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Hypercholesterolemia: HELP
Articles by Michael J. Koren
Based on 14 articles published since 2010
(Why 14 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, Michael Koren wrote the following 14 articles about Hypercholesterolemia.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Clinical Trial Consistent LDL-C response with evolocumab among patient subgroups in PROFICIO: A pooled analysis of 3146 patients from phase 3 studies. 2018

Stroes, Erik / Robinson, Jennifer G / Raal, Frederick J / Dufour, Robert / Sullivan, David / Kassahun, Helina / Ma, Yuhui / Wasserman, Scott M / Koren, Michael J. ·Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Departments of Epidemiology and Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. · Department of Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg, South Africa. · Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada. · Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, Australia. · Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, California. · Jacksonville Center for Clinical Research, Jacksonville, Florida. ·Clin Cardiol · Pubmed #30120772.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evolocumab significantly lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) when dosed 140 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) or 420 mg monthly (QM) subcutaneously. HYPOTHESIS: LDL-C changes are comparable among different patient subgroups in a pooled analysis of data from phase 3 trials. METHODS: A total of 3146 patients received ≥1 dose of evolocumab or control in four 12-week phase 3 studies. Percent change from baseline in LDL-C for evolocumab 140 mg Q2W or 420 mg QM vs control was reported as the average of week 10 and 12 values. Quantitative and qualitative interactions between treatment group and subgroup by dose regimen were tested. RESULTS: In the pooled analysis, treatment differences vs placebo or ezetimibe were similar for both 140 mg Q2W and 420 mg QM doses across ages (<65 years, ≥65 years); gender; race (Asian, black, white, other); ethnicity (Hispanic, non-Hispanic); region (Europe, North America, Asia Pacific); glucose tolerance status (type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, neither); National Cholesterol Education Program risk categories (high, moderately high, moderate, low); and European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society risk categories (very high, high, moderate, or low). Certain low-magnitude variations in LDL-C lowering among subgroups led to significant quantitative interaction P values that, when tested by qualitative interaction, were not significant. The incidences of adverse events were similar across groups treated with each evolocumab dosing regimen or control. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent reductions in LDL-C were observed in the evolocumab group regardless of demographic and disease characteristics.

2 Clinical Trial Evaluation of the efficacy, safety and glycaemic effects of evolocumab (AMG 145) in hypercholesterolaemic patients stratified by glycaemic status and metabolic syndrome. 2017

Blom, Dirk J / Koren, Michael J / Roth, Eli / Monsalvo, Maria Laura / Djedjos, C Stephen / Nelson, Patric / Elliott, Mary / Wasserman, Scott M / Ballantyne, Christie M / Holman, Rury R. ·Division of Lipidology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. · Jacksonville Center for Clinical Research, Jacksonville, Florida. · Sterling Research Group, Cincinnati, Ohio. · Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, California. · Gilead Sciences, Fremont, California. · Ionis Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, California. · Amgen Limited, Cambridge, UK. · Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. · Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center, Houston, Texas. · Diabetes Trials Unit, OCDEM, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. ·Diabetes Obes Metab · Pubmed #27619750.

ABSTRACT: AIM: To examine the lipid and glycaemic effects of 52 weeks of treatment with evolocumab. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Durable Effect of PCSK9 Antibody Compared with Placebo Study (DESCARTES) was a 52-week placebo-controlled trial of evolocumab that randomized 905 patients from 88 study centres in 9 countries, with 901 receiving at least one dose of study drug. For this post-hoc analysis, DESCARTES patients were categorized by baseline glycaemic status: type 2 diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), metabolic syndrome (MetS) or none of these. Monthly subcutaneous evolocumab (420 mg) or placebo was administered. The main outcomes measured were percentage change in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) at week 52 and safety. RESULTS: A total of 413 patients had dysglycaemia (120, type 2 diabetes; 293, IFG), 289 had MetS (194 also had IFG) and 393 had none of these conditions. At week 52, evolocumab reduced LDL-C by >50% in all subgroups, with favourable effects on other lipids. No significant differences in fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin, C-peptide or HOMA indices were seen in any subgroup between evolocumab and placebo at week 52. The overall incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus did not differ between placebo (6.6%) and evolocumab (5.6%); in those with baseline normoglycaemia, the incidences were 1.9% and 2.7%, respectively. Incidences of AEs were similar in evolocumab- and placebo-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Evolocumab showed encouraging safety and efficacy at 52 weeks in patients with or without dysglycaemia or MetS. Changes in glycaemic parameters did not differ between evolocumab- and placebo-treated patients within the glycaemic subgroups examined.

3 Clinical Trial Efficacy and safety of gemcabene as add-on to stable statin therapy in hypercholesterolemic patients. 2016

Stein, Evan / Bays, Harold / Koren, Michael / Bakker-Arkema, Rebecca / Bisgaier, Charles. ·Metabolic & Atherosclerosis Research Center, Cincinnati, OH. · Louisville Metabolic & Atherosclerotic Research Center, Louisville, KY. · Jacksonville Center for Clinical Research, Jacksonville, FL. · Gemphire Therapeutics Inc., Northville, MI. · Gemphire Therapeutics Inc., Northville, MI. Electronic address: cbisgaier@gemphire.com. ·J Clin Lipidol · Pubmed #27678439.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Ezetimibe added to statin therapy further reduces LDL-C and clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease compared to statin alone. However, the number of effective and safe oral agents for patients not at LDL-C goal is limited. In prior clinical trials, gemcabene reduced LDL-C and was generally well-tolerated in nearly 900 patients treated for up to 12 weeks. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the LDL-C lowering and safety of gemcabene as add-on to stable statin therapy in hypercholesterolemic patients. METHODS: This was an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, phase 2 study in men and postmenopausal women ≥18 and ≤65 years of age with LDL-C ≥130 mg/dL (3.4 mmol/L) while on low-intensity to high-intensity stable statin (the majority on moderate intensity) therapy. Sixty-six patients were randomized 1:1:1 to gemcabene 300 mg, 900 mg, or placebo QD. RESULTS: Gemcabene 300 mg and 900 mg produced a mean percent change in LDL-C of -23.4 ± 4.7% (P = .005) and -27.7 ± 4.3% (P < .001), respectively, vs -6.2 ± 4.3% for placebo. The median percent change in CRP was -26.1% (P = .196) and -53.9% (P < .001) for gemcabene 300 mg and 900 mg, respectively, vs -11.1% for placebo. Gemcabene 300 mg and 900 mg were well-tolerated with no significant difference in AEs compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Gemcabene as add-on to stable statin therapy demonstrated additional dose-dependent and statistically significant reductions in LDL-C of >20% and CRP >40% compared to placebo. The results support gemcabene-continued development for patients requiring LDL-C lowering beyond that provided by background statin therapy.

4 Clinical Trial Effect of PCSK9 Inhibition by Alirocumab on Lipoprotein Particle Concentrations Determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. 2015

Koren, Michael J / Kereiakes, Dean / Pourfarzib, Ray / Winegar, Deborah / Banerjee, Poulabi / Hamon, Sara / Hanotin, Corinne / McKenney, James M. ·Jacksonville Center For Clinical Research, Jacksonville, FL (M.J.K.). · The Christ Hospital Heart and Vascular Center/The Lindner Research Center, Cincinnati, OH (D.K.). · Alexion, Cheshire, CT (R.P.). · LabCorp, Raleigh, NC (D.W.). · Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Tarrytown, NY (P.B., S.H.). · Sanofi, Paris, France (C.H.). · Virginia Commonwealth University and National Clinical Research, Richmond, VA (J.M.M.K.). ·J Am Heart Assoc · Pubmed #26586732.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In patients with discordance between low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and LDL particle (LDL-P) concentrations, cardiovascular risk more closely correlates with LDL-P. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the effect of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, on lipoprotein particle concentration and size in hypercholesterolemic patients, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Plasma samples were collected from patients receiving alirocumab 150 mg every 2 weeks (n=26) or placebo (n=31) during a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients (LDL cholesterol ≥100 mg/dL) on a stable atorvastatin dose. In this post hoc analysis, percentage change in concentrations of LDL-P, very-low-density lipoprotein particles, and high-density lipoprotein particles from baseline to week 12 was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Alirocumab significantly reduced mean concentrations of total LDL-P (-63.3% versus -1.0% with placebo) and large (-71.3% versus -21.8%) and small (-54.0% versus +17.8%) LDL-P subfractions and total very-low-density lipoprotein particle concentrations (-36.4% versus +33.4%; all P<0.01). Total high-density lipoprotein particles increased with alirocumab (+11.2% versus +1.4% with placebo; P<0.01). There were greater increases in large (44.6%) versus medium (17.7%) or small high-density lipoprotein particles (2.8%) with alirocumab. LDL-P size remained relatively unchanged in both groups; however, very-low-density and high-density lipoprotein particle sizes increased to a significantly greater extent with alirocumab. CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab significantly reduced LDL-C and LDL-P concentrations in hypercholesterolemic patients receiving stable atorvastatin therapy. These findings may be of particular relevance to patients with discordant LDL-C and LDL-P concentrations. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01288443.

5 Clinical Trial Anti-PCSK9 monotherapy for hypercholesterolemia: the MENDEL-2 randomized, controlled phase III clinical trial of evolocumab. 2014

Koren, Michael J / Lundqvist, Pernille / Bolognese, Michael / Neutel, Joel M / Monsalvo, Maria Laura / Yang, Jingyuan / Kim, Jae B / Scott, Rob / Wasserman, Scott M / Bays, Harold / Anonymous180790. ·Jacksonville Center for Clinical Research, Jacksonville, Florida. Electronic address: mkoren@encoredocs.com. · Center for Clinical and Basic Research, Ballerup, Denmark. · Bethesda Health Research Center, Bethesda, Maryland. · Orange County Research Center, Tustin, California. · Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, California. · L-MARC Research Center, Louisville, Kentucky. ·J Am Coll Cardiol · Pubmed #24691094.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare biweekly and monthly evolocumab with placebo and oral ezetimibe in patients with hypercholesterolemia in a phase III trial. BACKGROUND: Evolocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), significantly reduced LDL-C in phase II trials. METHODS: Patients 18 to 80 years of age with fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥100 and <190 mg/dl and Framingham risk scores ≤10% were randomized (1:1:1:1:2:2) to oral placebo and subcutaneous (SC) placebo biweekly; oral placebo and SC placebo monthly; ezetimibe and SC placebo biweekly; ezetimibe and SC placebo monthly; oral placebo and evolocumab 140 mg biweekly; or oral placebo and evolocumab 420 mg monthly. RESULTS: A total of 614 patients were randomized and administered doses. Evolocumab treatment reduced LDL-C from baseline, on average, by 55% to 57% more than placebo and 38% to 40% more than ezetimibe (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Evolocumab treatment also favorably altered other lipoprotein levels. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), muscle-related AEs, and laboratory abnormalities were comparable across treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest monotherapy trial using a PCSK9 inhibitor to date, evolocumab yielded significant LDL-C reductions compared with placebo or ezetimibe and was well tolerated in patients with hypercholesterolemia. (Monoclonal Antibody Against PCSK9 to Reduce Elevated LDL-C in Subjects Currently Not Receiving Drug Therapy for Easing Lipid Levels-2 [MENDEL-2]; NCT01763827).

6 Clinical Trial Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 as monotherapy in patients with hypercholesterolaemia (MENDEL): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study. 2012

Koren, Michael J / Scott, Rob / Kim, Jae B / Knusel, Beat / Liu, Thomas / Lei, Lei / Bolognese, Michael / Wasserman, Scott M. ·Jacksonville Center for Clinical Research, FL, USA. mkoren@encoredocs.com ·Lancet · Pubmed #23141812.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) increases serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. We assessed the effects of AMG 145, a human monoclonal antibody against PCSK9, in patients with hypercholesterolaemia in the absence of concurrent lipid-lowering treatment. METHODS: In a phase 2 trial done at 52 centres in Europe, the USA, Canada, and Australia, patients (aged 18-75 years) with serum LDL-C concentrations of 2·6 mmol/L or greater but less than 4·9 mmol/L were randomly assigned equally through an interactive voice response system to subcutaneous injections of AMG 145 70 mg, 105 mg, or 140 mg, or placebo every 2 weeks; subcutaneous AMG 145 280 mg, 350 mg, or 420 mg or placebo every 4 weeks; or oral ezetimibe 10 mg/day. The primary endpoint was percentage change from baseline in LDL-C concentration at week 12. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. Study personnel and patients were masked to treatment assignment of AMG 145 or placebo. Ezetimibe assignment was open label. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01375777. FINDINGS: 406 patients were assigned to AMG 145 70 mg (n=45), 105 mg (n=46), or 140 mg (n=45) every 2 weeks; AMG 145 280 mg (n=45), 350 mg (n=45), or 420 mg (n=45) every 4 weeks; placebo every 2 weeks (n=45) or every 4 weeks (n=45); or ezetimibe (n=45). AMG 145 significantly reduced LDL-C concentrations in all dose groups (mean baseline LDL-C concentration 3·7 mmol/L [SD 0·6]; changes from baseline with every 2 weeks AMG 145 70 mg -41·0% [95% CI -46·2 to -35·8]; 105 mg -43·9% [-49·0 to -38·7]; 140 mg -50·9% [-56·2 to -45·7]; every 4 weeks AMG 145 280 mg -39·0% [-44·1 to -34·0]; 350 mg -43·2% [-48·3 to -38·1]; 420 mg -48·0% [-53·1 to -42·9]; placebo every 2 weeks -3·7% [-9·0 to 1·6]; placebo every 4 weeks 4·5% [-0·7 to 9·8]; and ezetimibe -14·7% [-18·6 to -10·8]; p<0·0001 for all doses vs placebo or ezetimibe). Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 136 (50%) of 271 patients in the AMG 145 groups, 41 (46%) of 90 patients in the placebo groups, and 26 (58%) of 45 patients in the ezetimibe group; no deaths or serious treatment-related adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: The results of our study support the further assessment of AMG 145 in long-term studies with larger and more diverse populations including patients with documented statin intolerance. FUNDING: Amgen.

7 Clinical Trial Safety and efficacy of a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 serine protease, SAR236553/REGN727, in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia receiving ongoing stable atorvastatin therapy. 2012

McKenney, James M / Koren, Michael J / Kereiakes, Dean J / Hanotin, Corinne / Ferrand, Anne-Catherine / Stein, Evan A. ·Virginia Commonwealth University and National Clinical Research, Inc., Richmond, USA. jmckenney@ncrinc.net ·J Am Coll Cardiol · Pubmed #22463922.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering efficacy of 5 SAR236553/REGN727 (SAR236553) dosing regimens versus placebo at week 12 in patients with LDL-C ≥100 mg/dl on stable atorvastatin therapy. Secondary objectives included evaluation of effects on other lipid parameters and the attainment of LDL-C treatment goals of <100 mg/dl (2.59 mmol/l) and <70 mg/dl (1.81 mmol/l). BACKGROUND: Serum proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors, increasing serum LDL-C. SAR236553 is a fully human monoclonal antibody to PCSK9. METHODS: This double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial randomized 183 patients with LDL-C ≥100 mg/dl (2.59 mmol/l) on stable-dose atorvastatin 10, 20, or 40 mg for ≥6 weeks to: subcutaneous placebo every 2 weeks (Q2W); SAR236553 50, 100, or 150 mg Q2W; or SAR236553 200 or 300 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W), alternating with placebo for a total treatment period of 12 weeks. RESULTS: SAR236553 demonstrated a clear dose-response relationship with respect to percentage LDL-C lowering for both Q2W and Q4W administration: 40%, 64%, and 72% with 50, 100, and 150 mg Q2W, respectively, and 43% and 48% with 200 and 300 mg Q4W. LDL-C reduction with placebo at week 12 was 5%. SAR236553 also substantially reduced non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein(a). SAR236553 was generally well tolerated. One patient on SAR236553 experienced a serious adverse event of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. CONCLUSIONS: When added to atorvastatin, PCSK9 inhibition with SAR236553 further reduces LDL-C by 40% to 72%. These additional reductions are both dose- and dosing frequency-dependent. (Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of SAR236553 [REGN727] in Patients With Primary Hypercholesterolemia and LDL-cholesterol on Stable Atorvastatin Therapy; NCT01288443).

8 Article Effect of the Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Inhibitor Evolocumab on Glycemia, Body Weight, and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus. 2017

Sattar, Naveed / Toth, Peter P / Blom, Dirk J / Koren, Michael J / Soran, Handrean / Uhart, Magdalena / Elliott, Mary / Cyrille, Marcoli / Somaratne, Ransi / Preiss, David. ·Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. Electronic address: naveed.sattar@glasgow.ac.uk. · CGH Medical Center, Sterling, Illinois; Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. · Division of Lipidology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa. · Jacksonville Center for Clinical Research, Jacksonville, Florida. · Cardiovascular Research Group, School of Biomedicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. · Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, California. · Amgen Ltd., Cambridge, UK. · MRC Population Health Research Unit, Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Electronic address: david.preiss@ndph.ox.ac.uk. ·Am J Cardiol · Pubmed #28844508.

ABSTRACT: Statin therapy modestly increases new-onset diabetes risk. The effect of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibition on new-onset diabetes, glycemia, and weight remains unclear. We studied the effects of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor evolocumab on fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, weight, and new-onset diabetes mellitus. We pooled 1-year (48-week) data for participants who had completed an evolocumab parent study before entering an open-label extension (OLE) trial. Data were available for 4,802 participants (1,602 on standard of care [SOC]; 3,200 on evolocumab plus SOC) in 2 OLE trials. Evolocumab lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by approximately 60% compared with SOC alone. Over the first year of the OLE trials, there was no difference in median (Q1, Q3) change in glycated hemoglobin (0.1% [-0.1, 0.2] for both SOC and evolocumab plus SOC) and fasting plasma glucose (0.06 mmol/L [-0.28, 0.38 mmol/L] for SOC and 0.06 mmol/L [-0.28, 0.44 mmol/L] for evolocumab plus SOC). Mean weight change (standard error) at 1 year was -0.1 kg (0.2) on SOC compared with 0.3 kg (0.1) on evolocumab plus SOC. The exposure-adjusted incidence rate (95% confidence intervals) for new-onset diabetes per 100 patient years was 3.7 (2.9 to 4.7) on control/SOC alone and 3.9 (3.2 to 4.6) on evolocumab/evolocumab plus SOC treatment. Glycemic changes observed in 6,430 participants at week 12 in the parent studies were comparable with OLE trial findings. In conclusion, evolocumab therapy has no effect on glucose homeostasis over 1 year of open-label treatment.

9 Article Long-term Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol-Lowering Efficacy, Persistence, and Safety of Evolocumab in Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia: Results Up to 4 Years From the Open-Label OSLER-1 Extension Study. 2017

Koren, Michael J / Sabatine, Marc S / Giugliano, Robert P / Langslet, Gisle / Wiviott, Stephen D / Kassahun, Helina / Ruzza, Andrea / Ma, Yuhui / Somaratne, Ransi / Raal, Frederick J. ·Jacksonville Center for Clinical Research, Jacksonville, Florida. · Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts3Deputy Editor, JAMA Cardiology. · Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Lipid Clinic, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. · Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, California. · The Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa. ·JAMA Cardiol · Pubmed #28291870.

ABSTRACT: Importance: The Open-Label Study of Long-term Evaluation Against LDL-C (OSLER-1) evaluated the durability of long-term efficacy and safety during long-term therapy with evolocumab, a monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Objective: To determine whether LDL-C level reductions with evolocumab persist across different populations. Secondary objectives included assessment of adverse events, antidrug antibodies, and factors contributing to treatment discontinuation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This ongoing, randomized open-label extension trial (OSLER-1) was conducted at 192 sites in 18 countries. A total of 1324 of 1666 patients randomized into 1 of 5 12-week double-blind phase 2 parent studies completed a parent study and chose to participate in OSLER-1; 1255 received 1 or more evolocumab doses. As of August 2016, 812 of 1324 (61%) had 208 weeks of follow-up. This current study was conducted from October 2011 to August 2016, with a data cutoff of August 26, 2016. Interventions: During year 1, patients were randomized to evolocumab, 420 mg, plus standard of care (SOC) or SOC alone. After year 1, all patients continuing the study received evolocumab, 420 mg, plus SOC. Main Outcomes and Measures: Lipids, safety, and tolerability every 12 weeks. A multivariate model identified factors associated with discontinuation of evolocumab. Results: At parent study baseline, the mean (SD) age of the population was 57.1 (11.6) years, with 52.9% being women. The median LDL-C level was 133 mg/dL (to convert to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0259). After 52 weeks, evolocumab plus SOC was associated with a significant reduction in LDL-C level by 61% (95% CI, -63% to -60%) vs 2% (95% CI, -5% to -0.2%) with SOC alone (P < .001). At approximately 2, 3, and 4 years of study follow-up, the median LDL-C level was reduced by 59% (95% CI, -60% to -57%), 59% (95% CI, -61% to -58%), and 57% (95% CI, -59% to -55%), respectively, from parent study baseline. For patients receiving statin therapy unchanged from baseline, at week 208, the median LDL-C level reduction was 58%. No neutralizing antibodies to evolocumab were detected. The annualized incidence of new-onset diabetes was 4% in the SOC alone group and, adjusting for duration of evolocumab exposure, 2.8% in the evolocumab plus SOC group. Neurocognitive event rates were 0% (SOC alone) and 0.4% (evolocumab plus SOC). A total of 79% of patients persisted with evolocumab treatment, with a mean exposure duration of 44 months. Conclusions and Relevance: In the longest clinical trial exposure to a PCSK9 inhibitor to date, evolocumab produced sustained reductions in LDL-C levels. The annual frequency of adverse events did not occur more frequently with cumulative exposure during open-label observation. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01439880.

10 Article Focus on PCSK9 Inhibitors: From Genetics to Clinical Practice. 2016

Sabatine, Marc S / Underberg, James A / Koren, Michael / Baum, Seth J. ·a Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine , Brigham and Women's Hospital. · b Department of Medicine , Harvard Medical School , Boston , MA. · c NYU Medical School, NYU Center for CVD Prevention , Bellevue Hospital Lipid Clinic , New York , NY. · d Jacksonville Center for Clinical Research. · e Academy of Physicians in Clinical Research , Jacksonville , FL. · f MB Clinical Research. · g American Society for Preventive Cardiology. · h The FH Foundation. ·Postgrad Med · Pubmed #27422124.

ABSTRACT: Elevation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an important cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Over the years, clinical outcome studies with LDL-C lowering agents have revealed that reducing LCL-C levels is effective in reducing rates of major ASCVD events. Although secondary factors play a role in clinical expression, severe lipid disorders often have a strong genetic component. Genetic revelations have provided novel targets for improving LDL-C management in high-risk individuals. Most recently, researchers have explored how the inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) alters LDL metabolism and lowers LDL-C levels to achieve lipid goals and potentially reduce ASCVD risk in patients with severe lipid disorders, including familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). This CMHC Spotlight article summarizes the clinical evidence demonstrating the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of PCSK9 inhibitors in lowering LDL-C levels. Reductions in LDL-C levels by PCSK9 inhibitors alone in patients who are statin intolerant or combined with maximally tolerated statins in patients with severe lipid disorders demonstrate the potential for reduced morbidity and mortality associated with ASCVD.

11 Article Efficacy and safety of evolocumab in reducing lipids and cardiovascular events. 2015

Sabatine, Marc S / Giugliano, Robert P / Wiviott, Stephen D / Raal, Frederick J / Blom, Dirk J / Robinson, Jennifer / Ballantyne, Christie M / Somaratne, Ransi / Legg, Jason / Wasserman, Scott M / Scott, Robert / Koren, Michael J / Stein, Evan A / Anonymous5760823. ·From the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and the Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston (M.S.S., R.P.G., S.D.W.) · the Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (F.J.R.), and the Division of Lipidology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town (D.J.B.) - both in South Africa · the Departments of Epidemiology and Medicine, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City (J.R.) · the Sections of Cardiovascular Research and Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, and the Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center, Houston (C.M.B.) · Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA (R. Somaratne, J.L., S.M.W., R. Scott) · Jacksonville Center for Clinical Research, Jacksonville, FL (M.J.K.) · and the Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center, Cincinnati (E.A.S.). ·N Engl J Med · Pubmed #25773607.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evolocumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in short-term studies. We conducted two extension studies to obtain longer-term data. METHODS: In two open-label, randomized trials, we enrolled 4465 patients who had completed 1 of 12 phase 2 or 3 studies ("parent trials") of evolocumab. Regardless of study-group assignments in the parent trials, eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either evolocumab (140 mg every 2 weeks or 420 mg monthly) plus standard therapy or standard therapy alone. Patients were followed for a median of 11.1 months with assessment of lipid levels, safety, and (as a prespecified exploratory analysis) adjudicated cardiovascular events including death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, coronary revascularization, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and heart failure. Data from the two trials were combined. RESULTS: As compared with standard therapy alone, evolocumab reduced the level of LDL cholesterol by 61%, from a median of 120 mg per deciliter to 48 mg per deciliter (P<0.001). Most adverse events occurred with similar frequency in the two groups, although neurocognitive events were reported more frequently in the evolocumab group. The risk of adverse events, including neurocognitive events, did not vary significantly according to the achieved level of LDL cholesterol. The rate of cardiovascular events at 1 year was reduced from 2.18% in the standard-therapy group to 0.95% in the evolocumab group (hazard ratio in the evolocumab group, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.78; P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: During approximately 1 year of therapy, the use of evolocumab plus standard therapy, as compared with standard therapy alone, significantly reduced LDL cholesterol levels and reduced the incidence of cardiovascular events in a prespecified but exploratory analysis. (Funded by Amgen; OSLER-1 and OSLER-2 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01439880 and NCT01854918.).

12 Article Efficacy and safety of alirocumab in reducing lipids and cardiovascular events. 2015

Robinson, Jennifer G / Farnier, Michel / Krempf, Michel / Bergeron, Jean / Luc, Gérald / Averna, Maurizio / Stroes, Erik S / Langslet, Gisle / Raal, Frederick J / El Shahawy, Mahfouz / Koren, Michael J / Lepor, Norman E / Lorenzato, Christelle / Pordy, Robert / Chaudhari, Umesh / Kastelein, John J P / Anonymous5700823. ·From the University of Iowa, Iowa City (J.G.R.) · Point Médical, Dijon (M.F.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes-Hôpital Nord Laennec, Saint-Herblain (M.K.), University Hospital of Lille, Lille (G. Luc), and Sanofi, Chilly-Mazarin (C.L.) - all in France · Clinique des Maladies Lipidiques de Québec, Quebec, QC, Canada (J.B.) · Università di Palermo-Policlinico P. Giaccone, Palermo, Italy (M.A.) · the Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (E.S.S., J.J.P.K.) · Lipid Clinic, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (G. Langslet) · University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (F.J.R.) · Cardiovascular Center of Sarasota, Sarasota (M.E.S.), and Jacksonville Center for Clinical Research, Jacksonville (M.J.K.) - both in Florida · Westside Medical Associates of Los Angeles, Beverly Hills, CA (N.E.L.) · Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (R.P.) · and Sanofi, Bridgewater, NJ (U.C.). ·N Engl J Med · Pubmed #25773378.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Alirocumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in patients who are receiving statin therapy. Larger and longer-term studies are needed to establish safety and efficacy. METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial involving 2341 patients at high risk for cardiovascular events who had LDL cholesterol levels of 70 mg per deciliter (1.8 mmol per liter) or more and were receiving treatment with statins at the maximum tolerated dose (the highest dose associated with an acceptable side-effect profile), with or without other lipid-lowering therapy. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive alirocumab (150 mg) or placebo as a 1-ml subcutaneous injection every 2 weeks for 78 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage change in calculated LDL cholesterol level from baseline to week 24. RESULTS: At week 24, the difference between the alirocumab and placebo groups in the mean percentage change from baseline in calculated LDL cholesterol level was -62 percentage points (P<0.001); the treatment effect remained consistent over a period of 78 weeks. The alirocumab group, as compared with the placebo group, had higher rates of injection-site reactions (5.9% vs. 4.2%), myalgia (5.4% vs. 2.9%), neurocognitive events (1.2% vs. 0.5%), and ophthalmologic events (2.9% vs. 1.9%). In a post hoc analysis, the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization) was lower with alirocumab than with placebo (1.7% vs. 3.3%; hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.90; nominal P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Over a period of 78 weeks, alirocumab, when added to statin therapy at the maximum tolerated dose, significantly reduced LDL cholesterol levels. In a post hoc analysis, there was evidence of a reduction in the rate of cardiovascular events with alirocumab. (Funded by Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals; ODYSSEY LONG TERM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01507831.).

13 Article Safety and efficacy of alirocumab 150 mg every 2 weeks, a fully human proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 monoclonal antibody: A Phase II pooled analysis. 2015

Koren, Michael J / Roth, Eli M / McKenney, James M / Gipe, Daniel / Hanotin, Corinne / Ferrand, Anne-Catherine / Wu, Richard / Dufour, Robert. ·Jacksonville Center for Clinical Research , Jacksonville, FL , USA. ·Postgrad Med · Pubmed #25609019.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, is in Phase III development for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. In Phase II studies, 150 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) was the highest Q2W dose studied, and it is currently the highest Q2W dose under development. To better assess the safety and efficacy of this dose, data across three Phase II studies were pooled. METHODS: We analyzed data from three double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase II studies of 8 or 12 weeks' duration. In the current analysis, 77 patients were randomized to the control group and 108 were randomized to alirocumab 150 mg Q2W administered via a single 1 mL subcutaneous injection. RESULTS: Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 58.3% of alirocumab patients compared with 54.5% of placebo-controlled patients. The most common AE was mild, transient injection-site reactions. No signal for muscle symptoms such as myalgia and no cases of neurocognitive effects were reported or observed. One alirocumab patient, also receiving atorvastatin 80 mg/day, had an increase in aspartate transaminase 3 to 5 times the upper limit of normal. Alirocumab 150 mg Q2W reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from baseline by 68.4% compared with 10.5% for the control group. More than 90% of patients achieved an LDL-C target of < 70 mg/dL with alirocumab versus 8% with control. Marked reductions in other atherogenic lipids and modest increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also observed. CONCLUSION: At the highest Q2W dose under development (150 mg), alirocumab appears well tolerated and produces robust LDL-C reductions. These data suggest that alirocumab 150 mg Q2W is an appropriate dose for further evaluation in Phase III trials.

14 Article Efficacy and safety of longer-term administration of evolocumab (AMG 145) in patients with hypercholesterolemia: 52-week results from the Open-Label Study of Long-Term Evaluation Against LDL-C (OSLER) randomized trial. 2014

Koren, Michael J / Giugliano, Robert P / Raal, Frederick J / Sullivan, David / Bolognese, Michael / Langslet, Gisle / Civeira, Fernando / Somaratne, Ransi / Nelson, Patric / Liu, Thomas / Scott, Rob / Wasserman, Scott M / Sabatine, Marc S / Anonymous1710776. ·Jacksonville Center for Clinical Research, Jacksonville, FL (M.J.K.) · TIMI Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (R.P.G., M.S.S.) · Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa (F.J.R.) · Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, Australia (D.S.) · Bethesda Health Research Center, Bethesda, MD (M.B.) · Lipid Clinic, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway (G.L.) · Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain (F.C.) · and Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA (R.S., P.N., T.L., R.S., S.M.W.). ·Circulation · Pubmed #24255061.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evolocumab (AMG 145), a monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in phase 2 studies of 12 weeks' duration. The longer-term efficacy and safety of PCSK9 inhibition remain undefined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 1359 randomized and dosed patients in the 4 evolocumab phase 2 parent studies, 1104 (81%) elected to enroll into the Open-Label Study of Long-term Evaluation Against LDL-C (OSLER) study. Regardless of their treatment assignment in the parent study, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive either open-label subcutaneous evolocumab 420 mg every 4 weeks with standard of care (SOC) (evolocumab+SOC, n=736) or SOC alone (n=368). Ninety-two percent of patients in the evolocumab+SOC group and 89% of patients in the SOC group completed 52 weeks of follow-up. Patients who first received evolocumab in OSLER experienced a mean 52.3% [SE, 1.8%] reduction in LDL-C at week 52 (P<0.0001). Patients who received 1 of 6 dosing regimens of evolocumab in the parent studies and received evolocumab+SOC in OSLER had persistent LDL-C reductions (mean reduction, 50.4% [SE, 0.8%] at the end of the parent study versus 52.1% [SE, 1.0%] at 52 weeks; P=0.31). In patients who discontinued evolocumab on entry into OSLER, LDL-C levels returned to near baseline levels. Adverse events and serious adverse events occurred in 81.4% and 7.1% of the evolocumab+SOC group patients and 73.1% and 6.3% of the SOC group patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Evolocumab dosed every 4 weeks demonstrated continued efficacy and encouraging safety and tolerability over 1 year of treatment in the largest and longest evaluation of a PCSK9 inhibitor in hypercholesterolemic patients to date. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01439880.