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HIV Seropositivity: HELP
Articles from University of Limpopo Turfloop
Based on 8 articles published since 2010
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These are the 8 published articles about HIV Seropositivity that originated from University of Limpopo Turfloop during 2010-2020.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Melanocyte biology and function with reference to oral melanin hyperpigmentation in HIV-seropositive subjects. 2014

Feller, Liviu / Chandran, Rakesh / Kramer, Beverley / Khammissa, Razia A G / Altini, Mario / Lemmer, Johan. ·1 Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, University of Limpopo , Medunsa Campus, South Africa . ·AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · Pubmed #25026474.

ABSTRACT: The color of normal skin and of oral mucosa is not determined by the number of melanocytes in the epithelium but rather by their melanogenic activity. Pigmented biopolymers or melanins are synthesized in melanosomes. Tyrosinase is the critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of both brown/black eumelanin and yellow/red pheomelanin. The number of the melanosomes within the melanocytes, the type of melanin within the melanosomes, and the efficacy of the transfer of melanosomes from the melanocytes to the neighboring keratinocytes all play an important role in tissue pigmentation. Melanin production is regulated by locally produced factors including proopiomelanocortin and its derivative peptides, particularly alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), adrenergic and cholinergic agents, growth factors, cytokines, and nitric oxide. Both eumelanin and pheomelanin can be produced by the same melanocytes, and the proportion of the two melanin types is influenced by the degree of functional activity of the α-MSH/MC1R intracellular pathway. The cause of HIV oral melanosis is not fully understood but may be associated with HIV-induced cytokine dysregulation, with the medications commonly prescribed to HIV-seropositive persons, and with adrenocortical dysfunction, which is not uncommon in HIV-seropositive subjects with AIDS. The purpose of this article is to discuss some aspects of melanocyte biology and HIV-associated oral melanin hyperpigmentation.

2 Review Syphilis in the context of HIV infection. 2011

Feller, L / Chandran, R / Marnewick, J C / Chikte, U M E / Gugushe, T S / Meyerov, R / Lemmer, J. ·Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, School of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus, South Africa. Ifeller@ul.ac.za ·SADJ · Pubmed #23198478.

ABSTRACT: Both HIV infection and syphilis are sexually transmitted diseases, share the same risk factors for acquisition and often occur concurrently. Syphilis may promote HIV acquisition and transmission and HIV infection may alter the course and response of syphilis to treatment. Oral lesions may occur at any symptomatic stage during the course of a syphilitic infection, usually presenting as any one of a number of distinct clinical forms, but not infrequently with a variety of nonspecific clinical features, or clinical features mimicking other disease entities. In South Africa where HIV infection is epidemic, syphilis is prevalent. It is the purpose of this paper to review the interrelationship between syphilis and HIV infection, and the oral manifestations of syphilis.

3 Review HPV-associated oral warts. 2011

Feller, L / Khammissa, R A G / Wood, N H / Marnewick, J C / Meyerov, R / Lemmer, J. ·Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, School of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus, South Africa. Ifeller@ul.ac.za ·SADJ · Pubmed #21608502.

ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts.

4 Review Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) related to highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV-seropositive child. A report of a case, and a review of the literature. 2010

Feller, L / Khammissa, R A G / Wood, N H / Malema, V / Meyerov, R / Lemmer, J. ·Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, School of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus, South Africa. lfeller@ul.ac.za ·SADJ · Pubmed #20632701.

ABSTRACT: Focal epithelial hyperplasia is increasingly frequently observed in rural South African communities. HIV-seropositive subjects have a higher prevalence of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infections than immunocompetent subjects; and paradoxically, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV-seropositive subjects is associated with increased frequency of focal epithelial hyperplasia. We describe a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia in an HIV-seropositive child receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, who was successfully treated by using diode laser ablation.

5 Article Evaluation of the HIV lay counselling and testing profession in South Africa. 2015

Mwisongo, Aziza / Mehlomakhulu, Vuyelwa / Mohlabane, Neo / Peltzer, Karl / Mthembu, Jacque / Van Rooyen, Heidi. ·School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. aziza.mwisongo2@wits.ac.za. · Wits Health Consortium-Clinical HIV Research Unit (CHRU), Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. aziza.mwisongo2@wits.ac.za. · HIV/AIDS, STIs, and TB (HAST) Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. vmehlomakhulu@hsrc.ac.za. · HIV/AIDS, STIs, and TB (HAST) Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. nmohlabane@hsrc.ac.za. · HIV/AIDS, STIs, and TB (HAST) Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. kpeltzer@hsrc.ac.za. · Department of Research & Innovation, University of Limpopo, Turfloop, South Africa. kpeltzer@hsrc.ac.za. · ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Madidol University, Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhonpathom, 73170, Thailand. kpeltzer@hsrc.ac.za. · HIV/AIDS, STIs, and TB (HAST) Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. jmthembu@hsrc.ac.za. · HIV/AIDS, STIs, and TB (HAST) Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. hvanrooyen@hsrc.ac.za. ·BMC Health Serv Res · Pubmed #26197722.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: With the launch of the national HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) campaign in South Africa (SA), lay HIV counsellors, who had been trained in blood withdrawal, have taken up the role of HIV testing. This study evaluated the experiences, training, motivation, support, supervision, and workload of HIV lay counsellors and testers in South Africa. The aim was to identify gaps in their resources, training, supervision, motivation, and workload related to HCT services. In addition it explored their experiences with providing HIV testing under the task shifting context. METHODS: The study was conducted in eight of South Africa's nine provinces. 32 lay counsellors were recruited from 67 HCT sites, and were interviewed using two questionnaires that included structured and semi-structured questions. One questionnaire focused on their role as HIV counsellors and the other on their role as HIV testers. RESULTS: Ninety-seven percent of counsellors reported that they have received training in counselling and testing. Many rated their training as more than adequate or adequate, with 15.6% rating it as not adequate. Respondents reported a lack of standardised counselling and testing training, and revealed gaps in counselling skills for specific groups such as discordant couples, homosexuals, older clients and children. They indicated health system barriers, including inadequate designated space for counselling, which compromises privacy and confidentiality. Lay counsellors carry the burden of counselling and testing nationally, and have other tasks such as administration and auxiliary duties due to staff shortages. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that HCT counselling and testing services in South Africa are mainly performed by lay counsellors and testers. They are challenged by inadequate work space, limited counselling skills for specific groups, a lack of standardised training policies and considerable administrative and auxiliary duties. To improve HCT services, there needs to be training needs with a standardised curriculum and refresher courses, for HIV counselling and testing, specifically for specific elderly clients, discordant couples, homosexuals and children. The Department of Health should formally integrate lay counsellors into the health care system with proper allocation of tasks under the task shifting policy.

6 Article Factors associated with pregnancies among HIV-positive women in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme. 2010

Bah'him, Y M / Oguntibeju, O O / Lewis, H A / Mokoena, K. ·School of Public Health, MEDUNSA, University of Limpopo, Pretoria, South Africa. ·West Indian Med J · Pubmed #21355509.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study identified factors contributing to pregnancies in HIV-positive women who were on a prevention of HIV from mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme in Letlhakeng Subdistrict, Botswana. METHOD: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was employed using an interviewer administered (face-to-face) questionnaire to obtain information from 35 HIV-positive pregnant women registered for a PMTCT programme. Use was made of a non-probability sampling method to obtain information from all the pregnant women who sought antenatal care (ANC) during the survey period. RESULTS: The age of the participants ranged between 18 and 37 years with a modal age of 30 years and a mean of 29.02 years (standard deviation of 5.29). The majority of the participants were single (66%) and had two or more children (74%). About half of the participants (49%) had secondary school education and a high proportion of them knew their HIV-positive status for more than one year prior to the interview day (77%) while the same number of them were unemployed. Pregnant participants seemed to know their HIV status prior to pregnancy. Sharing information about the HIV status of their partners and the participant's financial dependence on their partners did not show any significant association with their pregnancy status. However the partner's desire for parenthood (p < 0.05, 95% CI), the age difference between them and their partners (p < 0.05, 95%CI) and the use of condoms (p < 0.05, 95% CI) indicated significant associations between decision-making and the pregnancies. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy is common among HIV-positive women who are on a PMTCT at Letlhakeng sub-district as was shown by this study and this may constitute a serious health risk to the child and to the population in general.

7 Article The severity, extent and recurrence of necrotizing periodontal disease in relation to HIV status and CD4+ T cell count. 2010

Phiri, Reality / Feller, Liviu / Blignaut, Elaine. ·Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, MEDUNSA Campus, University of Limpopo, South Africa. ·J Int Acad Periodontol · Pubmed #21128527.

ABSTRACT: South Africa ranks among the three countries with the highest prevalence of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, with an estimated 29.5% of women attending antenatal clinics being infected. Necrotizing periodontal disease is a well recognized HIV-associated oral condition. The objective of this investigation was to determine a possible correlation between the extent, severity and treatment outcome of necrotizing periodontal disease in relation to a person's HIV status and CD4+ T cell count. Data from 105 consecutive patients presenting with necrotizing periodontal disease at an academic oral health centre in South Africa were analysed. All patients were provided with an opportunity to undergo voluntary counseling and testing for HIV infection, were treated for necrotizing periodontal disease and followed over a period of nine months. The mean age of the cohort was 28 years old (range 12 - 52). Of 98 (93.3%) patients unaware of their HIV serostatus at the initial visit, 59 (56.2%) consented to testing. In total 45 (42.9%) were HIV-seropositive with a mean CD4+ T cell count of 222.7 cells/microl and 14 (13.3%) were HIV-seronegative, with a significantly higher mean CD4+ T cell count of 830 cells/microl (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.001), while the status of 46 (43.8%) remained unknown. In 101 (96.2%) patients, > or = 5 tooth sites were affected, and in 27 (26%) > or = 4 mm of gingival tissue were affected. This study, which included HIV-seropositive, HIV-seronegative and persons of unknown HIV status, revealed no statistical evidence that HIV infection was associated with the extent, severity or relapse of necrotizing periodontal disease. No statistically significant association could be demonstrated between the extent, severity and recurrence of necrotizing periodontal disease and a CD4+ T cell count < or = 200 cells/microl among HIV-seropositive patients.

8 Minor Discoid lupus erythematosus-related squamous cell carcinoma of the lip in an HIV-seropositive black male. 2015

Molomo, Edward M / Bouckaert, Michael / Khammissa, Razia A G / Motswaledi, Hendrick M / Lemmer, Johan / Feller, Liviu. ·Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus, South Africa. ·J Cancer Res Ther · Pubmed #26881641.

ABSTRACT: Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is an autoimmune disease commonly affecting sun-exposed areas of the skin. Subjects with DLE have high-levels of plasmacytoid dendritic cells -derived interferon-α, which mediates both loss of immune tolerance to self-antigens and exaggerated inflammatory state, and supports proliferation and differentiation of hyperactive B-cells. In a few cases, DLE of the lips, scalp, ears or nose may eventually progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Photosensitivity and the long-standing immune-mediated chronic inflammation and dysregulated healing characterized by atrophy, hypopigmentation or scarring inherent to DLE are risk factors for progression to SCC. We review some aspects of the pathogenesis of DLE and the possible roles of inflammation and photosensitivity in the carcinomatous transformation of DLE keratinocytes, and present an illustrative case of DLE of the lower lip in an HIV-tuberculosis co-infected black person, that progressed to SCC.