, United Kingdom. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #28806406.

ABSTRACT: HIV-1-positive individuals on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) are reported to have higher rates of age-associated non-communicable comorbidities (AANCCs). HIV-associated immune dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to increased AANCC risk. Here we performed a cross-sectional immune phenotype analysis of T cells in ART-treated HIV-1-positive individuals with undetectable vireamia (HIV-positives) and HIV-1-negative individuals (HIV-negatives) over 45 years of age. In addition, two control groups were studied: HIV negative adults selected based on lifestyle and demographic factors (Co-morBidity in Relation to AIDS, or COBRA) and unselected age-matched donors from a blood bank. Despite long-term ART (median of 12.2 years), HIV-infected adults had lower CD4+ T-cell counts and higher CD8+ T-cell counts compared to well-matched HIV-negative COBRA participants. The proportion of CD38+HLA-DR+ and PD-1+ CD4+ T-cells was higher in HIV-positive cohort compared to the two HIV-negative cohorts. The proportion CD57+ and CD27-CD28- cells of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in HIV-positives was higher compared to unselected adults (blood bank) as reported before but this difference was not apparent in comparison with well-matched HIV-negative COBRA participants. Multiple regression analysis showed that the presence of an increased proportion of terminally differentiated T cells was strongly associated with CMV infection. Compared to appropriately selected HIV-negative controls, HIV-positive individuals on ART with long-term suppressed viraemia exhibited incomplete immune recovery and increased immune activation/exhaustion. CMV infection rather than treated HIV infection appears to have more consistent effects on measures of terminal differentiation of T cells.

7 Article Viral genetic variation accounts for a third of variability in HIV-1 set-point viral load in Europe. 2017

Blanquart, François / Wymant, Chris / Cornelissen, Marion / Gall, Astrid / Bakker, Margreet / Bezemer, Daniela / Hall, Matthew / Hillebregt, Mariska / Ong, Swee Hoe / Albert, Jan / Bannert, Norbert / Fellay, Jacques / Fransen, Katrien / Gourlay, Annabelle J / Grabowski, M Kate / Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara / Günthard, Huldrych F / Kivelä, Pia / Kouyos, Roger / Laeyendecker, Oliver / Liitsola, Kirsi / Meyer, Laurence / Porter, Kholoud / Ristola, Matti / van Sighem, Ard / Vanham, Guido / Berkhout, Ben / Kellam, Paul / Reiss, Peter / Fraser, Christophe / Anonymous3151039. ·Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. · Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. · Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom. · Stichting HIV Monitoring, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. · Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. · Division for HIV and other Retroviruses, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany. · School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. · Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland. · HIV/STI reference laboratory, WHO collaborating centre, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Department of Clinical Science, Antwerpen, Belgium. · Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. · Department of Epidemiology, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. · Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch-Institute, Berlin, Germany. · Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Department of Infectious Diseases, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. · Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. · Department of Health Security, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. · INSERM CESP U1018, Université Paris Sud, Université Paris Saclay, APHP, Service de Santé Publique, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. · Virology Unit, Immunovirology Research Pole, Biomedical Sciences Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium. · Kymab Ltd, Cambridge, United Kingdom. · Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. · Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ·PLoS Biol · Pubmed #28604782.

ABSTRACT: HIV-1 set-point viral load-the approximately stable value of viraemia in the first years of chronic infection-is a strong predictor of clinical outcome and is highly variable across infected individuals. To better understand HIV-1 pathogenesis and the evolution of the viral population, we must quantify the heritability of set-point viral load, which is the fraction of variation in this phenotype attributable to viral genetic variation. However, current estimates of heritability vary widely, from 6% to 59%. Here we used a dataset of 2,028 seroconverters infected between 1985 and 2013 from 5 European countries (Belgium, Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and estimated the heritability of set-point viral load at 31% (CI 15%-43%). Specifically, heritability was measured using models of character evolution describing how viral load evolves on the phylogeny of whole-genome viral sequences. In contrast to previous studies, (i) we measured viral loads using standardized assays on a sample collected in a strict time window of 6 to 24 months after infection, from which the viral genome was also sequenced; (ii) we compared 2 models of character evolution, the classical "Brownian motion" model and another model ("Ornstein-Uhlenbeck") that includes stabilising selection on viral load; (iii) we controlled for covariates, including age and sex, which may inflate estimates of heritability; and (iv) we developed a goodness of fit test based on the correlation of viral loads in cherries of the phylogenetic tree, showing that both models of character evolution fit the data well. An overall heritability of 31% (CI 15%-43%) is consistent with other studies based on regression of viral load in donor-recipient pairs. Thus, about a third of variation in HIV-1 virulence is attributable to viral genetic variation.

8 Article Suboptimal primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention in HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy. 2017

van Zoest, Rosan A / van der Valk, Marc / Wit, Ferdinand W / Vaartjes, Ilonca / Kooij, Katherine W / Hovius, Joppe W / Prins, Maria / Reiss, Peter / Anonymous2221012. ·1 Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, The Netherlands. · 2 Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, The Netherlands. · 3 Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · 4 HIV Monitoring Foundation, The Netherlands. · 5 Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands. · 6 Department of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ·Eur J Prev Cardiol · Pubmed #28578613.

ABSTRACT: Background We aimed to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, and investigate preventive cardiovascular medication use and achievement of targets as per Dutch cardiovascular risk management guidelines among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative individuals. Design The design was a cross-sectional analysis within an ongoing cohort study. Methods Data on medication use and cardiovascular disease prevalence were available for 528 HIV-positive and 521 HIV-negative participants. We identified cardiovascular risk factors and applied cardiovascular risk management guidelines, mainly focusing on individuals eligible for (a) primary prevention because of high a priori cardiovascular risk, or for (b) secondary prevention. Results One hundred and three (20%) HIV-positive and 77 (15%) HIV-negative participants were classified as having high cardiovascular risk; 53 (10%) HIV-positive and 27 (5%) HIV-negative participants were eligible for secondary prevention. Of HIV-positive individuals 57% at high cardiovascular risk and 42% of HIV-positive individuals eligible for secondary prevention had systolic blood pressures above guideline-recommended thresholds. Cholesterol levels were above guideline-recommended thresholds in 81% of HIV-positive individuals at high cardiovascular risk and 57% of HIV-positive individuals eligible for secondary prevention. No statistically significant differences were observed between HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants regarding achievement of targets, except for glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin ≤ 53 mmol/mol) among individuals using diabetes medication (90% vs 50%, p = 0.017) and antiplatelet/anticoagulant use for secondary prevention (85% vs 63%, p = 0.045), which were both superior among HIV-positive participants. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk management is suboptimal in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals and should be improved.

9 Article Men living with HIV in serodiscordant relationships who desire a child/children. 2017

Fransen-Dos Santos, Raoul / Guarinieri, Mauro. ·International Civil Society Support, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Community, Rights & Gender Department, Geneva, Switzerland. ·J Int AIDS Soc · Pubmed #28361505.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Article The Stigma of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Both HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in Nairobi, Kenya. 2016

Odeny, Beryne Mikal / Pfeiffer, James / Farquhar, Carey / Igonya, Emmy Kageha / Gatuguta, Ann / Kagwaini, Florence / Nduati, Ruth / Kiarie, James / Bosire, Rose. ·1 Department of Global Health, University of Washington , Seattle, Washington. · 2 Department of Anthropology, University of Washington , Seattle, Washington. · 3 Department of Health Services, University of Washington , Seattle, Washington. · 4 Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington , Seattle, Washington. · 5 Department of Medicine, University of Washington , Seattle, Washington. · 6 Vreje University , Amsterdam, the Netherlands . · 7 School of Public Health, Kenyatta University , Nairobi, Kenya . · 8 Kirwara Sub-County Hospital , Murang'a County, Kenya . · 9 Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Nairobi , Nairobi, Kenya . · 10 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi , Nairobi, Kenya . · 11 Centre for Public Health Research , Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya . ·Breastfeed Med · Pubmed #27093583.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) means giving only breast milk to an infant. Although it is the optimal mode of feeding for infants younger than 6 months, its prevalence is low in HIV-endemic regions. Extensive promotion of EBF for 6 months in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs could inadvertently result in stigma due to women's perceived association of EBF with HIV infection. In this qualitative study, we describe how stigma impacts the uptake of EBF among HIV-positive and -negative women. METHODS: Pregnant and postpartum women and their male partners were recruited to participate in a total of 22 focus group discussions (FGDs). Transcripts were analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Codes were identified both a priori and inductively using the open coding approach. Major themes and subthemes were identified. RESULTS: There was a broad and strong consensus among some FGD participants that HIV-related stigma was a barrier to EBF. EBF was perceived as a practice for HIV-positive women. Thus, fear of discrimination deterred both HIV-positive and -negative women from EBF. However, with health education, peer counselor, and male partner support, some women were able to breastfeed exclusively regardless of opposing social norms. CONCLUSION: Stigma related to HIV poses a formidable barrier to EBF in HIV-endemic regions. There is an urgent need to widely target all women with EBF information and support EBF practices regardless of maternal HIV infection status. The lessons learned from this study indicate that vertical programs can hinder promotion of infant health interventions and therefore negatively affect child survival.

11 Article Prevalence and determinants of insufficient work ability in older HIV-positive and HIV-negative workers. 2016

Möller, Lisanne M / Brands, Ronald / Sluiter, Judith K / Schouten, Judith / Wit, Ferdinand W / Reiss, Peter / Prins, Maria / Stolte, Ineke G. ·Cluster Infectious Diseases, Department of Research, Public Health Service, Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 100, 1018 WT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Dutch HIV Association, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · STI AIDS, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Coronel Institute of Occupational Health, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · HIV Monitoring Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Cluster Infectious Diseases, Department of Research, Public Health Service, Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 100, 1018 WT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. mprins@ggd.amsterdam.nl. · Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. mprins@ggd.amsterdam.nl. ·Int Arch Occup Environ Health · Pubmed #26747456.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To explore whether the prevalence and determinants of insufficient work ability (WA) of older HIV-positive workers differ from a comparable group of HIV-negative workers. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 359 HIV-negative and 264 HIV-positive middle-aged individuals (45-65 years) participating in paid labor, collected within the AGEhIV Cohort Study between October 2010-September 2012, were selected. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires and physical examination. Participants self-rated their current WA, ranging from 0 to 10. WA was dichotomized into insufficient (<6) and sufficient (≥6). Using univariable and multivariable logistic regression, we studied the independent effect of HIV status on insufficient WA and determinants of insufficient WA. RESULTS: Overall, 8% of participants reported insufficient WA (HIV-positive 9 vs. HIV-negative 7%, P = 0.20). Twice as many HIV-positive as HIV-negative individuals were declared partly unfit for work (6 vs. 3%, P = 0.02). HIV status itself was not associated with WA in univariable and multivariable analyses. Multivariable analyses revealed that low educational level, working fewer hours, being partly unfit for work, experiencing a high need for recovery after work, staying home from work ≥2 times in the past 6 months, and reporting depressive symptoms were associated with insufficient WA, independent of HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive individuals aged 45-65 years participating in paid labor seem to function as well at work as HIV-negative individuals. HIV-positive participants were more often formally declared partly unfit for work, but percentages were low in both groups. Knowledge of determinants of insufficient WA may help employers and professionals to optimize WA.

12 Article Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in Zambia: prevalence, clinical, radiological and microbiological characteristics. 2015

Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina / Kapata, Nathan / Klinkenberg, Eveline / Mulenga, Lutinala / Tembo, Mathias / Katemangwe, Patrick / Sunkutu, Veronica / Mwaba, Peter / Grobusch, Martin P. ·Department of Disease Surveillance, Control and Research, Ministry of Health, Lusaka, Zambia. pascykapata@gmail.com. · Center of Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Amsterdam Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. pascykapata@gmail.com. · Center of Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Amsterdam Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. nkapata@gmail.com. · Department of Epidemics and Disease Control, Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health, Lusaka, 10101, Zambia. nkapata@gmail.com. · KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, Netherlands. Eveline.klinkenberg@kncvtbc.org. · Department of Global Health and Development, Amsterdam Medical Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Eveline.klinkenberg@kncvtbc.org. · Department of Clinical Care and Diagnostics, Chest Diseases Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Lusaka, 10101, Zambia. lnmulenga@gmail.com. · Tuberculosis Laboratory, Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Ndola, Zambia. metembo2002@gmail.com. · Tuberculosis Laboratory, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, 10101, Zambia. jejifpa@yahoo.com. · Radiology Department, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, 10101, Zambia. verongwa@gmail.com. · Department of Disease Surveillance, Control and Research, Ministry of Health, Lusaka, Zambia. pbmwaba2000@gmail.com. · Center of Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Amsterdam Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. m.p.grobusch@amc.uva.nl. ·BMC Infect Dis · Pubmed #26545357.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is an emerging health problem. We present here the Zambia-specific national level data of prevalence, symptomatic, radiological and microbiological characteristics of NTM, using results from a national Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of the prevalence of NTM among adults aged 15 years and above, who were participants in a national TB prevalence survey. Participants who had either an abnormal chest x-ray or were symptomatic were considered presumptive TB cases and submitted sputum for smear and culture analysis. HIV testing was performed on an opt-out basis. Symptomatic NTM prevalence was estimated from individual level analysis. RESULTS: Of the 6,123 individuals with presumptive TB, 923 (15.1%) were found to have NTM, 13 (0.2%) were MTB/NTM co-infected and 338 (5.5%) were contaminated (indeterminate). The prevalence of symptomatic NTM was found to be 1,477/100,000 [95% CI 1010-1943]. Smear positivity, history of cough or chest pain and HIV positivity were risk factors for NTM. CONCLUSION: This first study to estimate the national prevalence of NTM in Zambia indicates that the burden is high. The NTM occurrence in Zambia constitutes both a public health and ethical issue requiring action from health managers.

13 Article Delayed linkage to care in one-third of HIV-positive individuals in the Netherlands. 2015

van Veen, M G / Trienekens, S C M / Heijman, T / Gotz, H M / Zaheri, S / Ladbury, G / de Wit, J / Fennema, J S A / de Wolf, F / van der Sande, M A B. ·Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands Public Health Service, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands. · Public Health Service, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Municipal Public Health Service Rotterdam-Rijnmond, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. · HIV Monitoring Foundation (SHM), Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands EPIET, ECDC, Stockholm, Sweden. · Centre for Social Research in Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. ·Sex Transm Infect · Pubmed #25964506.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To determine time to linkage to HIV care following diagnosis and to identify risk factors for delayed linkage. METHODS: Patients newly diagnosed with HIV at sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinics in the Netherlands were followed until linkage to care. Data were collected at the time of diagnosis and at first consultation in care, including demographics, behavioural information, CD4+ counts and HIV viral load (VL) measurements. Delayed linkage to care was defined as >4 weeks between HIV diagnosis and first consultation. RESULTS: 310 participants were included; the majority (90%) being men who have sex with men (MSM). For 259 participants (84%), a date of first consultation in care was known; median time to linkage was 9 days (range 0-435). Overall, 95 (31%) of the participants were not linked within 4 weeks of diagnosis; among them, 44 were linked late, and 51 were not linked at all by the end of study follow-up. Being young (<25 years), having non-Western ethnicity or lacking health insurance were independently associated with delayed linkage to care as well as being referred to care indirectly. Baseline CD4+ count, VL, perceived social support and stigma at diagnosis were not associated with delayed linkage. Risk behaviour and CD4+ counts declined between diagnosis and linkage to care. CONCLUSIONS: Although most newly diagnosed patients with HIV were linked to care within 4 weeks, delay was observed for one-third, with over half of them not yet linked at the end of follow-up. Vulnerable subpopulations (young, uninsured, ethnic minority) were at risk for delayed linkage. Testing those at risk is not sufficient, timely linkage to care needs to be better assured as well.

14 Article Anal, penile, and oral high-risk HPV infections and HPV seropositivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men. 2014

van Rijn, Vera M / Mooij, Sofie H / Mollers, Madelief / Snijders, Peter J F / Speksnijder, Arjen G C L / King, Audrey J / de Vries, Henry J C / van Eeden, Arne / van der Klis, Fiona R M / de Melker, Hester E / van der Sande, Marianne A B / van der Loeff, Maarten F Schim. ·Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands. · Cluster of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · Cluster of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Cluster of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Dermatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · Department of Internal Medicine, Jan van Goyen Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #24651691.

ABSTRACT: The effects of single or multiple concordant HPV infections at various anatomical sites on type-specific HPV seropositivity are currently unknown. In this cross-sectional study we assessed whether high-risk HPV infections at various anatomical sites (i.e., anal canal, penile shaft, and oral cavity), as well as concordant infections at multiple anatomical sites, were associated with type-specific seropositivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM. MSM aged ≥ 18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2010-2011). Baseline anal, penile, and oral samples were analyzed for HPV DNA and genotyped using a highly sensitive PCR and reverse line blot assay. Virus-like particle (VLP) based multiplex immunoassay was used to asses HPV-specific serum antibodies against L1 VLPs. The associations between HPV infections and type-specific seropositivity of seven high-risk HPV types (7-hrHPV: types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) were estimated using logistic regression analyses with generalized estimating equations. We found that 86% of 306 HIV-positive MSM and 62% of 441 HIV-negative MSM were seropositive for at least one 7-hrHPV type. 69% of HIV-positive and 41% of HIV-negative MSM were infected with at least one 7-hrHPV type at the anus, penis, or oral cavity. In multivariable analyses, 7-hrHPV seropositivity was associated with type-specific anal (and not penile) 7-hrHPV infection, and did not significantly increase with a higher number of infected anatomical sites. Oral 7-hrHPV infection showed a positive, albeit non-significant, association with seropositivity. In conclusion, seropositivity among MSM appears to be largely associated with anal HPV infection, irrespective of additionally infected anatomical sites.

15 Article An evaluation of HIV elite controller definitions within a large seroconverter cohort collaboration. 2014

Olson, Ashley D / Meyer, Laurence / Prins, Maria / Thiebaut, Rodolphe / Gurdasani, Deepti / Guiguet, Marguerite / Chaix, Marie-Laure / Amornkul, Pauli / Babiker, Abdel / Sandhu, Manjinder S / Porter, Kholoud / Anonymous5300783. ·Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at University College London, London, United Kingdom. · Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1018, Université Paris-Sud, le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. · Amsterdam Public Health Service, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U897, Université Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux, France. · Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom ; University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. · Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U943, Paris, France ; Université Pierre et Marie Curie S943, Paris, France. · Université Paris Descartes, EA 3620, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France. · International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, San Francisco, California, United States of America. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #24489776.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanisms underlying viral control is highly relevant to vaccine studies and elite control (EC) of HIV infection. Although numerous definitions of EC exist, it is not clear which, if any, best identify this rare phenotype. METHODS: We assessed a number of EC definitions used in the literature using CASCADE data of 25,692 HIV seroconverters. We estimated proportions maintaining EC of total ART-naïve follow-up time, and disease progression, comparing to non-EC. We also examined HIV-RNA and CD4 values and CD4 slope during EC and beyond (while ART naïve). RESULTS: Most definitions classify ∼ 1% as ECs with median HIV-RNA 43-903 copies/ml and median CD4>500 cells/mm(3). Beyond EC status, median HIV-RNA levels remained low, although often detectable, and CD4 values high but with strong evidence of decline for all definitions. Median % ART-naïve time as EC was ≥ 92% although overlap between definitions was low. EC definitions with consecutive HIV-RNA measurements <75 copies/ml with follow-up ≥ six months, or with 90% of measurements <400 copies/ml over ≥ 10 year follow-up preformed best overall. Individuals thus defined were less likely to progress to endpoint (hazard ratios ranged from 12.5-19.0 for non-ECs compared to ECs). CONCLUSIONS: ECs are rare, less likely to progress to clinical disease, but may eventually lose control. We suggest definitions requiring individuals to have consecutive undetectable HIV-RNA measurements for ≥ six months or otherwise with >90% of measurements <400 copies/ml over ≥ 10 years be used to define this phenotype.

16 Article Semipermanent filler treatment of HIV-positive patients with facial lipoatrophy: long-term follow-up evaluating MR imaging and quality of life. 2014

van Rozelaar, Leo / Kadouch, Jonathan A / Duyndam, Debbie A / Nieuwkerk, Pythia T / Lutgendorff, Femke / Karim, Refaat B. ·Dr van Rozelaar is a cosmetic medical practitioner in private practice in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ·Aesthet Surg J · Pubmed #24334306.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Injectable fillers such as poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) and calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) have shown promising results in the treatment of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-induced facial lipoatrophy (FLA). However, the effects of these substances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have not yet been described. OBJECTIVE: The authors analyze the association between the effects of treatment with semipermanent fillers on MRI and changes in quality of life (QOL). METHODS: Eighty-two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with cART-induced FLA (grades 2-4) were enrolled in this prospective study. A mean volume of 58.2 mL (range, 12-105 mL) of PLLA (n = 41 patients) and 9.1 mL (range, 3-23 mL) of CaHA (n = 41) was injected in multiple sessions. The MRI examinations were performed prior to treatment and again 12 months after. The self-reported severity of FLA as well as QOL was measured using questionnaires based on Short Form 36, Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale formats. RESULTS: Significant increases in total subcutaneous thickness (TST) of the injected regions could be identified on MRI in nearly all patients 1 year posttreatment. Patients reported that mental health and social and role functioning improved; depressive symptoms decreased after treatment. In addition, the increase in TST was positively associated with improvement of QOL. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that treatment with both PLLA and CaHA not only increases TST but also is associated with improved QOL for HIV-infected patients. Furthermore, the study also demonstrates that MRI can show filler-induced neocollagenesis and quantify FLA treatment effects.

17 Article Undetectable viral load and the decision to engage in unprotected anal intercourse among HIV-positive MSM. 2013

Van Den Boom, Wijnand / Stolte, Ineke G / Witlox, Robert / Sandfort, Theo / Prins, Maria / Davidovich, Udi. ·Cluster Infectious Diseases, Department of Research, Public Health Service Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 100, 1018 WT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. wvdboom@ggd.amsterdam.nl ·AIDS Behav · Pubmed #23525838.

ABSTRACT: We investigated how often HIV-positive MSM (n = 177) decide to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) because they have an undetectable viral load (UVL). We found that 20-57% of the UAI acts were related to having UVL, varying by partner type and partner HIV status. Among HIV-concordant partners, consideration of UVL before engaging in UAI was more prevalent with sex buddies (55%) than with casual partners (20%), although marginally significant (p = 0.051). Among HIV-discordant partners, no significant difference was found in the frequency of UVL considerations before engaging in UAI: 40% with sex buddies versus 57% with casual partners. Interestingly, while the decision to engage in UAI based on UVL was frequently discussed with HIV-concordant partners (>91%), it was only discussed with HIV-discordant partners in 13-25% of the UAI cases (according to partner type), suggesting that the decision was mostly unilateral.

18 Article Effect of HCV infection on cause-specific mortality after HIV seroconversion, before and after 1997. 2013

van der Helm, Jannie / Geskus, Ronald / Sabin, Caroline / Meyer, Laurence / Del Amo, Julia / Chêne, Geneviève / Dorrucci, Maria / Muga, Roberto / Porter, Kholoud / Prins, Maria / Anonymous6920745. ·Public Health Service Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. jvdhelm@ggd.amsterdam.nl ·Gastroenterology · Pubmed #23266560.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection frequently also are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) (co-infection), but little is known about its effects on the progression of HIV-associated disease. We aimed to determine the effects of co-infection on mortality from HIV and/or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and hepatitis or liver disease, adjusting for the duration of HIV infection. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 16 cohorts of the Concerted Action on Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe (CASCADE) collaboration, which included information on HCV infection and cause of death. A competing-risks proportional subdistribution hazards model was used to evaluate the effect of HCV infection on the following causes of death: HIV- and/or AIDS-related, hepatitis- or liver-related, natural, and non-natural. RESULTS: Of 9164 individuals with HIV infection and a known date of seroconversion, 2015 (22.0%) also were infected with HCV. Of 718 deaths, 395 (55.0%) were caused by HIV infection and/or AIDS, and 39 (5.4%) were caused by hepatitis or liver-related disease. Among individuals infected with only HIV or with co-infection, the mortality from HIV infection and/or AIDS-related causes and hepatitis or liver disease decreased significantly after 1997, when combination antiretroviral therapy became widely available. However, after 1997, HIV and/or AIDS-related mortality was higher among co-infected individuals than those with only HIV infection in each risk group: injection drug use (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-5.20), sex between men and women or hemophilia (aHR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.70-6.93), and sex between men (aHR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.49-6.48). Compared with individuals infected with only HIV, co-infected individuals had a higher risk of death from hepatitis or liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: Based on analysis of data from the CASCADE collaboration, since 1997, when combination antiretroviral therapy became widely available, individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV have had a higher risk of death from HIV and/or AIDS, and from hepatitis or liver disease, than patients infected with only HIV. It is necessary to evaluate the effects of HCV therapy on HIV progression.

19 Article Less decrease in risk behaviour from pre-HIV to post-HIV seroconversion among MSM in the combination antiretroviral therapy era compared with the pre-combination antiretroviral therapy era. 2012

Heijman, Titia / Geskus, Ronald B / Davidovich, Udi / Coutinho, Roel A / Prins, Maria / Stolte, Ineke G. ·Department of Research, Cluster of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service Amsterdam, The Netherlands. theijman@ggd.amsterdam.nl ·AIDS · Pubmed #22156971.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To gain insight in the ongoing HIV transmission, we compared sexual risk behaviour pre-HIV and post-HIV seroconversion in 206 MSM participating in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies (1984-2008) before and after the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). DESIGN AND METHODS: MSM completed behavioural questionnaires and were tested for HIV antibodies every 6 months. Trends in anal intercourse and number of sex partners from 4 years before HIV seroconversion until 4 years after diagnosis were analysed with latent class random effects logistic regression models. RESULTS: The risk of having unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) 1 year after HIV diagnosis decreased significantly when compared with 1 year before diagnosis in both the pre-cART era [difference, 30%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 22-36%] and cART era (difference, 19%; 95% CI, 9-30%). In contrast to a continuing decrease of UAI in the pre-cART era, the probability of UAI in the cART era increased again to preseroconversion levels (61%; 95% CI, 48-74%)) 4 years after diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that recently seroconverted MSM reduce their sexual risk behaviour following HIV diagnosis both in the pre-cART as well as the cART period. However, in the cART period this reduction in sexual risk behaviour is less and returns to pre-cART levels within 4 years. These findings not only confirm the need for early HIV testing but also make it clear that much more effort should go into identifying, counselling, and possibly treating recently seroconverted MSM who have been found to be one of the most important drivers of HIV transmission among MSM.

20 Article High HIV incidence among MSM prescribed postexposure prophylaxis, 2000-2009: indications for ongoing sexual risk behaviour. 2012

Heuker, José / Sonder, Gerard J B / Stolte, Ineke / Geskus, Ronald / van den Hoek, Anneke. ·Department of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ·AIDS · Pubmed #22156963.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine (trends in) HIV incidence among MSM\ who have recently had postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) prescribed in Amsterdam, compared with MSM participating in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies (ACS). DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from MSM who were prescribed PEP in Amsterdam between 2000 and 2009, who were HIV-negative at the time of PEP prescription and had follow-up HIV testing 3 and/or 6 months after PEP prescription (n = 395). For comparison, cohort data from MSM participating in the ACS in the same period were used (n = 782). Poisson log-linear regression analyses were performed to model trends in HIV incidence and identify differences in HIV incidence between both cohorts at different time points. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2009, among MSM who were prescribed PEP, an overall HIV incidence of 6.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-11.2] per 100 person-years was found, compared with an HIV incidence of 1.6 (95% CI 1.3-2.1) per 100 person-years among MSM participating in the ACS (P < 0.01). In both cohorts, an increasing trend in HIV incidence over time was observed [incidence rate ratio (IRR(per calendar year)) 1.3 (95% CI 0.9-1.7) and 1.1 (95% CI 1.0-1.2) among MSM prescribed PEP and MSM of the ACS, respectively]. The difference in HIV incidence between both cohorts was most evident in more recent years [IRR(PEP versus ACS in 2009) 4.8 (95% CI 2.0-11.5)]. CONCLUSION: Particularly in more recent years, MSM recently prescribed PEP had a higher HIV incidence compared with MSM participating in the ACS, indicating ongoing sexual risk behaviour.

21 Article Short communication: High prevalence of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance among newly HIV type 1 diagnosed adults in Mombasa, Kenya. 2012

Sigaloff, Kim C E / Mandaliya, Kishor / Hamers, Raph L / Otieno, Francis / Jao, Irene M / Lyagoba, Frederick / Magambo, Brian / Kapaata, Anne / Ndembi, Nicaise / Rinke de Wit, Tobias F. ·PharmAccess Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. k.sigaloff@pharmaccess.org ·AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · Pubmed #22149307.

ABSTRACT: Abstract In view of the recent antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up in Kenya, surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) is important. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among newly HIV-1 diagnosed, antiretroviral-naive adults in Mombasa, Kenya. Surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) were identified according to the 2009 WHO list. HIV-1 subtypes were determined using REGA and SCUEAL subtyping tools. Genotypic test results were obtained for 68 of 81 participants, and SDRMs were identified in 9 samples. Resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (K103N) occurred in five participants, yielding a TDR prevalence of 7.4% (95% confidence interval 2.4-16.3%). Frequencies of HIV-1 subtypes were A (70.6%), C (5.9%), D (2.9%), and unique recombinant forms (20.6%). The TDR prevalence found in this survey is higher than previously reported in different regions in Kenya. These findings justify increased vigilance with respect to TDR surveillance in African regions where ART programs are scaled-up in order to inform treatment guidelines.

22 Article Accumulation of HIV drug resistance mutations in patients failing first-line antiretroviral treatment in South Africa. 2012

Sigaloff, Kim C E / Ramatsebe, Tina / Viana, Raquel / de Wit, Tobias F Rinke / Wallis, Carole L / Stevens, Wendy S. ·PharmAccess Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. k.sigaloff@pharmaccess.org ·AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · Pubmed #21819219.

ABSTRACT: Patients failing antiretroviral treatment for extended periods of time are at risk of accumulating HIV drug resistance mutations (DRMs), which negatively influences second-line treatment. This retrospective study assessed the rate of DRM accumulation among South African patients with continued virological failure. Serial genotypic resistance testing was performed and DRMs were scored according to the 2009 IAS-USA list. Among 43 patients, 38 (88.4%) harbored ≥1 DRM. The median time between two sequential resistance tests was 5 months (IQR: 3-10). Thymidine analogue mutations accumulated at a rate of 0.07 mutation per month of drug exposure, which is faster than previously reported. Routine virological monitoring should be implemented in resource-limited settings to preserve susceptibility to second-line regimens.

23 Article The hepatitis C epidemic among HIV-positive MSM: incidence estimates from 1990 to 2007. 2011

van der Helm, Jannie J / Prins, Maria / del Amo, Julia / Bucher, Heiner C / Chêne, Geneviève / Dorrucci, Maria / Gill, John / Hamouda, Osamah / Sannes, Mette / Porter, Kholoud / Geskus, Ronald B / Anonymous2560693. ·Cluster of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. jvdhelm@ggd.amsterdam.nl ·AIDS · Pubmed #21537114.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HIV-infected MSM have been described since 2000. However, phylogenetic analysis suggests that the spread of HCV started around 1996. We estimated the incidence of HCV in HIV-infected MSM with well estimated dates of HIV seroconversion from 1990 to 2007. METHODS: Data from 12 cohorts within the Concerted Action on SeroConversion to AIDS and Death in Europe (CASCADE) Collaboration were used. HCV incidence was estimated using standard incidence methods and methods for interval-censored data. We accounted for the fact that routine HCV data collection in each cohort started in different calendar years. RESULTS: Of 4724 MSM, 3014 had an HCV test result and were included. Of these, 124 (4%) had only positive HCV test results, 2798 (93%) had only negative results and 92 (3%) had both. In 1990, HCV incidence ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 per 1000 person-years, depending on the analysis strategy used. HCV incidence increased up to 1995 when it was estimated to range between 5.5 and 8.1 per 1000 person-years. From 2002 onwards, it increased substantially to values between 16.8 and 30.0 per 1000 person-years in 2005 and between 23.4 and 51.1 per 1000 person-years in 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data support phylodynamic findings that HCV incidence had already increased among HIV-infected MSM from the mid-1990s. However, the main expansion of the HCV epidemic started after 2002. Incidence estimates obtained from cohort studies may help identify changes in the spread of important infections earlier and should guide routine testing policies to minimize further disease burden.

24 Article Ongoing HIV-1 transmission among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam: a 25-year prospective cohort study. 2011

Jansen, Irálice A V / Geskus, Ronald B / Davidovich, Udi / Jurriaans, Suzanne / Coutinho, Roel A / Prins, Maria / Stolte, Ineke G. ·Public Health Service of Amsterdam, Cluster of Infectious Diseases, Department of Research, The Netherlands. ·AIDS · Pubmed #21192230.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To examine the suggested resurgence of the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), we studied trends in HIV-1 incidence rates, sexual risk behaviour, risk factors for HIV-1 seroconversion, and source of HIV-1 infection among MSM in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies from 1984 to 2009. METHODS: Trends in HIV-1 incidence and risk factors for HIV-1 infection were studied using Poisson regression. Trends in sexual risk behaviour were evaluated using logistic regression, correcting for intra-individual correlation via generalized estimating equations. Trends in the source of HIV-1 infection were modelled via logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 1642 HIV-1-negative individuals, 217 seroconverted during follow-up. HIV-1 incidence rates strongly decreased from 8.6/100 person-years in 1985 to 1.3/100 person-years in 1992; remained relatively stable around 1.0/100 person-years between 1992 and 1996, and slowly increased to 2.0/100 person-years in 2009 (P = 0.14; linear trend 1996-2009). Reports of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) increased significantly from 1996 onwards. HIV-1 seroconversion was associated with receptive UAI with casual partners, more than five sexual partners, a history of gonorrhoea (all in the preceding 6 months), and a lower educational level. Currently, MSM are more likely to have contracted HIV-1 from casual partners than from steady partners, but trends of recent years suggest that steady partners became a growing source with increasing age. CONCLUSIONS: Following increases in sexual risk behaviour from 1996 onwards, HIV-1 continues to spread among MSM. Targeted prevention messages should continue to focus on sexual behaviour with casual partners, but also on sexual behaviour within steady relationships.

25 Article Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Vietnam and Indonesia: diverging care dynamics. 2009

Hardon, Anita Petra / Oosterhoff, Pauline / Imelda, Johanna D / Anh, Nguyen Thu / Hidayana, Irwan. ·Amsterdam School for Social Science Research, Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ahardon@xs4all.nl ·Soc Sci Med · Pubmed #19576671.

ABSTRACT: How do women and frontline health workers engage in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in urban areas of Vietnam and Indonesia, where HIV is highly stigmatized and is associated with injecting drug use and sex work? This qualitative study explores local dynamics of care, using a mix of observations, focus group discussions, and interviews. In Indonesia the study was conducted in a community-based PMTCT program run by an NGO, while in Vietnam the study explored the care dynamics in routine PMTCT services, implemented by district and provincial public health facilities. In both of these PMTCT arrangements (the routine provider initiated approach in Vietnam and a more client-oriented system in Indonesia), pregnant women value the provision of HIV tests in antenatal care (ANC). Concerns are raised, however, by the unhappy few who test positive. These women are unsatisfied with the quality of counselling, and the failure to provide antiretroviral treatments. Acceptability of HIV testing in ANC is high, but the key policy issue from the perspective of pregnant women is whether the PMTCT services can provide good quality counselling and the necessary follow-up care. We find local level providers of PMTCT are pleased with the PMTCT program. In Vietnam, the PMTCT program offers health workers protection against HIV, since they can refer women away from the district health service for delivery. In Indonesia, community cadres are pleased with the financial incentives gained by mobilizing clients for the program. We conclude that achieving the global aims of reducing HIV infections in children by 50% requires a tailoring of globally designed public health programs to context-specific gendered transmission pathways of HIV, as well as local opportunities for follow-up care and social support.

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