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HTLV-I Infections HELP
Based on 1,166 articles published since 2010
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These are the 1166 published articles about HTLV-I Infections that originated from Worldwide during 2010-2020.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Editorial Surveys, Serologies, and Sequences Reveal History of Iatrogenic Transmission of HIV-1. 2016

Frost, Simon D W / Kwofie, Samuel K. ·Department of Veterinary Medicine Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. · Department of Veterinary Medicine Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Ghana, Legon. ·J Infect Dis · Pubmed #26768255.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Editorial Commentary: Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis. 2015

Taylor, Graham P. ·Department of Medicine, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom. ·Clin Infect Dis · Pubmed #25820278.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 prevalence in the United States. 2014

Cook, Lucy B M / Taylor, Graham P. ·National Centre for Human Retrovirology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom. ·J Infect Dis · Pubmed #24154735.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Editorial commentary: lessons on transplant-acquired human T-cell lymphotropic virus infection. 2013

Taylor, Graham P. ·Section of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom. ·Clin Infect Dis · Pubmed #23956172.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Therapeutic benefits of an oral vitamin B1 derivative for human T lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). 2013

Kira, Jun-Ichi. ·Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. kira@neuro.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp. ·BMC Med · Pubmed #23945332.

ABSTRACT: Prosultiamine, a vitamin B1 derivative, has long been used for beriberi neuropathy and Wernicke's encephalopathy. Based on the finding that prosultiamine induces apoptosis in human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected T cells, Nakamura et al. conducted a clinical trial of prosultiamine in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). In this open-label, single arm study enrolling 24 HAM/TSP patients recently published in BMC Medicine, oral prosultiamine (300 mg/day for 12 weeks) was found to be effective by neurological, urological and virological evaluations. Notably, it increased detrusor pressure, bladder capacity and maximum flow rate, and improved detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. A significant decrease in HTLV-I copy numbers in peripheral blood following the treatment provided a rationale for using the drug. The trial has some limitations, such as the small numbers of participants, the open-label design, the lack of a placebo arm, and the short trial period. Nevertheless, the observation that such a safe, cheap drug may have excellent therapeutic effects on HAM/TSP, a chronic devastating illness occurring mainly in developing countries, provides support for future large-scale randomized controlled trials.Please see related research: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/182.

6 Editorial HTLV-1 in solid-organ transplantation: current challenges and future management strategies. 2012

Armstrong, Matthew J / Corbett, Christopher / Rowe, Ian A / Taylor, Graham P / Neuberger, James M. · ·Transplantation · Pubmed #23060278.

ABSTRACT: Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-1 has been reported after solid-organ transplantation, with a related fatal outcome in less than five cases. The natural history of HTLV-1 transmission from donor to recipient is unknown in this setting, because available screening platforms are suboptimal in low-prevalence areas and there is a lack of long-term follow-up. Minimizing organ wastage due to false-positive screening and avoiding donor-derived HTLV-associated diseases remain the goal. To date, only six HTLV-naive organ recipients from four donors (only one had confirmed HTLV) have developed HTLV-associated disease after transplantation. All of these cases were described in countries or from donors from HTLV-endemic regions. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reported cases of donor-derived HTLV-1-associated death after organ transplantation in the world. Based on data from low-prevalence countries (Europe and the United States) and the current shortage of donor organs, it appears plausible to authorize the decision to transplant an organ without the prior knowledge of the donor's HTLV-1 status. Currently, it is not possible to exclude such transmission and recipients should be informed of the possible inadvertent transmission of this (and other) infections at the time of consent. In those cases where HTLV-1 transmission does occur, there may be a therapeutic window in which use of antiviral agents (i.e., zidovudine and raltegravir) may be of benefit. The development of national/international registries should allow a greater understanding of the extent and consequences of transmission risk and so allow a more evidence-based approach to management.

7 Editorial Brain white matter lesions in HAM/TSP: do they have any special meaning? 2012

Moreno-Carvalho, Otávio Augusto. · ·Arq Neuropsiquiatr · Pubmed #22510732.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Editorial The NK cell as a new player in the pathogenesis of HTLV-I associated neurologic disease. 2010

Jacobson, Steven. · ·Virulence · Pubmed #21178408.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Editorial Donor screening for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus 1/2: the future is uncertain. 2010

Humar, A. · ·Am J Transplant · Pubmed #20415902.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Review HTLV-1 Associated Neurological Complex. What is Hidden below the Water? 2019

Araujo, Abelardo Q C / Wedemann, Diego. ·Laboratory for Clinical Research in Neuroinfections, Evandro Chagas' National Institute of Infectious Diseases (INI-FIOCRUZ), Brazilian Ministry of Health, Brazil. · Institute of Neurology (INDC), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ·AIDS Rev · Pubmed #31834313.

ABSTRACT: The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects 5-10 million people worldwide and causes fatal and disabling diseases in a significant proportion of them. A chronic myelitis named HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is the typical neurological manifestation of HTLV-1. However, other neurological syndromes can be either associated with HAM/TSP or occur in isolation in the HTLV-1 infected individual. Although this fact has been widely described over the years, it has been somewhat neglected by the mainstream literature, which has been largely focused on HAM/TSP. Cognitive dysfunction, encephalopathy, neurogenic bladder, motor neuron disease, inflammatory myopathies, polyneuropathy, and dysautonomia can also occur in the HTLV-1 infected patient and may remain unnoticed to the unsuspecting physician. In the present review, we intend to draw attention, primarily to the infectious disease specialist and to the general practitioner, to the fact that HTLV-1 has a broader neurological spectrum than the designation HAM/TSP suggests and that infected individuals may harbor other neurological syndromes in addition to HAM/TSP.

11 Review Silencers of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2: the pX-encoded latency-maintenance factors. 2019

Harrod, Robert. ·Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design & Delivery, Southern Methodist University, 6501 Airline Drive, 334-DLS, Dallas, TX, 75275-0376, USA. rharrod@smu.edu. ·Retrovirology · Pubmed #31492165.

ABSTRACT: Of the members of the primate T cell lymphotropic virus (PTLV) family, only the human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) causes disease in humans-as the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and other auto-inflammatory disorders. Despite having significant genomic organizational and structural similarities, the closely related human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-2 (HTLV-2) is considered apathogenic and has been linked with benign lymphoproliferation and mild neurological symptoms in certain infected patients. The silencing of proviral gene expression and maintenance of latency are central for the establishment of persistent infections in vivo. The conserved pX sequences of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 encode several ancillary factors which have been shown to negatively regulate proviral gene expression, while simultaneously activating host cellular proliferative and pro-survival pathways. In particular, the ORF-II proteins, HTLV-1 p30

12 Review Impact of host immunity on HTLV-1 pathogenesis: potential of Tax-targeted immunotherapy against ATL. 2019

Kannagi, Mari / Hasegawa, Atsuhiko / Nagano, Yoshiko / Kimpara, Shuichi / Suehiro, Youko. ·Department of Immunotherapeutics, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519, Japan. kann.impt@tmd.ac.jp. · Department of Immunotherapeutics, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519, Japan. · Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan. · Department of Hematology, National Kyushu Cancer Center, Fukuoka, Japan. ·Retrovirology · Pubmed #31438973.

ABSTRACT: Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and other inflammatory diseases. There is no disease-specific difference in viral strains, and it is unclear how HTLV-1 causes such different diseases manifesting as lymphoproliferation or inflammation. Although some progress has been made in therapies for these diseases, the prognosis for ATL is still dismal and HAM/TSP remains an intractable disease. So far, two regulatory proteins of HTLV-1, Tax and HBZ, have been well studied and shown to have pleiotropic functions implicated in viral pathogenesis. Tax in particular can strongly activate NFκB, which is constitutively activated in HTLV-1-infected cells and considered to contribute to both oncogenesis and inflammation. However, the expression level of Tax is very low in vivo, leading to confusion in understanding its role in viral pathogenesis. A series of studies using IL-2-dependent HTLV-1-infected cells indicated that IL-10, an anti-inflammatory/immune suppressive cytokine, could induce a proliferative phenotype in HTLV-1-infected cells. In addition, type I interferon (IFN) suppresses HTLV-1 expression in a reversible manner. These findings suggest involvement of host innate immunity in the switch between lymphoproliferative and inflammatory diseases as well as the regulation of HTLV-1 expression. Innate immune responses also affect another important host determinant, Tax-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which are impaired in ATL patients, while activated in HAM/TSP patients. Activation of Tax-specific CTLs in ATL patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation indicates Tax expression and its fluctuation in vivo. A recently developed anti-ATL therapeutic vaccine, consisting of Tax peptide-pulsed dendritic cells, induced Tax-specific CTL responses in ATL patients and exhibited favorable clinical outcomes, unless Tax-defective ATL clones emerged. These findings support the significance of Tax in HTLV-1 pathogenesis, at least in part, and encourage Tax-targeted immunotherapy in ATL. Host innate and acquired immune responses induce host microenvironments that modify HTLV-1-encoded pathogenesis and establish a complicated network for development of diseases in HTLV-1 infection. Both host and viral factors should be taken into consideration in development of therapeutic and prophylactic strategies in HTLV-1 infection.

13 Review Comparative virology of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. 2019

Martinez, Michael P / Al-Saleem, Jacob / Green, Patrick L. ·Center for Retrovirus Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. · Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. · Center for Retrovirus Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. green.466@osu.edu. · Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. green.466@osu.edu. · Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. green.466@osu.edu. ·Retrovirology · Pubmed #31391116.

ABSTRACT: Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first discovered human retrovirus and the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Shortly after the discovery of HTLV-1, human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 (HTLV-2) was isolated from a patient with hairy cell leukemia. Despite possession of similar structural features to HTLV-1, HTLV-2 has not been definitively associated with lymphoproliferative disease. Since their discovery, studies have been performed with the goal of highlighting the differences between HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. A better understanding of these differences will shed light on the specific pathogenic mechanisms of HTLV-1 and lead to novel therapeutic targets. This review will compare and contrast the two oldest human retroviruses with regards to epidemiology, genomic structure, gene products, and pathobiology.

14 Review Maintenance of long remission in adult T-cell leukemia by Tax-targeted vaccine: A hope for disease-preventive therapy. 2019

Kannagi, Mari / Hasegawa, Atsuhiko / Nagano, Yoshiko / Iino, Tadafumi / Okamura, Jun / Suehiro, Youko. ·Department of Immunotherapeutics, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan. · Center for Advanced Medicine Innovation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. · Institute for Clinical Research, National Kyushu Cancer Center, Fukuoka, Japan. · Department of Hematology, National Kyushu Cancer Center, Fukuoka, Japan. ·Cancer Sci · Pubmed #30666755.

ABSTRACT: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive lymphoproliferative disease caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Multi-agent chemotherapy can reduce ATL cells but frequently allows relapses within a short period of time. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) following chemotherapy is now a standard therapy for ATL in Japan as it can achieve long-term remission in approximately one-third of recipient ATL patients; however, it also has a risk of treatment-related mortality. Allo-HSCT often induces HTLV-1 Tax-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) as well as graft-versus-host (GVH) response in ATL patients. This observation led to development of a new therapeutic vaccine to activate Tax-specific CTL, anticipating anti-ATL effects without GVH response. The newly developed Tax-DC vaccine consists of autologous dendritic cells pulsed with Tax peptides corresponding to CTL epitopes that have been identified in post-allo-HSCT ATL patients. In a pilot study of Tax-DC therapy in three ATL patients after various initial therapies, two patients survived for more than 4 years after vaccination without severe adverse effects (UMIN000011423). The Tax-DC vaccine is currently under phase I trial, showing a promising clinical outcome so far. These findings indicate the importance of patients' own HTLV-1-specific T-cell responses in maintaining remission and provide a new approach to anti-ATL immunotherapy targeting Tax. Although Tax-targeted vaccination is ineffective against Tax-negative ATL cells, it can be a safe alternative maintenance therapy for Tax-positive ATL and may be further applicable for treatment of indolent ATL or even prophylaxis of ATL development among HTLV-1-carriers.

15 Review Molecular targeting for treatment of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection. 2019

Soltani, Arash / Hashemy, Seyed Isaac / Zahedi Avval, Farnaz / Soleimani, Anvar / Rafatpanah, Houshang / Rezaee, Seyed Abdorahim / Griffith, Renate / Mashkani, Baratali. ·Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Student Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. · Surgical Oncology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. · Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. · Immunology Research Center, Division of Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. · School of Medical Sciences/Pharmacology, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia. Electronic address: r.griffith@unsw.edu.au. · Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Surgical Oncology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address: mashkaniba@mums.ac.ir. ·Biomed Pharmacother · Pubmed #30551530.

ABSTRACT: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is linked to adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and several other disorders. ATLL occurs in approximately 5% of the 15-20 million people infected by HTLV-1 in the world. In general, ATLL is resistant to chemotherapy, which underlines the need for new and effective therapeutic strategies. Previous studies highlighted the role of viral enzymes, responsible for viral replication, and regulatory proteins such as Tax and HBZ in the progression of HTLV-1-associated diseases. There are conflicting reports on the efficacy of current enzyme inhibitors, mainly developed against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), for treatment of HTLV-1 infection. New treatment approaches including monoclonal antibodies show promising results and exert significant cytotoxic effects on ATLL cells. This manuscript reviews the recent developments in molecular targeting for treatment of HTLV-1 infection.

16 Review Infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 infection in a girl from Trinidad: Case report and review of literature. 2019

Weiler, Nicole / Mayer, Erick F / Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia / Bamgbola, Oluwatoyin F / Banniettis, Natalie / Heilman, Edward / Glick, Sharon A. ·Department of Dermatology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA. · Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA. · Department of Pediatric Nephrology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA. ·Pediatr Dermatol · Pubmed #30338553.

ABSTRACT: Infective dermatitis (ID) associated with Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a rare form of severe superinfected eczema seen mostly in the Caribbean islands and Latin America. Although rapid response to antibiotic treatment is observed, patients should be monitored for development of complications associated with this retroviral infection, including T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Infective dermatitis is rarely seen in the United States and therefore may be under-recognized by physicians unfamiliar with this condition. Herein, we present an additional case report of an ID associated with HTLV-1 in an 11-year-old girl from Trinidad.

17 Review Cytokine Networks Dysregulation during HTLV-1 Infection and Associated Diseases. 2018

Futsch, Nicolas / Prates, Gabriela / Mahieux, Renaud / Casseb, Jorge / Dutartre, Hélène. ·Équipe Oncogenèse Rétrovirale, Equipe Labellisée «FRM», CIRI-Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Inserm U1111, CNRS UMR5308, Labex Ecofect, ENS Lyon, F-69007 Lyon, France. nicolas.futsch@ens-lyon.fr. · Institute of Tropical Medicine of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05403-000, Brazil. gabrielaprates12@hotmail.com. · Laboratory of Dermatology and Immunodeficiencies, Department of Dermatology, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, SP 01246-100, Brazil. gabrielaprates12@hotmail.com. · Équipe Oncogenèse Rétrovirale, Equipe Labellisée «FRM», CIRI-Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Inserm U1111, CNRS UMR5308, Labex Ecofect, ENS Lyon, F-69007 Lyon, France. renaud.mahieux@ens-lyon.fr. · Institute of Tropical Medicine of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05403-000, Brazil. jcasseb10@gmail.com. · Laboratory of Dermatology and Immunodeficiencies, Department of Dermatology, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, SP 01246-100, Brazil. jcasseb10@gmail.com. · Équipe Oncogenèse Rétrovirale, Equipe Labellisée «FRM», CIRI-Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Inserm U1111, CNRS UMR5308, Labex Ecofect, ENS Lyon, F-69007 Lyon, France. helene.dutartre@ens-lyon.fr. ·Viruses · Pubmed #30563084.

ABSTRACT: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of a neural chronic inflammation, called HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and of a malignant lymphoproliferation, called the adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). The mechanisms through which the HTLV-1 induces these diseases are still unclear, but they might rely on immune alterations. HAM/TSP is associated with an impaired production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, CXCL9, or CXCL10. ATLL is associated with high levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. These immunosuppressive cytokines could promote a protumoral micro-environment. Moreover, HTLV-1 infection impairs the IFN-I production and signaling, and favors the IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 expression. This contributes both to immune escape and to infected cells proliferation. Here, we review the landscape of cytokine dysregulations induced by HTLV-1 infection and the role of these cytokines in the HTLV-1-associated diseases progression.

18 Review HTLV-1, ATLL, severe hypercalcaemia and HIV-1 co-infection: an overview. 2018

Laher, Abdullah Ebrahim / Ebrahim, Osman. ·Department of Emergency Medicine and Department of Critical Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 5 Jubilee Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa. · Department of Internal Medicine and HIV clinic, Life Brenthurst Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa. ·Pan Afr Med J · Pubmed #30344845.

ABSTRACT: HIV and HTLV (Human T-ymphotropic Virus) are the only known retroviruses responsible for causing infection in humans. HTLV-1 and HIV-1 are frequent co-pathogens, however, despite its potential for accelerated progression of HIV disease and the risk of developing adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATLL), HTLV-1 is seldom considered for investigation in the HIV-1 positive individual. Severe/refractory hypercalcaemia, unresponsive to conventional calcium lowering therapy may complicate up to 70% of cases of ATLL. In addition, HTLV-1 and ATLL have both been associated with a rise in dysfunctional CD4 lymphocytes, thereby conveying a false sense of immune competence in the HIV-1 infected individual.

19 Review HTLV-1: A real pathogen or a runaway guest of a diseased cell? 2018

Kanzaki, L I B. ·Laboratory of Bioprospection, Department of Pharmacy, University of Brasilia, Brası´lia, DF CEP 70.910-900, Brazil, kanzaki@unb.br. ·J Biosci · Pubmed #30207322.

ABSTRACT: The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus claimed to be aetiologically linked to the adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) besides other minor pathologies. HTLV-1 infection is worldwide distributed, despite its heterogeneous prevalence. Environmental factors and host-genetic background are very likely to determine the epidemiological profile of HTLV-1 prevalence and related disease confinement in distinct human ethnic populations and geographical coordinates, which raises the question if the virus is a real pathogen or a runaway well-organized packed genome of a burden host cell near death process. New methodological approaches need to be proposed and applied in order to prove or discard the hypotheses emerged in the present review.

20 Review NF-κB signaling mechanisms in HTLV-1-induced adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. 2018

Harhaj, Edward William / Giam, Chou-Zen. ·Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD, USA. ·FEBS J · Pubmed #29722927.

ABSTRACT: The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex deltaretrovirus linked to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a fatal CD4 +  malignancy in 3-5% of infected individuals. The HTLV-1 Tax regulatory protein plays indispensable roles in regulating viral gene expression and activating cellular signaling pathways that drive the proliferation and clonal expansion of T cells bearing HTLV-1 proviral integrations. Tax is a potent activator of NF-κB, a key signaling pathway that is essential for the survival and proliferation of HTLV-1-infected T cells. However, constitutive NF-κB activation by Tax also triggers a senescence response, suggesting the possibility that only T cells capable of overcoming NF-κB-induced senescence can selectively undergo clonal expansion after HTLV-1 infection. Tax expression is often silenced in the majority of ATLL due to genetic alterations in the tax gene or DNA hypermethylation of the 5'-LTR. Despite the loss of Tax, NF-κB activation remains persistently activated in ATLL due to somatic mutations in genes in the T/B-cell receptor (T/BCR) and NF-κB signaling pathways. In this review, we focus on the key events driving Tax-dependent and -independent mechanisms of NF-κB activation during the multistep process leading to ATLL.

21 Review Human T-lymphotrophic virus-a neglected cause of chronic pain? 2018

Kemp, Harriet I / Rice, Andrew S C / Adonis, Adine / Davies, Nicholas W S / Taylor, Graham P. ·Pain Research Group, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. · Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom. · Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom. · Section of Virology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. ·Pain · Pubmed #29554019.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

22 Review Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-associated encephalopathy: an under-recognised cause of acute encephalitis? Case series and literature review. 2018

Crawshaw, Ania A / Dhasmana, Divya / Jones, Brynmor / Gabriel, Carolyn M / Sturman, Steve / Davies, Nicholas W S / Taylor, Graham P. ·National Centre for Human Retrovirology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, UK. Ania.crawshaw@nhs.net. · National Centre for Human Retrovirology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, UK. · Department of Neuroradiology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, UK. · Department of Neurology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, UK. · Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Trust, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TH, UK. · Department of Neurology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Trust, 369 Fulham Rd, Chelsea, London, SW10 9NH, UK. ·J Neurol · Pubmed #29423617.

ABSTRACT: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) is well described. Clinical features are predominantly consistent with cord pathology, though imaging and autopsy studies also demonstrate brain inflammation. In general, this is subclinical; however, six cases have previously been reported of encephalopathy in HTLV-1-infected patients, without alternative identified aetiology. We describe three further cases of encephalitis in the UK HAM cohort (n = 142), whereas the annual incidence of acute encephalitis in the general population is 0.07-12.6 per 100,000. Clinical features included reduced consciousness, fever/hypothermia, headaches, seizures, and focal neurology. Investigation showed: raised CSF protein; pleocytosis; raised CSF:peripheral blood mononuclear cell HTLV-1 proviral load ratio; and MRI either normal or showing white matter changes in brain and cord. Four of the six previous case reports of encephalopathy in HTLV-infected patients also had HAM. Histopathology, reported in three, showed perivascular predominantly CD8+ lymphocytic infiltrates in the brain. One had cerebral demyelination, and all had cord demyelination. We have reviewed the existing six cases in the literature, together with our three new cases. In all seven with HAM, the spastic paraparesis deteriorated sub-acutely preceding encephalitis. Eight of the nine were female, and four of the seven treated with steroids improved. We propose that HTLV-associated encephalopathy may be part of the spectrum of HTLV-1-induced central nervous system disease.

23 Review Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection and solid organ transplantation. 2018

Taylor, Graham P. ·Professor of Human Retrovirology, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK. ·Rev Med Virol · Pubmed #29380451.

ABSTRACT: HTLV infection appears to be more common among renal transplant candidates than in the related general population. HTLV-1-associated diseases may occur in carriers who are transplanted but there is insufficient evidence to confirm whether these occur more frequently as a result of the associated immunosuppression. Consequently, pre-existing HTLV-1 infection should not be considered a contra-indication to transplantation. The risk of transmission of HTLV-1 through solid organ transplantation from a confirmed infected donor is unknown. There are anecdotes of multiple infections from a single donor. Biologically due to the significant volume of blood and the lack of storage, transmission would be expected to be higher than following blood transfusion. The rate of subsequent disease is unknown, but there are now 11 reports of HAM and 2 of ATL occurring within 4 years of transplantation associated infection. There are insufficient data to know whether the time from infection to onset of disease and the rate of progression differ from transmission through other routes, but early onset and rapid progression is a concern. Responses to enhanced immunosuppression for the treatment of HAM are variable. The risk of HTLV-1 associated disease in exchange for a life-saving major organ transplantation from an infected donor might be considered worth taking by some HTLV-1 uninfected patients. Peri-transplantation antiretroviral prophylaxis with zidovudine and raltegravir is biologically sound but therapeutically unproven. The risks related to HTLV-1 infection appear to preclude the use of any other tissue. All transplant donors should be screened for HTLV-1 infection regardless of perceived risk.

24 Review Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1: Persistence and Pathogenesis. 2018

Bangham, Charles R M. ·Division of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom; email: c.bangham@imperial.ac.uk. ·Annu Rev Immunol · Pubmed #29144838.

ABSTRACT: Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), also known as human T lymphotropic virus type 1, was the first exogenous human retrovirus discovered. Unlike the distantly related lentivirus HIV-1, HTLV-1 causes disease in only 5-10% of infected people, depending on their ethnic origin. But whereas HIV-1 infection and the consequent diseases can be efficiently contained in most cases by antiretroviral drug treatment, there is no satisfactory treatment for the malignant or inflammatory diseases caused by HTLV-1. The purpose of the present article is to review recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms by which the virus persists in vivo and causes disabling or fatal diseases.

25 Review Anemia, intractable vomiting, chronic diarrhea, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic secretion: a diagnostic dilemma: Disseminated strongyloidosis in a patient with newly diagnosed HTLV infection-case report and review of literature. 2017

Tariq, Hassan / Kamal, Muhammad Umar / Reddy, Pavithra / Bajantri, Bharat / Niazi, Masooma / Matela, Ajsza / Zeana, Cosmina / Ihimoyan, Ariyo / Dev, Anil / Chilimuri, Sridhar. ·Department of Medicine. · Department of Pathology, Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center, Bronx, NY. ·Medicine (Baltimore) · Pubmed #29384908.

ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: Strongyloidiasis hyperinfection and disseminated disease have high mortality rates due to several complications and early detection of Strongyloides infection is therefore prudent. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 37-year-old male patient came with chronic diarrhea, intractable vomiting and was found to have hyponatremia, and anemia on the initial laboratory tests. DIAGNOSES: Further work up revealed syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic secretion to be the cause of the hyponatremia in addition to gastrointestinal loses. His hospital course was complicated by persistent hyponatremia and later development of partial small bowel obstruction. INTERVENTIONS: Considering his symptoms we had a suspicion of small bowel pathology for which he underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopywith biopsies that revealed strongyloidosis as the cause of his symptoms. He was also found to have human T-cell lymphotropic virus infection, likely contributing to the disseminated disease. OUTCOMES: He was started on ivermectin with complete resolution of symptoms and improvement of hyponatremia. LESSONS: It is very important to suspect Strongyloides infection in a patient presenting with syndrome ofinappropriate antidiuretic secretion as hyperinfection and disseminated disease can be life threatening without antihelmintic therapy.

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