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HIV Seropositivity: HELP
Articles from New York City
Based on 280 articles published since 2010

These are the 280 published articles about HIV Seropositivity that originated from New York City during 2010-2020.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12
1 Editorial HIV-1 Epidemic Control - Insights from Test-and-Treat Trials. 2019

Abdool Karim, Salim S. ·From the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Durban, South Africa; and the Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York. ·N Engl J Med · Pubmed #31314975.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Overcoming barriers to providing HIV prevention for HIV serodiscordant couples desiring pregnancy. 2018

Brown, Joelle / Zafer, Maryam. ·Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California. · Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai, New York, New York. ·Fertil Steril · Pubmed #29566857.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Overcoming Impediments to Global Implementation of Early Antiretroviral Therapy. 2015

Abdool Karim, Salim S. ·From the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; and the Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York. ·N Engl J Med · Pubmed #26193047.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Review Molecular Signatures of HIV-1 Envelope Associated with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders. 2018

Evering, Teresa H. ·The Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, 455 First Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY, 10016, USA. tevering@adarc.org. · The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA. tevering@adarc.org. ·Curr HIV/AIDS Rep · Pubmed #29460224.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The HIV-1 envelope gene (env) has been an intense focus of investigation in the search for genetic determinants of viral entry and persistence in the central nervous system (CNS). RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular signatures of CNS-derived HIV-1 env reflect the immune characteristics and cellular constraints of the CNS compartment. Although more readily found in those with advanced HIV-1 and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), molecular signatures distinguishing CNS-derived quasispecies can be identified early in HIV-1 infection, in the presence or absence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and are dynamic. Amino acid signatures of CNS-compartmentalization and HAND have been identified across populations. While some significant overlap exists, none are universal. Detailed analyses of CNS-derived HIV-1 env have allowed researchers to identify a number of molecular determinants associated with neuroadaptation. Future investigations using comprehensive cohorts and longitudinal databases have the greatest potential for the identification of robust, validated signatures of HAND in the cART era.

5 Review HIV infection as vascular risk: A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. 2017

Gutierrez, Jose / Albuquerque, Ana Letícia A / Falzon, Louise. ·Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, United States of America. · School of Medicine, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, AL, Brazil. · Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, United States of America. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #28493892.

ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE: The vascular risk attributable to HIV infection is rising. The heterogeneity of the samples studied is an obstacle to understanding whether HIV is a vascular risk across geographic regions. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that HIV infection is a vascular risk factor, and that the risk conferred by HIV varies by geographical region. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of publications was carried out in seven electronic databases: PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform from inception to July 2015. STUDY SELECTION: We included longitudinal studies of HIV+ individuals and their risk of vascular outcomes of ≥ 50 HIV+ cases and excluded studies on biomarkers of vascular disease as well as clinical trials. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data was extracted by one of the authors and independently confirmed by the other two authors. We used incidence rate (IR), incidence risk ratio (IRR) and hazard ratio (HR) with their 95% confidence intervals as measures of risk. MAIN OUTCOME: All-death, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), any stroke, ischemic stroke (IS) or intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). RESULTS: We screened 11,482 references for eligibility, and selected 117 for analysis. Forty-four cohorts represented 334,417 HIV+ individuals, 49% from the United States. Compared with their European counterparts, HIV+ individuals in the United States had higher IR of death (IRR 1.78, 1.69-1.88), MI (IRR 1.61, 1.29-2.01), CHD (IRR 2.27, 1.92-2.68), any stroke (IRR 1.94, 1.59-2.38), IS (IRR 1.56, 1.23-1.98), and ICH (IRR 4.03, 2.72-6.14). Compared with HIV- controls and independent of geographical region, HIV was a risk for death (HR 4.77, 4.55-5.00), MI (HR 1.60, 1.49-1.72), any CHD (HR 1.20, 1.15-1.25), any stroke (HR 1.82, 1.53-2.16), IS (HR 1.27, 1.15-1.39) and ICH (HR 2.20, 1.61-3.02). Use of antiretroviral therapy was a consistent risk for cardiac outcomes, while immunosuppression and unsuppressed viral load were consistent risks for cerebral outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: HIV should be considered a vascular risk, with varying magnitudes across geographical and anatomical regions. We think that strategies to reduce the HIV-related vascular burden are urgent, and should incorporate the disparities noted here.

6 Review Recent Recommendations for Management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients. 2017

Robbins, Miriam R. ·Department of Dental Medicine, Winthrop University Hospital, 200 Old Country Road, Suite 460, Mineola, NY 11501, USA; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Radiology and Medicine, New York University College of Dentistry, 345 E. 24th Street, New York, NY 10010, USA. Electronic address: mrobbins@winthrop.org. ·Dent Clin North Am · Pubmed #28317571.

ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic condition. HIV is not a valid reason to deny, delay, or withhold dental treatment. There are no absolute contraindications and few complications associated with comprehensive oral health care treatment delivered in an outpatient setting for asymptomatic HIV-infected patients and clinically stable patients with AIDS. Consultation with the patient's medical provider and modifications in the delivery of dental treatment may be necessary when treating patients with advanced HIV disease or other comorbid conditions. Oral health care is an integral and important part of comprehensive health care for all patients with HIV/AIDS.

7 Review Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS, Human Papillomavirus, and Anal Cancer. 2017

Wang, Chia-Ching J / Sparano, Joseph / Palefsky, Joel M. ·Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, 995 Potrero Avenue, Building 80, 4th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA. · Department of Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1695 Eastchester Road, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. · Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Medical Science Room 420E, Box 0654, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address: joel.palefsky@ucsf.edu. ·Surg Oncol Clin N Am · Pubmed #27889034.

ABSTRACT: Anal cancer is an increasingly common non-AIDS-defining cancer among individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in anal cancers. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. HPV vaccines have demonstrated efficacy in reducing anal precancerous lesions in HIV-infected individuals. Standard treatment has been fluorouracil and mitomycin (or cisplatin) plus radiation. Continued studies are needed to test new treatment strategies in HIV-infected patients with anal cancer to determine which treatment protocols provide the best therapeutic index.

8 Review Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among HIV+ men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2017

Jordan, Ashly E / Perlman, David C / Neurer, Joshua / Smith, Daniel J / Des Jarlais, Don C / Hagan, Holly. ·1 New York University, New York, NY, USA. · 2 Center for Drug Use and HIV Research, New York, NY, USA. · 3 Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Beth Israel, New York, NY, USA. ·Int J STD AIDS · Pubmed #26826159.

ABSTRACT: Since 2000, an increase in hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-infected (HIV+) men who have sex with men has been observed. Evidence points to blood exposure during sex as the medium of hepatitis C virus transmission. Hepatitis C virus prevalence among HIV + MSM overall and in relation to injection drug use is poorly characterized. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis examining global hepatitis C virus antibody prevalence and estimating active hepatitis C virus prevalence among HIV + MSM were conducted; 42 reports provided anti-hepatitis C virus prevalence data among HIV + MSM. Pooled prevalence produced an overall anti-hepatitis C virus prevalence among HIV + MSM of 8.1%; active HCV prevalence estimate was 5.3%-7.3%. Anti-hepatitis C virus prevalence among injection drug use and non-injection drug use HIV + MSM was 40.0% and 6.7%, respectively. Among HIV + MSM, hepatitis C virus prevalence increased significantly over time among the overall and non-injection drug use groups, and decreased significantly among injection drug use HIV + MSM. We identified a moderate prevalence of hepatitis C virus among all HIV + MSM and among non-injection drug use HIV + MSM; for both, prevalence was observed to be increasing slightly. Pooled prevalence of hepatitis C virus among HIV + MSM was higher than that observed in the 1945-1965 US birth cohort. The modest but rising hepatitis C virus prevalence among HIV + MSM suggests an opportunity to control HCV among HIV + MSM; this combined with data demonstrating a rising hepatitis C virus incidence highlights the temporal urgency to do so.

9 Review Guidelines for risk reduction when handling gametes from infectious patients seeking assisted reproductive technologies. 2016

Jindal, Sangita K / Rawlins, Richard G / Muller, Charles H / Drobnis, Erma Z. ·Department Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore's Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Health, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. Electronic address: sangita.k.jindal@gmail.com. · Department Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612. · Male Fertility Lab, Department Urology, University of Washington, 4245 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105. · Reproductive Medicine and Fertility, Department Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Missouri, 500 N. Keene St, Suite 203, Columbia, MO 65201. ·Reprod Biomed Online · Pubmed #27235103.

ABSTRACT: According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), couples with blood-borne viruses that lead to infectious disease cannot be denied fertility treatment as long as the direct threat to the health and safety of others can be reduced or eliminated by a modification of policies or procedures. Three types of infectious patients are commonly discussed in the context of fertility treatment: those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C or hepatitis B. Seventy-five per cent of hepatitis C or HIV positive men and women are in their reproductive years, and these couples look to assisted reproductive techniques for risk reduction in conceiving a pregnancy. In many cases, only one partner is infected. Legal and ethical questions about treatment of infectious patients aside, the question most asked by clinical embryologists and andrologists is: "What are the laboratory protocols for working with gametes and embryos from patients with infectious disease?" The serostatus of each patient is the key that informs appropriate treatments. This guidance document describes protocols for handling gametes from seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples with infectious disease. With minor modifications, infectious patients with stable disease status and undetectable or low viral load can be accommodated in the IVF laboratory.

10 Review Health-information needs of HIV-positive adults in Latin America and the Caribbean: an integrative review of the literature. 2016

Stonbraker, Samantha / Larson, Elaine. ·a Columbia University School of Nursing , New York , NY , USA. · b Department of Epidemiology , Mailman School of Public Health , New York , NY , USA. ·AIDS Care · Pubmed #27098484.

ABSTRACT: An assessment of information needs is essential for care planning for patients living with chronic diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The extent to which these assessments have been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is unknown. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to identify, evaluate, and summarize what research has been conducted to examine patient perceptions of their health-information needs among adults living with HIV in LAC. Using an integrative review methodology, a literature search of six databases was conducted in April and May 2015. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed articles published in English or Spanish that assessed the information needs of HIV-positive patients living in LAC. The quality of included articles was assessed and relevant characteristics of each article were extracted, compared, and presented. Searches returned 1885 citations, 11 of which met inclusion criteria. Studies included were conducted in 8 of 33 countries, used multiple research designs, demonstrated varying needs between populations, and found numerous unmet information needs. Information about HIV in general, methods of infection transmission, antiretroviral medications, other sexually transmitted diseases, and effective coping mechanisms were the most commonly mentioned needs. Healthcare providers were the largest and most reliable source of health information for many participants and it was emphasized that in order for health education to be effective, programs should include both individual and group components. Patients indicated that they may have difficulty processing and using information through an incorrect understanding of medications, not changing risk behaviors, and by stating that information can be overwhelming or poorly communicated. Further research on information needs is warranted so that healthcare providers and organizations may provide the information patients need to appropriately manage their health.

11 Review HIV Self-Testing: a Review of Current Implementation and Fidelity. 2016

Estem, Kristecia S / Catania, Joseph / Klausner, Jeffrey D. ·New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Bureau of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control, 42-09 28th Street, WS 21-64, Queens, NY, 11101, USA. · Social and Behavioral Health Sciences, Oregon State University College of Public Health and Human Sciences, 401 Waldo Hall, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA. · Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine and Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, 10920 Wilshire Blvd, Suite #350, Los Angeles, CA, 90024, USA. JDKlausner@mednet.ucla.edu. ·Curr HIV/AIDS Rep · Pubmed #26879653.

ABSTRACT: Oral HIV self-testing is an innovative and potentially high-impact means to increase HIV-case identification globally. As a screening test, oral HIV self-testing offers the potential for increased adoption through greater convenience and privacy, and the potential to increase the proportion of the population who test regularly. Research on how best to translate the innovation of oral self-testing to high-risk populations is underway. Currently only one oral HIV self-test kit is FDA-approved (OraQuick In-Home HIV Test) and available for retail sale. In the present report we review recent studies on the dissemination, adoption, and implementation of oral HIV testing. Prior work has focused primarily on adoption, but recent studies have begun to identify methods for improving dissemination and problems associated with self-implementation. At present a major barrier to wider adoption is the relatively high retail cost of the oral HIV test kit. Significant but minor barriers are represented by overly complex instructional materials for some population segments, and dissemination programs of unknown efficacy. Theoretical and practical suggestions for conducting research on dissemination, adoption, and implementation of oral HIV testing are discussed.

12 Review Moving toward a holistic conceptual framework for understanding healthy aging among gay men. 2015

Halkitis, Perry N / Kapadia, Farzana / Ompad, Danielle C / Perez-Figueroa, Rafael. ·a Center for Health, Identity, Behavior and Prevention Studies , New York University , New York , New York , USA. ·J Homosex · Pubmed #25492304.

ABSTRACT: In the last four decades, we have witnessed vast and important transitions in the social, economic, political, and health contexts of the lived experiences of gay men in the United States. This dynamic period, as evidenced most prominently by the transition of the gay rights movement to a civil rights movement, has shifted the exploration of gay men's health from one focusing primarily on HIV/AIDS into a mainstream consideration of the overall health and wellbeing of gay men. Against this backdrop, aging gay men in the United States constitute a growing population, for whom further investigations of health states and health-related disparities are warranted. In order to advance our understanding of the health and wellbeing of aging gay men, we outline here a multilevel, ecosocial conceptual framework that integrates salient environmental, social, psychosocial, and sociodeomgraphic factors into sets of macro-, meso-, and micro-level constructs that can be applied to comprehensively study health states and health care utilization in older gay men.

13 Review Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of HIV in serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the United States: opportunities and challenges. 2014

McMahon, James M / Myers, Julie E / Kurth, Ann E / Cohen, Stephanie E / Mannheimer, Sharon B / Simmons, Janie / Pouget, Enrique R / Trabold, Nicole / Haberer, Jessica E. ·1 School of Nursing, University of Rochester Medical Center , Rochester, New York. ·AIDS Patient Care STDS · Pubmed #25045996.

ABSTRACT: Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new biomedical prevention approach in which HIV-negative individuals are provided with daily oral antiretroviral medication for the primary prevention of HIV-1. Several clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy of oral PrEP for HIV prevention among groups at high risk for HIV, with adherence closely associated with level of risk reduction. In the United States (US), three groups have been prioritized for initial implementation of PrEP-injection drug users, men who have sex with men at substantial risk for HIV, and HIV-negative partners within serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Numerous demonstration projects involving PrEP implementation among MSM are underway, but relatively little research has been devoted to study PrEP implementation in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. Such couples face a unique set of challenges to PrEP implementation at the individual, couple, and provider level with regard to PrEP uptake and maintenance, adherence, safety and toxicity, clinical monitoring, and sexual risk behavior. Oral PrEP also provides new opportunities for serodiscordant couples and healthcare providers for primary prevention and reproductive health. This article provides a review of the critical issues, challenges, and opportunities involved in the implementation of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US.

14 Review Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: systematic review and meta-analysis. 2014

Benova, Lenka / Mohamoud, Yousra A / Calvert, Clara / Abu-Raddad, Laith J. ·Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medical College-Qatar, Cornell University, Qatar Foundation-Education City, Doha, Qatar Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom. · Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medical College-Qatar, Cornell University, Qatar Foundation-Education City, Doha, Qatar. · Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom. · Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medical College-Qatar, Cornell University, Qatar Foundation-Education City, Doha, Qatar Department of Healthcare Policy and Research, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington. ·Clin Infect Dis · Pubmed #24928290.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review of estimates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) vertical transmission risk to update current estimates published more than a decade ago. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched and 109 articles were included. Pooled estimates of risk were generated for children born to HCV antibody-positive and viremic women, aged ≥18 months, separately by maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of the risk of vertical HCV infection to children of HCV antibody-positive and RNA-positive women was 5.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.2%-7.8%) for children of HIV-negative women and 10.8% (95% CI, 7.6%-15.2%) for children of HIV-positive women. The adjusted meta-regression model explained 51% of the between-study variation in the 25 included risk estimates. Maternal HIV coinfection was the most important determinant of vertical transmission risk (adjusted odds ratio, 2.56 [95% CI, 1.50-4.43]). Additional methodological (follow-up rate and definition of infection in children) and risk factors independently predicted HCV infection and need to be captured and reported by future studies of vertical transmission. Studies assessing the contribution of nonvertical exposures in early childhood to HCV prevalence among children at risk of vertical transmission are needed. CONCLUSIONS: More than 1 in every 20 children delivered by HCV chronically infected women are infected, highlighting that vertical transmission likely constitutes the primary transmission route among children. These updated estimates are a basis for decision making in prioritization of research into risk-reducing measures, and inform case management in clinical settings, especially for HIV-positive women in reproductive age.

15 Review Systematic review of the performance of HIV viral load technologies on plasma samples. 2014

Sollis, Kimberly A / Smit, Pieter W / Fiscus, Susan / Ford, Nathan / Vitoria, Marco / Essajee, Shaffiq / Barnett, David / Cheng, Ben / Crowe, Suzanne M / Denny, Thomas / Landay, Alan / Stevens, Wendy / Habiyambere, Vincent / Perrins, Jos / Peeling, Rosanna W. ·Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom. · Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America. · Department of HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. · HIV, Medicine and Science, Clinton Health Access Initiative, New York, New York, United States of America. · Department of Haematology, United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service (UK NEQAS) for Leucocyte Immunophenotyping, Sheffield, United Kingdom. · Department of Technology and Innovation, Pangaea Global AIDS Foundation, San Fransisco, California, United States of America. · Centre for Biomedical Research, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia. · Department of Medicine, Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America. · Department of Immunology- Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America. · Department of Molecular Medicine and Haematology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #24558359.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Viral load (VL) monitoring is the standard of care in developing country settings for detecting HIV treatment failure. Since 2010 the World Health Organization has recommended a phase-in approach to VL monitoring in resource-limited settings. We conducted a systematic review of the accuracy and precision of HIV VL technologies for treatment monitoring. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A search of Medline and Embase was conducted for studies evaluating the accuracy or reproducibility of commercially available HIV VL assays. 37 studies were included for review including evaluations of the Amplicor Monitor HIV-1 v1.5 (n = 25), Cobas TaqMan v2.0 (n = 11), Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (n = 23), Versant HIV-1 RNA bDNA 3.0 (n = 15), Versant HIV-1 RNA kPCR 1.0 (n = 2), ExaVir Load v3 (n = 2), and NucliSens EasyQ v2.0 (n = 1). All currently available HIV VL assays are of sufficient sensitivity to detect plasma virus levels at a lower detection limit of 1,000 copies/mL. Bias data comparing the Abbott RealTime HIV-1, TaqMan v2.0 to the Amplicor Monitor v1.5 showed a tendency of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 to under-estimate results while the TaqMan v2.0 overestimated VL counts. Compared to the Amplicor Monitor v1.5, 2-26% and 9-70% of results from the Versant bDNA 3.0 and Abbott RealTime HIV-1 differed by greater than 0.5log10. The average intra and inter-assay variation of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 were 2.95% (range 2.0-5.1%) and 5.44% (range 1.17-30.00%) across the range of VL counts (2log10-7log10). CONCLUSIONS: This review found that all currently available HIV VL assays are of sufficient sensitivity to detect plasma VL of 1,000 copies/mL as a threshold to initiate investigations of treatment adherence or possible treatment failure. Sources of variability between VL assays include differences in technology platform, plasma input volume, and ability to detect HIV-1 subtypes. Monitoring of individual patients should be performed on the same technology platform to ensure appropriate interpretation of changes in VL. Prospero registration # CD42013003603.

16 Review Gender disparities in HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in Central Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2013

Des Jarlais, Don C / Boltaev, Azizbek / Feelemyer, Jonathan / Bramson, Heidi / Arasteh, Kamyar / Phillips, Benjamin W / Hagan, Holly. ·The Baron Edmond de Rothschild Chemical Dependency Institute, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York City, USA. Electronic address: ddesjarlais@chpnet.org. ·Drug Alcohol Depend · Pubmed #23891035.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Disparities in HIV infection, with females having higher rates of HIV infection than males, have been noted among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in many countries. We examined male/female HIV disparities among PWID in Central Asia and compared these disparities with patterns worldwide. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted for studies reporting HIV prevalence by gender among PWID. To be included in the analyses, reports had to contain (1) samples of PWID from Central Asia, (2) HIV data based on laboratory testing, (3) HIV prevalence reported for males and females, and (4) samples that were not recruited on the basis of HIV status. RESULTS: Data were abstracted from 11 studies in 5 countries in Central Asia: China, Kazakhstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the total sample size was 12,225. The mean weighted OR for HIV prevalence among females to males was 0.913 (95% CI 0.07, 1.26), with high heterogeneity among studies (I(2)=70.0%) and a possible publication bias among studies with small sample sizes (Eggers test=-1.81, 95% CI -5.18, 0.54). CONCLUSIONS: The non-significant higher HIV prevalence among male PWID in Central Asia contrasts with the worldwide findings which show slightly higher HIV prevalence among female PWID. This may reflect the relative recency of the HIV epidemics in Central Asia. The findings also suggest there may be factors that protect female PWID from HIV in some settings. Further examination of transmission dynamics in Central Asia is necessary to better understand the HIV epidemic among PWID.

17 Review Mycobacterial pseudotumor of the plantar fascia: how common is it? 2013

Sideras, Panagiotis A / Heiba, Sherif / Machac, Josef / Hechtman, Jaclyn / Vatti, Sridhar. ·Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. Panagiotis.sideras@mssm.edu ·Clin Imaging · Pubmed #23768743.

ABSTRACT: Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor (MSCP) is an extremely rare complication of mycobacterial infections. It has been reported to occur in various sites such as skin, lymph nodes, bone marrow, lungs, and spleen. This tumor-like lesion can be confused clinically as well as radiographically with dermatofibroma, nodular fasciitis, xanthogranuloma, and Kaposi's sarcoma. While this lesion is rare and has been previously reported to occur only in superficial skin, we emphasize its consideration and inclusion in the differential diagnoses when a deep soft tissue mass is complicated by symptoms of deep tissue infection secondary to abscess formation in immunocompromised hosts. Here, we present the clinical and radiologic findings of a case of MSCP involving the deep plantar sheaths.

18 Review Characterising the progress in HIV/AIDS research in the Middle East and North Africa. 2013

Saba, Hanan F / Kouyoumjian, Silva P / Mumtaz, Ghina R / Abu-Raddad, Laith J. ·Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medical College - Qatar, Qatar Foundation, , Education city, Doha, Qatar. ·Sex Transm Infect · Pubmed #23596206.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is perceived to have limited HIV data. The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterise the progress in HIV research in this region since the discovery of the epidemic. METHODS: Four indices were defined and implemented to measure the progress of HIV research using the PubMed, Embase, MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project and US Census Bureau HIV/AIDS Surveillance databases. The four indices provide complementary measures to characterise different aspects of the progress of HIV research. RESULTS: A total of 2118, 2352, 683 and 4889 records were identified through the PubMed, the Embase, the Synthesis Project and the HIV Prevalence indices, respectively. The proportion of the total global HIV records that relate to MENA is 1.2%. Overall, the indices show steady progress in the number of new records every year, with an accelerated pace in the last few years. The rate of progress in MENA was also higher than the rate of progress in HIV records globally. There is no evidence so far of stabilisation or a peak in the number of new records year by year. About half of the records were produced after the year 2005. The number of records shows large heterogeneity across countries. CONCLUSIONS: MENA has witnessed a rapid growth in HIV research over the last decade. However, there are still large gaps in HIV scientific evidence in the region, and the progress is far from being uniform across countries. Ongoing and future research needs to be geared towards academic standard and production of scientific publications.

19 Review Reducing HIV and AIDS in adolescents: opportunities and challenges. 2013

Kasedde, Susan / Luo, Chewe / McClure, Craig / Chandan, Upjeet. ·UNICEF, New York, NY 10017, USA. skasedde@unicef.org ·Curr HIV/AIDS Rep · Pubmed #23563990.

ABSTRACT: Adolescents are critical to efforts to end the AIDS epidemic. Few national AIDS strategies explicitly program for children in their second decade of life. Adolescents (aged 10-19 years) are therefore largely invisible in global, regional, and country HIV and AIDS reports making it difficult to assess progress in this population. We have unprecedented knowledge to guide investment towards greater impact on HIV prevention, treatment, and care in adolescents, but it has not been applied to reach those most vulnerable and optimize efficiency and scale. The cost of this is increasing AIDS-related deaths and largely unchanged levels of new HIV infections in adolescents. An AIDS-free generation will remain out of reach if the global community does not prioritize adolescents. National AIDS responses must be accountable to adolescents, invest in strengthening and monitoring protective and supportive laws and policies and access for adolescents to high impact HIV interventions.

20 Review Caregiver's HIV disclosure to children 12 years and under: a review and analysis of the evidence. 2013

Krauss, Beatrice J / Letteney, Susan / De Baets, Anniek J / Baggaley, Rachel / Okero, F Amolo. ·School of Public Health at Hunter College, Center for Community and Urban Health, The City University of New York, New York, NY, USA. bkrauss@hunter.cuny.edu ·AIDS Care · Pubmed #22880755.

ABSTRACT: A systematic review and analysis of the empirical evidence through June 2010 on HIV disclosure to children 12 and under was conducted using methods validated by the Cochrane group. Fifteen articles focusing on caregiver disclosure (255 total) were analyzed using GradePro 3 software. Results suggest that there is evidence of health and future care planning benefit for HIV+ and healthy children (12 and under) of HIV+ caregivers if the caregiver discloses his/her HIV status to them. Children of the maturity of school age youth (e.g., beginning at 6 years and continuing through 12) can be told of their caregivers' HIV status, while younger children may be informed partially in an age-appropriate manner.

21 Review Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis: report of a case series and comprehensive review of the literature. 2012

Eandi, Chiara M / Neri, Piergiorgio / Adelman, Ron A / Yannuzzi, Lawrence A / Cunningham, Emmett T / Anonymous2690733. ·The LuEsther T. Mertz Retina Research Center of Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, New York, New York, USA. ·Retina · Pubmed #22863970.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and angiographic features of a series of patients with acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis (ASPPC) in the context of previously published cases. METHODS: A retrospective, noncomparative, multicenter chart review was performed on 16 patients with active ASPPC. Positive serologic tests supported the diagnosis in all patients. Color and red-free photographs as well as fluorescein angiography were obtained in each case. Indocyanine green angiography, optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence were performed on selected patients. A total of 44 previously published cases of ASPPC were identified using both a Medline Search and references listed in articles identified. RESULTS: Ocular involvement was bilateral in 9 of our 16 patients (56.3%). The mean and median ages at presentation were 40 and 38 years, respectively (range 28-57 years). Nine patients (56.3%) were human immunodeficiency virus positive, with most recent CD4 cell counts ranging from 160 cells/μL to 450 cells/μL and a median CD4 cell count of 250 cells/μL. Seven of 16 patients (43.8%) had a history of mucocutaneous manifestations of secondary syphilis, whereas 4 (25.0%) had evidence of neurosyphilis. Anterior chamber and/or vitreous inflammation was evident in 13 patients (81.3%). Fifteen of 16 patients had positive venereal disease research laboratory or rapid plasma regain titers, and 13 of 13 tested patients had a positive serum fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption. The initial vision in the 25 affected eyes ranged from 20/20 to counting fingers, with a median of 20/80. In all patients, posterior segment examination in the involved eyes revealed a large, yellowish, placoid, outer retinal lesion. Fluorescein angiography showed progressive hyperfluorescence in the area of the lesion, often with scattered focal hypofluorescence, or leopard spotting. Inflammation subsided, the yellowish lesions resolved, and vision improved shortly after antibiotic therapy in 20 of 25 affected eyes. Visual acuity at last visit ranged from 20/20 to 20/150, with a median final vision of 20/25. A review of the literature revealed 44 previously reported cases of ASPPC. Shared demographic, clinical, and angiographic features were summarized. CONCLUSION: Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis is an uncommon but clinically and angiographically distinct manifestation of ocular syphilis. All patients with characteristic clinical and angiographic findings of ASPPC should be tested for both neurosyphilis and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Vision recovery typically followed completion of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

22 Review Transmitted drug resistance among antiretroviral-naive patients with established HIV type 1 infection in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic and review of the Latin American and Caribbean literature. 2012

Myers, Julie E / Taylor, Barbara S / Rojas Fermín, Rita A / Reyes, Emily Virginia / Vaughan, Catherine / José, Lina / Javier, Carmen / Franco Estévez, Ramona / Donastorg Cabral, Yeycy / Batista, Arelis / Lie, Yolanda / Coakley, Eoin / Hammer, Scott M / Brudney, Karen. ·Division of Infectious Diseases, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA. jem2200@columbia.edu ·AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · Pubmed #21851324.

ABSTRACT: Emergence of HIV resistance is a concerning consequence of global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To date, there is no published information about HIV resistance from the Dominican Republic. The study's aim was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors in a sample of chronically HIV-1-infected patients in one clinic in Santo Domingo. The data are presented in the context of a review of the TDR literature from Latin America and the Caribbean. Genotype testing was successfully performed on 103 treatment-naive adults planning to initiate antiretroviral therapy; the World Health Organization (WHO) list of surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRM) was used to determine the presence of TDR mutations. WHO SDRM were identified in eight patients (7.8%); none had received sdNVP. There were no significant differences in epidemiologic or clinical variables between those with or without WHO SDRM. The prevalence of WHO SDRM was 1.0% and 6.8% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, respectively. No WHO SDRMs for protease inhibitors were identified. Among 12 studies of TDR in the region with a sample size of at least 100 subjects, the reported prevalence of SDRM ranged from 2.8% to 8.1%. The most commonly identified SDRM was K103N. This information adds to our understanding of the epidemiology of TDR in the region and the possible role such mutations could play in undermining first-line treatment. Ongoing surveillance is clearly needed to better understand the TDR phenomenon in the Caribbean.

23 Review Management of prostate cancer in HIV-positive patients. 2010

Wosnitzer, Matthew S / Lowe, Franklin C. ·Department of Urology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA. ·Nat Rev Urol · Pubmed #20421876.

ABSTRACT: Improved medical therapy for HIV-positive patients has helped delay the progression of HIV to AIDS and reduce AIDS deaths. This dramatically prolonged survival has resulted in increased detection of non-AIDS-defining malignancies, such as prostate cancer, in people with HIV. Reported prostate cancer incidences in HIV-positive men compared with the general population vary in different studies; however, its incidence in the general population has generally increased over time, owing to the widespread use of PSA testing and increased life expectancy. In the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, evidence indicates that PSA kinetics and prostate cancer behavior are similar in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Current American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines recommend screening of all men aged >or=40 years with a life expectancy >10 years, and HIV-positive patients should be included in this recommendation. Treatment options for HIV-positive patients with prostate cancer should include all those offered to the general population. Long-term treatment outcomes in HIV-positive patients remain uncertain; however, early results suggest response rates similar to those in HIV-negative patients.

24 Clinical Trial Safety and antiviral activity of combination HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies in viremic individuals. 2018

Bar-On, Yotam / Gruell, Henning / Schoofs, Till / Pai, Joy A / Nogueira, Lilian / Butler, Allison L / Millard, Katrina / Lehmann, Clara / Suárez, Isabelle / Oliveira, Thiago Y / Karagounis, Theodora / Cohen, Yehuda Z / Wyen, Christoph / Scholten, Stefan / Handl, Lisa / Belblidia, Shiraz / Dizon, Juan P / Vehreschild, Jörg J / Witmer-Pack, Maggi / Shimeliovich, Irina / Jain, Kanika / Fiddike, Kerstin / Seaton, Kelly E / Yates, Nicole L / Horowitz, Jill / Gulick, Roy M / Pfeifer, Nico / Tomaras, Georgia D / Seaman, Michael S / Fätkenheuer, Gerd / Caskey, Marina / Klein, Florian / Nussenzweig, Michel C. ·Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA. · Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Institute of Virology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany. · Department I of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany. · German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Bonn-Cologne, Cologne, Germany. · Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC), University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. · Praxis am Ebertplatz, Cologne, Germany. · Praxis Hohenstaufenring, Cologne, Germany. · Methods in Medical Informatics, Department of Computer Science, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. · Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. · Division of Infectious Diseases, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA. · Medical Faculty, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. · German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. · Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Saarbrücken, Germany. · Departments of Surgery, Immunology and Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. · Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA. mcaskey@rockefeller.edu. · Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Institute of Virology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany. florian.klein@uk-koeln.de. · German Center for Infection Research, Partner Site Bonn-Cologne, Cologne, Germany. florian.klein@uk-koeln.de. · Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC), University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. florian.klein@uk-koeln.de. · Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA. nussen@rockefeller.edu. · Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA. nussen@rockefeller.edu. ·Nat Med · Pubmed #30258217.

ABSTRACT: Monotherapy of HIV-1 infection with single antiretroviral agents is ineffective because error-prone HIV-1 replication leads to the production of drug-resistant viral variants

25 Clinical Trial Phase 2 Placebo-Controlled Trial of Two Vaccines to Prevent Ebola in Liberia. 2017

Kennedy, Stephen B / Bolay, Fatorma / Kieh, Mark / Grandits, Greg / Badio, Moses / Ballou, Ripley / Eckes, Risa / Feinberg, Mark / Follmann, Dean / Grund, Birgit / Gupta, Swati / Hensley, Lisa / Higgs, Elizabeth / Janosko, Krisztina / Johnson, Melvin / Kateh, Francis / Logue, James / Marchand, Jonathan / Monath, Thomas / Nason, Martha / Nyenswah, Tolbert / Roman, François / Stavale, Eric / Wolfson, Julian / Neaton, James D / Lane, H Clifford / Anonymous780923. ·From the Liberian Ministry of Health, Monrovia, Liberia (S.B.K., F.B., M.K., M.B., M.J., F.K., T.N.) · the University of Minnesota, Division of Biostatistics, Minneapolis (G.G., B.G., J.W., J.D.N.) · GlaxoSmithKline, Rockville (R.B.), and National Institutes of Health (R.E., D.F., L.H., E.H., M.N., H.C.L.) and AbViro (E.S.), Bethesda - all in Maryland · Merck, Kenilworth, NJ (M.F., S.G.) · Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (K.J., J.L., J.M., E.S.) · International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, New York (M.F., S.G., T.M.) · and GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R.). ·N Engl J Med · Pubmed #29020589.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of vaccines to prevent Ebola virus disease (EVD) were unknown when the incidence of EVD was peaking in Liberia. METHODS: We initiated a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of the chimpanzee adenovirus 3 vaccine (ChAd3-EBO-Z) and the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP) in Liberia. A phase 2 subtrial was embedded to evaluate safety and immunogenicity. Because the incidence of EVD declined in Liberia, the phase 2 component was expanded and the phase 3 component was eliminated. RESULTS: A total of 1500 adults underwent randomization and were followed for 12 months. The median age of the participants was 30 years; 36.6% of the participants were women. During the week after the administration of vaccine or placebo, adverse events occurred significantly more often with the active vaccines than with placebo; these events included injection-site reactions (in 28.5% of the patients in the ChAd3-EBO-Z group and 30.9% of those in the rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP group, as compared with 6.8% of those in the placebo group), headache (in 25.1% and 31.9%, vs. 16.9%), muscle pain (in 22.3% and 26.9%, vs. 13.3%), feverishness (in 23.9% and 30.5%, vs. 9.0%), and fatigue (in 14.0% and 15.4%, vs. 8.8%) (P<0.001 for all comparisons); these differences were not seen at 1 month. Serious adverse events within 12 months after injection were seen in 40 participants (8.0%) in the ChAd3-EBO-Z group, in 47 (9.4%) in the rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP group, and in 59 (11.8%) in the placebo group. By 1 month, an antibody response developed in 70.8% of the participants in the ChAd3-EBO-Z group and in 83.7% of those in the rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP group, as compared with 2.8% of those in the placebo group (P<0.001 for both comparisons). At 12 months, antibody responses in participants in the ChAd3-EBO-Z group (63.5%) and in those in the rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP group (79.5%) remained significantly greater than in those in the placebo group (6.8%, P<0.001 for both comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: A randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial of two vaccines that was rapidly initiated and completed in Liberia showed the capability of conducting rigorous research during an outbreak. By 1 month after vaccination, the vaccines had elicited immune responses that were largely maintained through 12 months. (Funded by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Liberian Ministry of Health; PREVAIL I ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02344407 .).